10.1: Imperialism and America (2-6) 10.2: The Spanish-American War (7-14) 10.3: Acquiring New Lands (15-20) 10.4: America as a World Power (21-27) What is the policy of imperialism? • Policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories. • Global competition – European nations had been establishing colonies for centuries (Africa being their prime target). • Territory in Asia (especially China) – Japan joined the competition after dropping their feudal order for a central government, in hopes that military strength would bolster industrialization. What were the major factors that contributed to the growth of American imperialism? • Desire for military strength – build up American naval power to compete with other powerful nations (Alfred T. Mahan – Admiral of U.S. Navy). • New Markets – technological advances led to America producing far more than American citizens alone could consume. Needed raw materials for its factories and new markets for its agricultural and manufactured goods. Foreign trade = solution to overproduction and related problems of unemployment and economic depression. • Belief in Cultural Superiority – U.S. had the responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilization” (narrowly define based on the standards of one culture) to the world’s “inferior peoples”. Why was the purchase of Alaska significant? • William Seward (Secretary of State) arranged the purchase of Alaska from Russia ($7.2 million/2 cents an acre). Some saw Alaska as a wasted purchase with nothing to offer… WRONG! Land rich in timber, minerals, and oil. What groups were interested in increasing America’s presence in Hawaii? Why? • American merchants (stopping on their way to China and • • • • East India) and Yankee missionaries settled and became sugar planters (selling most of their crop to the U.S.) American owned sugar plantations = ¾ of the island’s wealth Laborers from Japan, Portugal, and China – outnumbering native Hawaiians 1875 – U.S. agreed to import Hawaiian sugar duty-free (white planters benefited greatly). 1890 – McKinley Tariff eliminated the duty-free status (Hawaiian sugar growers faced competition in the American market) American planters in Hawaii called for the U.S. to annex the islands so they wouldn’t have to pay the duty. 1887 – U.S. military and economic leaders pressured Hawaii to allow the building of Pearl Harbor (naval base that became a refueling station for American ships). How did Hawaii eventually come under the control of the United States? • Hawaii’s King Kalakaua was forced by white business leaders to amend Hawaii’s constitution to limit voting rights to only wealthy landowners. • Queen Liliuokalani came in after Kalakaua’s death with a “Hawaii for Hawaiians” agenda – remove property owning voting qualifications. Revolution – overthrew the queen and set up a government headed by Stanford B. Dole. President Cleveland formerly recognized the Republic of Hawaii when Dole refused to surrender power back to the queen. Cleveland would not consider annexation unless a majority of Hawaiians favored it (so nothing changed for a while) • 1898 (new president) William McKinley who favored annexation got Congress to proclaim Hawaii an American territory (without the vote of Hawaiians). Is this reflective of how a person might behave when they feel superior to others? Describe the analogy. Manifest destiny greatly influenced American policy during the first half of the 19th century. How do you think manifest destiny set the stage for American imperialism at the end of the century? In your opinion, did Sanford B. Dole and other American planters have the right to stage a revolt in Hawaii in 1893? • American business interests in Hawaii • The rights of native Hawaiians Have you ever been shocked or angered by something you read or heard? How did it make you want to act? Did you consider whether what you had heard was true or not? • Newspapers in the late 1800s often exaggerated stories to boost their sales as well as to provoke American intervention in Cuba (Cuba is pushing for independence from Spain). End of the 19th century Spain lost most of its colonies, only retaining the Philippines, Guam, outposts in Africa, Cuba, and Puerto Rico. Cuba lies 90 miles south of Florida – U.S. had a strong interest in getting Cuba from Spain (Spanish would not give it up). During Cuban revolts against Spain, America supported the Cuban people. • Unsuccessful aside from gaining emancipation for Cuban slaves – and the U.S. was able to move in on economic opportunities of sugar plantations! Josè Martí – Cuban journalist and poet in exile in New York launched a revolution in 1895 • Cuban resistances against Spain – guerilla campaign and destroying property (especially American owned sugar mills and plantations) – provoke U.S. intervention to help free Cuba. Split opinions – business people wanted the government support Spain to protect