Spanish Civil War and Franco Regime in Madrid, Barcelona, and Toledo Naahid Naahid, Trang, Ekta, and India The triumphal arch was built between the period from 1950 to 1956. It is a commemorative work urban national army's victory in the race suffered during the Spanish Civil War at the Battle of the City Universitaria. The Arc is located in one of Madrid's main entrances. The design for the Air Force building is inspired by the Juan de Herrera, which represented the height of the Spanish Empire. The building was built in amid the Years of Hunger from 1942 to 1954. Its surprising to learn that the government spent so much money on this building instead of getting food for the citizens. • This building is known as "La casa de las flores" . It is located in Arguelles, the neighborhood suffered some of the greatest damage in Madrid. Nationalist air raids targeted this area for both its strategic position, a high-altitude front line in defense of the Republic's capital city, and its population of civilian residents who largely supported the Republic. Madrid celebrates the Fiestas de San Isidro for 9 days, from the Friday before May 15 through the following Sunday. It's the most important, lively and emblematic Madrid festival of the year. During our walking tour of downtown Madrid, we saw some elders in colorful dresses taking pictures outside Palacio Real. I think it is great that the elders are trying to keep the tradition and culture alive in Madrid. During our trip to Barcelona, we met documentary filmmaker Montse Armengou. She showed us clips from her two documentaries “Franco’s Forgotten Children” and “Spanish Holocaust”. Her documentaries really opened our eyes to what happened to the Republican people since they lived in repression during the Franco Regime. This picture shows our visit to Air Raid Refugee Shelter 307 in Barcelona. Barcelona was heavily bombed during the Spanish Civil War. These shelters were mostly used by the women and children because the men were out fighting in the Spanish Civil War. Nursing home for people suffering from anxiety The bathroom These hallways were surrounded with benches, a lot have them have been removed Our tour guide showed us the uncomfortable living situations that those who lived in these shelters had to accommodate to • As soon as we started our walking tour, we saw one of the bunkers built by the Nationalists • This picture, top, was the outside view of the bunker • This picture, bottom, was the inside view of the bunker from an aerial perspective I thought this was an picture moment to capture. This picture says “Viva Espana”. Our tour guide, Edu, mentioned that everytime you see the phrase “Viva Espana”, it means that the Nationalists wrote it. This is a picture of where the Nationalist soldiers held their ground. Edu told us that about 15 soldiers slept in this tiny area! Can you imagine that? We walked through a bunch of tiny bunkers. I took this picture to show the inside view of the small pathways that were built inside these bunkers. • After visiting Nationalist bunkers, we walked through the forests to the Republican bunker • The bottom picture shows the main Republican bunker--- more than 3000 men held ground here This was one of the Republican burial sites. It was actually built recently in 2007. Our tour guide, Arturo, mentioned that some of the soldier’s names were known because of their family members and townspeople. The rest of the Republican soldiers were unknown. This is a building from the city of Toledo. This is a very historical city where you can see a lot of Spanish Civil War aftermath. In this particular picture, you can see bullet holes in the building. When we were in Toledo, Arturo Ruiz Taboada gave us a tour of the city. We came across the International Jesuit House. As you can see, the brick is discolored. When Franco was in power, he printed his ideology around the city with the two headed eagle. The discolored brick was where the citizens tried to erase his mark and ideology in Toledo. While in Toledo, we also visited a mass grave. It had over 700 soldiers from the Spanish Civil War. Every tomb had a cross on it and none of them had any names on it. All the names and dates were kept in the National Crypt at this cemetery. • Colonel Moscardo held this building against the Republican forces in the Siege of the Alcazar • As you can see, it was completely destroyed and now it has been remodeled • The Republican forces kidnapped Moscardo’s son in order for the Nationalists forces to surrender the Alcazar but Moscardo let his son die • This monument serves as another strong Nationalist victory • Mascardo was compared to Guzman el Bueno who sacrificed his son for the "greater good" of the country. • The Office of Mascardo was used as a propaganda for Franco to gain political power.. • Franco used this story as a way to defame the Republicans as monsters who will destroy families. El Valle de Los Caidos Mixture of Secular and sacred Overarching theme of death, glory and power forced reconciliation for Spaniards Signifies Franco's belief that the Spanish Civil War was a Holy war against the Republicans The eagle holds the arrows and the yoke Symbolizes Spain's apex under King Ferdinand and Queen Ysabella By placing the code of arms in the Basilica Franco basically inscribed his ideology in the basilica. Franco wanted Spain to return to its empire and glorious years under Ferdinand and Ysabella. 500 ft cross surrounding the cross are the evangelist, Mark, Luke and John, as well as the 4 cardinal virtues, Prudence, Justice, Temperance and Fortitude. The cross gives off a moral message It illustrates how Franco wanted Spain to return to a moral society. In the Basilica there is an influx of Catholicism. By Franco creating the Basilica he establishes a myth about himself. The myth that he created is one of Franco restoring Spain back to it previous glory and height similar to the Ferdinand and Ysabella era. But in actuality Franco created something that is considered as contrived, hallow and meaningless due to the fact that the basilica was built by forced prison labor of the republicans. The main importance of the basilica is to keep the place as a monument to remember the past.