Chapter 13
 Middle Ages:
Era in Europe that followed the fall of
the Roman Empire, lasted 500-1500. aka Medieval
 Franks: Germanic People who settled in France
 Feudalism: Political System, Nobles are granted
lands that belong to the King, in exchange for their
loyalty, military service and protection of the people
who live on the land.
 Monastery: Religious group of monks. Given up
possession for devotion to God.
 Secular: Separation from church/religion and
 Lord: A person
who controlled land and could grant
estates to vassals
 Fief: An Estate granted to a vassal
 Vassal: A person granted land (Upper class)
 Knight: Warrior who followed Chivalry/protected
 Serf: A person who is bound to the land and owned
by the feudal lord
 Manor: A Lord’s estate
 Tithe: Payment of 1/10th of income to Church
 Chivalry:
Code of Behavior for Knights, stressed
courage, loyalty and religion
 Clergy: Religious officials who perform “rituals”
 Sacrament: Christian ceremonies in which God’s
grace is transmitted to people
 Canon Law: Catholic religious laws
 Holy Roman Empire: An empire established Europe
in the 10th century. Mainly in Germany and Italy.
Chapter 13:1
Preserved the ideas of Rome
(government, society)
Prolonging the Roman Catholic Church
Preserving the customs of the various
Germanic (European) tribes
Disruption of Trade
Downfall of Cities
Lack of leadership in cities, independent farming lifestyle
Decline of Learning
Cities no longer the epicenter of life/government
Population Shifts to the Country Side
Trade/culture diffusion became scarce
Germanic Invaders were illiterate (Oral Traditions)
lack of learning in the country side
Loss of Common Language
Germanic Lang. mixed with Latin (French, Spanish)
 400-600 A.D.
small Germanic Kingdoms arise
• Constantly at war with each other over land
 The
Catholic Church provided stability and order
(unified in their religion)
 Changes
in Government
• Emphasis on families/clans instead of central government and laws
• Germanic Chiefs led warriors (lived with him)
 Clovis
Rules the Franks
• Brought Christianity to Franks (Constantine)
• Supported by the R.C.C. (Why?)
 Franks converted thousands of people
• More Catholics, more power to Rome
• Spreading via Missionaries
• Strength in numbers
 Monasteries, Convents and Manuscripts
• Built in rural outposts
• Benedict and Scholastica Books/rules for Monks/Nuns
 Papal Power Grows under Gregory I
• Ruled outside of religion. Now Influenced Global Politics
• Ruled all of Roman Europe
• Church used taxes: armies, roads, poor
 Franks
control the largest empire post Roman
 Charles Martel Stopped the Muslim Expansion
into Europe (Christian Hero)
 Martel’s Son is “Pepin the Short”
• Works with the Pope
• Establishes the Carolingian Dynasty 751-987 A.D.
• Two sons: Carloman and Charles (Charlemagne:
Charles the Great)
 Uniting
Western Europe
• Fought Muslims and Germanic Tribes
• United for the 1st time since…..Rome
• Larger than the Byzantine Empire (Largest in Europe)
 Crowned
Holy Roman Empire
• Put down mobs against Pope Leo III
• Joined Germanic Kings, The Church and the heritage of
the Roman Empire
 Limited
 Visited
the power of Nobles
every part of his kingdom
 Encouraged
 Opened
schools (wealthy)
 Died 814, Louis the Pious (Bad Ruler)
• Lothair, Charles the Bald, Louis the German
• Treaty of Verdun
• Divided kingdom into 3 areas
What were three roots of medieval culture in
Western Europe?
What are three ways that civilizations in western
Europe declined the Roman Empire fall?
What was the most important achievement of
Pope Gregory I?
