Warm Up:
How did the influx of silver from the
Americas impact life in the land
Empires of Eurasia?
Chapter 24
Land Empires in the Age of
I. The Ottoman Empire
Egypt & the Napoleonic Example, 1798-1840
Napoleonic Invasion
Napoleon invaded Egypt in 1798
Defeated the Mamluk forces
French withdrew in 1801, leaving a power
I. The Ottoman Empire
2.Muhammad Ali
• Commander in Ottoman army
• Sent by Sultan to regain control of Egypt
• Took place of governor in 1805
• Removed Mamluk’s from power in 1811
I. The Ottoman Empire
2. Military Reforms
• Based on the French military practices
- Conscription army
- Military schools that taught modern European
- Officers trained in France
I. The Ottoman Empire
3. Egyptian military power
• Removed the Saudi clan from Mecca &
• Involved in Greek War for independence
• Attacked Anatolia
- Withdraw after European British navy became
• Family of Ali ruled Egypt until 1952
I. The Ottoman Empire
B. Ottoman Reform & the European Model, 18071853
1. First attempt at reform
• Sultan Selim III (r.1789-1807)
• Attempted to reform military, centralize power,
standardize taxes
• Failed due to resistance by Janissaries and ulama
• Failed reforms led to military uprising
• Selim was jailed & executed in 1807
I. The Ottoman Empire
2. Reform reconsidered
• Sultan Mahmud (r.1808-1839) saw that empire
was backward & weakening
- Success of Ali in Egypt
- Greek independence in 1829
• Created new artillery unit in 1826
• Janissaries revolted
• Artillery unit bombarded Janissary barracks
• Janissary corps dissolved
I. The Ottoman Empire
3. Tanzimat
• Reorganization
- Public trials
- Equality before the law
- Conscription into the army (regardless of religion)
- Ended tax farming
- New law codes modeled on European, no Shari’a
Read: Imperial Rescript
I. The Ottoman Empire
C. The Crimean War & Its Aftermath, 1853-1877
1. Conflict with Russia
• Russia wanted access to the Black Sea
- Free access to Mediterranean
- Expanded south at the expense of the
• Russia claimed to be protector of all
Orthodox citizens in the Ottoman Empire
I. The Ottoman Empire
2. The Crimean War
• Began as dispute over access to churches in
• Russia invaded the Balkans
• Britain, France & Kingdom of Sardinia &
Piedmont allied with Ottomans
• War fought in Romania, on the Black Sea and
Crimean Peninsula
I. The Ottoman Empire
3. Effects of the War
• Russian expansion to the south blocked
• Tsar weakened
• First time propaganda used to generate support
for war
- England and France
• Transition to modern warfare
- High casualties
- Breech loading rifle
- End of the significance of cavalry forces
Read: Charge of the Light Brigade
I. The Ottoman Empire
4. Problems associated with the reforms
• Dependence on foreign loans
• Trade deficit
• Inflation.
• In the 1860s and 1870s, discussion of a law that
would have permitted all men to vote
- Muslims worried that the Ottoman Empire was
no longer a Muslim society.
- contributed to Muslim hostilities against
Christians in the Ottoman territories
I. The Ottoman Empire
5. The decline of Ottoman power and wealth
• Young Ottomans
- a group of educated urban men
- Constitutionalism
- liberal reform
- creation of a Turkish national state
• A constitution was granted in 1876
• a coup soon placed a more conservative ruler on the
the Ottoman Empire continued its weakened existence
under the sponsorship of the Western powers until 1922.
II. Russia
A. Russia and Europe
1. Lack of Development
• In 1700, only 3% of the Russian population lived
in cities
• Russia was slow to acquire a modern
infrastructure and technology
• Russia aspired to Western-style economic
- fear of political change prevented real progress.
II. Russia
2. Direction
• Westernizers & Slavophiles debated the proper
course for Russian development.
• Westernizers put faith in technology and reform
• Slavophiles considered Orthodox faith, rule of
the tsar and peasant life the basis of Russian
• Pan-Slavism – all Slavic people should live under
Russian rule
II. Russia
3. Diplomacy
• Russia included amongst great powers of
• Russophobia
- Russia seen as a threat
- Despised for subjugation of the serfs
- Crimean War damage relations between
Russia, the Ottomans and Europe
II. Russia
B. Russia and Asia
1. Expansion
• Russian military superior to Asian counterparts
• Russia expanded to the Pacific
- Established port of Vladivostok in 1860
• Expanded to Central Asia
- Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkestan
• Expanded into Caucasus Mountains
- Georgia (1786), Azerbaijan (1801), Armenia
II. Russia
2. Effects of Expansion
• Increased conflict with China, Japan, Iran &
• Britain took steps to halt Russian expansion in
Central Asia.