their investments vs. historical connections to rebel cause. Spain responds by sending Valeriano Weyler to restore order – herded large numbers into concentration camps, where thousands died of hunger and disease. • In war over newspaper circulation, William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer printed exaggerated accounts of “Butcher” Weyler’s brutality. • Yellow Journalism – sensational style of writing, which exaggerates the news to lure and engage readers. McKinley tried diplomatic means to resolve the crisis – Spain recalled General Weyler, modified the concentration camp policy, and offered Cuba limited self-government. • 1898 a private letter written by the Spanish minister to the U.S., Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, was published in Hearst’s New York Journal. Criticized President McKinley, calling him “weak” – the insult angered many Americans (even though the Spanish government apologized and the minister resigned). U.S.S. Maine was sent to Cuba to bring home American citizens in danger from the fighting and to protect American property (1898). • Ship blew up in the harbor of Havana (killing more than 260 men) • American newspapers claimed that the Spanish did it – “Remember the Maine”. Public opinion favored war – April 20, 1898 (Congress approved war – despite Spanish concessions) First battle was in the Philippines (Spanish colony) rather than invading Cuba. Commodore George Dewey gave command to open fire on the Spanish fleet in Manila (destroying everything) – victory allowed U.S. troops to land in the Philippines. • Victory demonstrated U.S. naval superiority; however the army was only a small professional force (inexperienced and ill-prepared volunteer force). Inadequate training, lacked supplies and effective leaders, not enough modern guns, uniforms did not fit the tropical climate. • Support from the Filipinos (led by Emilio Aguinaldo), who also wanted freedom from Spain. In the Caribbean, hostilities began with a naval blockade – sealing up the Spanish fleet in the harbor of Santiago de Cuba. • Landed in Cuba in June 1898 to converge on the port city of Santiago. • Four African American regiments and the Rough Riders (voluntary Calvary) • Most famous battle began with an uphill charge by two of the African regiments and the Rough Riders, clearing the way for an infantry attack on the strategically important San Juan Hill. • Naval battle along the Cuban coast ended in the destruction of the Spanish fleet. American troops then invaded Puerto Rico. The “splendid little war” only last 15 weeks, ending in the U.S. and Spain signing and armistice – a cease-fire agreement (peace talks in Paris) • Spain freed Cuba and turned over Guam and Puerto Rico to the U.S. • Spain sold the Philippines to the U.S. for $20 million. Did the U.S. have the right to annex the Philippines? Issue of Imperialism… • McKinley decided that we needed to take the Filipinos and educate them and uplift and Christianize them (most had been Christian for centuries) • Political, moral, and economic arguments were also presented against the annexation. Treaty violated the Declaration of Independence by denying selfgovernment to newly acquired territories. Booker T. Washington said we should settle race-relations at home first. Laborers thought the Filipinos would compete for American jobs. February 1899 the Senate approved the Treaty – the U.S. Empire now included Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines… what next? When Puerto Rico became part of the U.S. after the SpanishAmerican War, many Puerto Ricans feared the U.S. would not give them the same measure of self-rule they had gained under the Spanish. Not all Puerto Ricans wanted independence – some wanted statehood and others wanted some measure of local selfgovernment as an American territory. Puerto Rico remained under control of the military until Congress decided otherwise (making no promises regarding its independence). • Puerto Rico was strategically important to the U.S. – in maintaining a presence in the Caribbean and to protect a future canal America had planned across the Isthmus of Panama. • Foraker Act (1900): ended military rule and set up a civil government. U.S. president appointed Puerto Rico’s governor and members of the upper house of its legislature – Puerto Ricans could only elect members to the lower house. • In 1901, the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution does not automatically apply to acquired territories In 1917 Congress granted Puerto Ricans U.S. citizenship and the right to elect both houses of their legislature. Since 1898 the U.S. has recognized Cuba’s independence from Spain. Upon wars end, American troops remained in Cuba – making some fear that the U.S. would merely replace Spain and dominate Cuban politics. • Teller Amendment: stated that the U.S. had no intention of taking over any part of