Feudalism In Europe
Chapter 13:2
Feudalism in Europe
New Invasions Trouble Western Europe
 Vikings: Raiders, Traders, and Explorers
 Came from Scandinavia, also called Northmen or Norsemen
 Raided Western Europe, Russia and Constantinople from 800
Explored areas west of the Atlantic such as Greenland, Iceland,
and North America
Skilled Traders/Merchants
Ships enabled Vikings to sail/row up stream (3 ft)
Constant warfare; people look in other directions for protection
Muslims and Magyars Attack From the
East and the South
 Muslims (Moors)
 Muslim armies conquered
Southern Spain, and three
major Italian islands
 Magyars (Nomads)
 Attacked in Eastern Europe
 Excellent Horsemen
 Controlled the Danube River
to Northern Italy
Feudalism Structures Society
 A New Social Order
 Invasions destroyed any central authority, people looked to anyone
who could provide them protection
 Power based on relationships between a lord and a vassal
 System: King, Vassals (Nobles), Knights, Serfs/peasants
 Social Classes are Well Defined
Serfs could not lawfully leave the land on which they worked
Social class was inherited
Bonded to land but were not slaves
Labor/products belonged to the lord
Feudalism Evolves
 Social Classes Are Well Defined
 Status determined perception of power/prestige
 Three Groups of People
 Fighters: Nobles and Knights
 Prayers: Clergy
 Workers: Peasants and Serfs
Could not leave place they were born
Bond to the land
Could not be bought and sold
Labor produced belonged to the land
Manorial System: The Economic
Side Feudalism
 Manor was the lords estate and basic economic system
 Set of Rights and Obligations between Lords and Serfs
 Lord Provided
 Housing
 Farmland
 Protection
 Serfs Provided
 Maintained the Lord’s land/animals
 Rarely traveled 25 miles from home (Fredonia)
 Lord’s house, church, workshops, 15-30 families, mills, streams
 Self-Sufficient Communities
 Raised of produced everything needed (dairy, clothing, lumber, produce)
 Outside purchases: Iron and salt
Manors: The Economic Side
of Feudalism
 A Self-Contained World
 A Manor was the lord’s estate
 Serfs worked the lord’s fields and performed other tasks
in return for protection
 Serfs stayed on the same manor their whole lives
The Harshness of Manor Life
 Peasants owed the lord three days labor and had to pay a
percentage of their grain
 Serfs owed village priest a tithe, or 10% of income
 Avoiding taxes was a crime
 Weddings only with the Lord’s consent
 1 Room cottages
Dirt floors, Pigs, small fire
35 years old
Illness and malnutrition
God determined a person’s place in society
The Age of Chivalry
Chapter 13:3
Knights: Warriors on
 Leather saddles/stirrups (Asia 200 B.C.)
 Heavier weapons, more stable on horse
 Quick and swift on the battlefield
 Feudal Lords raised armies to protect their lands
 Given Fiefs (Land) for their services
 40 days of war (preparing for battle)
Knighthood and the Code of
 Set of rules and expectations
Barely defend everyone
Devote life to Lord and God
Loyal, Brave and Courageous
Training: (7-Page, 14-Squire,
 Poetry idolized Knights
 The Song of Roland
Women’s Role in Feudal
Peasant Women
 Could own Property
 Endless Labor
 “Cushy Life”
 High Mortality Rate
The Power of the Church
Chapter 13:4
The Far-Reaching Authority of
the Church
 Weak
governments/kingdoms in
 “There are two powers by
which this world is chiefly
 “Two Symbolic Swords:”
Religious and Political
 Shaped the life of all people
in all social classes
The Church
Religion As A Unifying
 Feudalism/Manorial System
created class divisions
 Religion bonded people
 Sense of security, belonging
and community
 Salvation= Heaven
 Sacraments
The Law Of The Church
 Authority was political and
 Canon Law unified spirituality
and applied to all classes
 Excommunication/Interdict
 Used fear!!
The Church Wields Power
 The Scope of Church Authority
 Religion as a Unifying Force
 Most everybody in Europe was a member of the same Church
 All people had an equal chance at salvation
The Church and the Holy
Roman Empire
 Otto The Great (Otto I)
strong alliance with the
 Built power by allying himself
with the Clergy
 Invaded Italy on the Pope’s
behalf (Emperor)
 Holy Roman Empire
The Church and the Holy
Roman Empire
 Church Wields Religious and Political Power
 Pope Gregory VII banned lay investiture, the process where kings
appointed church officials
 Excommunicated
 Concordat of Worms
 1122: Only Pope could appoint church officials, emperor had veto
Disorder In The Empire
The Reign of Fredrick I
 Attacked the surrounding
Italian areas
German States Remain
 Alliance with the Church led
to wars with neighbors
 Lombard League
 Weaker and weaker rulers
 Italian foot soldiers/crossbow
 Eventually collapsed
defeated the German
** Main Points**
 Church was the dominant power in Europe during the
Middle Ages
 As time passes, emperors and kings struggle to
weaken Church authority and gain power for

Chapter 13 - Falconer Central School