- Afghanistan and Iran
II. Russia
C. Cultural Trends
1. European Influence
• Contact with Europe since time of Peter the
Great (r. 1689-1725)
• Western reforms met a more receptive
audience than in the Ottoman Empire
• Russia’s governmental reforms were largely
II. Russia
2. Opposition to Reform
• Opposition to reform came from wealthy
• feared reform would bring about imperial
- realized during the reign of Nicholas I.
II. Russia
3.The Decemberist Revolt
• Carried out by a group of reform-minded
military officers
- after the death of Alexander I in 1825
• Their defeat amounted to the defeat of reform
for the next three decades.
II. Russia
4. Reforms of Tsar Alexander II
• Emancipation of the serfs in 1861
• Creation of joint-stock companies
• Railroad network
• Modernized legal system
II. Russia
5. Effects of Reforms
• The 19th century saw numerous Russian
scholarly and scientific achievements
• emergence of significant Russian writers and
- Feodor Dostoyevsky
- Leo Tolstoy
III. The Qing Empire
A. Economic and Social Disorder, 1800–1839
1. Effects of Population Growth
• Chinese population doubled between 16501800.
• Population pressure was causing
environmental damage
• Large population of unemployed & homeless
farmers , laborers, and merchants.
III. The Qing Empire
2. Discontent
• Minority peoples had been driven off their land
• Government seen as being weak & corrupt
• Influence of foreign merchants and missionaries
in Canton and Macao.
• Discontent was manifest in a series of internal
rebellions in the 19th century
- White Lotus rebellion (1794–1804).
III. The Qing Empire
The Opium War and Its Aftermath, 1839–1850
Opium Trade
British wanted Chinese tea
China refused to open to British trade
British grew opium in India
Sold to Chinese
Used proceeds (silver) to promote British
III. The Qing Empire
2. Qing Response
• Opium trade first
outlawed in 1729
- Smuggling continued
• Opium addiction spread
to all levels of Chinese
• In 1839, ruled to outlaw
use and importation of
• Opium War 1839-1842
III. The Qing Empire
3. The War
• Qing military was obsolete
• Qing Bannerman were no match for British
- Most fought with swords, knives, spears and
• Qing had no imperial navy
III. The Qing Empire
4. Aftermath
• Treaty of Nanking ended the war
- Dismantled the Canton System
- Five treaty ports opened to British trade
- Hong Kong became a British colony
- British residents given extraterritorial rights
- Qing to pay indemnity of 21 million ounces of
silver for starting the war
- Britain gained most-favored –nation trading
III. The Qing Empire
5. European Domination
• 1860, opium trade legalized
• By 1900, 90 treaty ports
• Russia, France, Germany, & Great Britain carved
out spheres of influence in China
- an area where an outside nation exerts special
economic or political control
• Increased European domination of China led to
anti-foreigner sentiment
Spheres of Influence
III. The Qing Empire
C. The Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864
1. Causes
• Social unrest
- Ethnic divisions
- Economic hardships
• Foreign intrusion
III. The Qing Empire
2. Hong Xiuquan
• man of humble Hakka background
• became familiar with the teachings of Christian
missionaries in Canton.
• Hong declared himself to be the younger brother of
• founded a religious group (the Heavenly Kingdom of
Great Peace or Taiping movement)
- goal to drive the Manchu (Qing) out of China
- recruited followers from among the Hakka people.
III. The Qing Empire
3. Rebellion
• The Taiping forces defeated imperial troops in
• recruited (or forced) villagers into their
segregated male and female battalions and work
• conquered toward eastern and northern China.
• In 1853, the Taiping forces captured Nanjing and
made it their capital
III. The Qing Empire
4. Defeat
• Provincial governors provided military
support for the Qing
• Received British and French military support
• Rebellion defeated by 1864
III. The Qing Empire
5. Results
• One of the world’s bloodiest civil wars
• Greatest armed conflict before the 20th century.
• 20 - 30 million deaths
- Starvation & disease
• depopulation and destruction of rich agricultural
lands in central and eastern China
• suffering and destruction in the cities and cultural
centers of eastern China.
III. The Qing Empire
D. Decentralization at the End of the Qing
Empire, 1864–1875
1. Debt
• Costs of wars
• Devastation of productive farmland
• The burden of indemnities payable to
Western governments
III. The Qing Empire
2. Decline
• British, French and Americans became
heavily involved in Chinese affairs
- customs service, military and industrial
• Provincial governors gained autonomy at
expense of emperors
- Power of taxation, legislation & military
Read: Chinese Responses to
Pages 701-702
Answer #1-3