Cuba. • • Same officials who served Spain remained in office – protestors were imprisoned or exiled. At the same time, the American military government provided food and clothing, helped farmers put land back into cultivation, organized elementary schools, and helped eliminate yellow fever. Because the Cuban constitution (1900) did not specify the relationship between Cuba and the U.S., the U.S. insisted on the addition of several provisions known as the Platt Amendment: • • • • U.S. would remain in Cuba until the amendment was adopted (many thought Cuba lacked the ability to govern themselves) • Cuba cannot make treaties limiting its independence or allow foreign power to control any part of its territory. U.S. reserved the right to intervene in Cuba. Cuba was not to go into debt that its government could not repay. U.S. could buy or lease land on the island for naval/refueling stations. In 1903 the Cubans ratified the new constitution and Cuba became a U.S. protectorate (a country whose affairs are partially controlled by a stronger power). The U.S. needed to maintain a strong political presence in Cuba to protect our businesses that had invested in the island’s sugar, tobacco, mining, railroads, and public utilities. Filipinos were very upset that the Treaty of Paris called for American annexation of the Philippines. • Emilio Aguinaldo (rebel leader) believed they were promised independence. • 1899 the Filipinos (led by Aguinaldo) rose in revolt (using guerilla tactics) U.S. took almost the same role as Spain had (imposing authority on a colony fighting for freedom). Filipinos were forced to live in designated zones (many died) – hypocritical? White American soldiers treated Filipinos as inferiors, while many AfricanAmerican soldiers deserted to the Filipino side disagreeing with the idea of spreading racial prejudice. Rebellion lasted 3 years – human and financial costs were high. • U.S. set up a government similar to the one it had established in Puerto Rico. Philippines gradually moved towards independence (republic in 1946) Imperialist saw the Philippines as a gateway to Asia – China (vast potential market for American products, and opportunities for large-scale railroad construction). Weakened from war and foreign intervention, China was known as the “sick man of Asia” – having had countries come in and claiming special rights and economic advantages. If China was cut up into colonies, American traders would be shut out, so U.S. Secretary of State John Hay, issued policy statements known as the Open Door Notes (1899): • Addressed to leaders of the imperialist nations proposing the nations share their trading rights with the U.S. (open door). • No single nation would have a monopoly on trade with any part of China. • The others accepted this policy. Europeans still dominated most of China’s large cities, upsetting many Chinese – leading some to form societies pledging to rid the country of “foreign devils” (Boxers) • Boxers killed missionaries, foreigners, and Chinese converts to Christianity. • International forces put down the Boxer Rebellion. Second series of open door notes – fearing Europeans would use the victory of the Boxer Rebellion to take even greater control of China. • U.S. would protect the idea of equal and impartial trade in all parts of China (ulterior motives? Greater American influence in Asia) Open Door policy reflected 3 beliefs of industrial capitalist economies (bedrock of American foreign policy): • Growth of U.S. economy depended on exports • U.S. had a right to intervene abroad to keep foreign markets open • Closing of an area to American products, citizens, or ideas was a threat 1900 – William McKinley (imperialist) is elected to a second term, confirming that the majority of Americans favored his policies. Anti-Imperialist League – different opinions/reasons for opposition but they were all in agreement that it was wrong for the U.S. to rule other people without their consent. Under Roosevelt and Wilson, the U.S. would continue to exert its power around the globe… Roosevelt took office in 1901 (after McKinley was assassinated), not willing to let Europe control the world’s political and economic destiny. • Roosevelt mediated a settlement in war between Russia and Japan to increase America’s influence in East Asia. In 1904, imperialist countries Russia and Japan were competing for Korea. Japan attacked the Russian Pacific fleet and destroyed it along with the reinforcement second fleet and secured Korea and Manchuria in a series of land battles. Japan was running out of men and money, so they approached Roosevelt and asked him to mediate peace negotiations – he agreed. Treaty of Portsmouth (won Roosevelt the Nobel Peace Prize) – gave Japan half of the Sakhalin Island (and forgo a desired cash payment from Russia), while Russia agreed to let Japan take over Russian interests in Manchuria and Korea. U.S. and Japan continued diplomatic talks and in later agreements, pledged to respect each other’s possessions and interests in East Asia and the Pacific. Many felt the U.S. needed a canal cutting across Central America, reducing travel time for commercial and military ships (shortcut). • In the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, Britain gave the U.S. exclusive rights to build and control the canal. • In 1903, the U.S. bought French Company’s route through Panama for $40 million. • Panama was then a province of Colombia, so the U.S. had to get permission from Colombia before building The negotiations broke down, so a Panamanian rebellion was organized to free Panama from Colombia (1903). Upon, declaring its independence, Panama and U.S. signed a treaty stating the U.S. would pay Panama $10 million plus an annual rent of $250,000 for an area of land across Panama (to begin in 1913). • Work began in 1904 and was completed in 1914 – it was one of the world’s greatest engineering feats and very dangerous to build The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans are at different levels, requiring locks. Feeding and housing issues for all workers was difficult – leading to disease (but was positively dealt with by chief engineer, John Stevens. U.S.-Latin American relations were damaged due to the American support of the rebellion in Panama (despite Congress paying Colombia $25 million to compensate for its lost territory). Roosevelt feared that Europe might step into help Latin American countries financially, taking away our power in the Caribbean and Central America. • Reminder of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) – demanded that European countries stay out of the affairs of Latin American nations. Added the Roosevelt Corollary – U.S. would use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America Taft continued this by using the U.S. government to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American business people (dollar diplomacy) – keep European powers out of the Caribbean. Wilson gave the Monroe Doctrine more of a moral tone (“missionary diplomacy”) • U.S. had a moral responsibility to deny recognition to any Latin American government it viewed as oppressive, undemocratic, or hostile to U.S. interests. Mexican policy… Revolution tested Wilson’s The military dictator of Mexico was a friend to the U.S., allowing for them to be dominant foreign investors (leaving the common people poor). • In 1911 a group under Francisco Madero rebelled and overthrew Diaz, promising democratic reforms. But he couldn’t please everyone and was taken over by General Victoriano Huerta – Madero was killed within days of Huerta taking over (Wilson would not recognize the “government of butchers”). Wilson developed a plan of “watchful waiting” looking for a time to act against Huerta. • 1914 – mistaken arrest of American sailors gave Wilson an excuse to intervene in Mexico. • Mediators (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile) proposed that Huerta step down and the U.S. troops withdraw without paying Mexico for damages. Mexico rejected the plan and Wilson refused to recognize a government that had come to power as a result of violence. Huerta’s regime collapsed on its own and a nationalist leader came to power so Wilson withdrew the troops and formally recognized the Carranza government. Carranza struggled – rebels under Francisco “Pancho” Villa and Emiliano Zapata opposed the provisional government. • Despite Villa’s friendship talks with the U.S., when Wilson recognized the Carranza government, Villa threatened to viciously murder Americans in Mexico. • American public wanted revenge, so Wilson ordered General John J. Pershing into Mexico to capture Villa dead or alive (forces remained for almost a year upsetting Carranza’s Mexicans) Both forces backed down before going to war • U.S. was facing war in Europe and needed peace with its southern border. • Pershing was brought home in 1917 and Mexico adopted a constitution giving the government control of the nation’s oil and mineral resources and placed strict regulations on foreign investors. Carranza failed to carry out its measures and instead ruled oppressively until 1920 when Alvaro Obregon came to power – beginning reform. U.S. intervention in Mexico was a model of American imperialist attitudes – superiority of free-enterprise democracy, would extend our economic and political reach, even by armed intervention. • U.S. expanded access to foreign markets to ensure economic growth. • U.S. built a modern navy to protect its interests abroad. • U.S. exercised its international police power to ensure dominance in Latin America. The Russo-Japanese War, the Panama Canal, and the Mexican Revolution added to America’s military and economic power. • Involvement in conflicts around 1900 led to involvement in World War I and later to a peacekeeper role in today’s world.