Warm-Up
What does annexation mean?
Texas was later annexed into the
United States
Treaty of Velasco
(treaty that ended the war)
THE TREATIES OF VELASCO
Public Terms
1. The war between Mexico and Texas was officially ended,
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
and Texas was declared independent.
Santa Anna would not take up arms against Texas.
All Mexican forces would withdraw beyond the Rio Grande.
Prisoners would be exchanged.
Mexico would return all captured property.
Texas leaders would promptly return Santa Anna to Mexico.
The Early Republic
Results of the Election of 1836
President:
Vice President:
Congress:
Sam Houston
Mirabeau B. Lamar
elected senators
and representatives
Constitution:
Annexation:
approved the Texas
Constitution of 1836
voted to seek U.S.
annexation of Texas
Sam Houston’s
Inaugural Address 1836
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/d_h/houston.htm
“[We] modestly
remonstrated against
oppression, and, when
invaded by a numerous
host, we dared to
proclaim our
independence and to
strike for freedom on
the breast of the
oppressor. As yet our
course is onward. We
are only in the outset of
the campaign of liberty.”
Houston was cautious.
 He tried to prevent another war with Mexico
or with Native Texans.
 Houston limited government spending.

Houston thought the best solution to
Texas’s problems was annexation to the
United States.
Houston’s well appointed cabinet helped him with
these problems. (Stephen F. Austin served as
secretary of state.)
Cabinet – council that advises the
chief executive
Initially, Columbia, a small town in Brazoria County,
was declared the capital city.
 Two brothers, John and Augustus Allen, planned on
building a new town near Harrisburg, which had
been burned during the Revolution.

◦ They named this town Houston, after Sam.

Houston remained the capital of Texas throughout
Houston’s first administration, even though people
complained about the conditions in this town.
◦ It was muddy, hot, and had simple log structures, etc.
One of the biggest problems in the new
Republic was the lack of money.
 When Sam Houston began his presidency,
Texas was in debt over $1 million.
 Houston held government expenses to a
minimum and tried to raise revenue only for
items that were absolutely necessary.

Revenue – annual or current income of the
government
 Texas
not only had conflicts with
Mexico but also the Native Texans.
 Remember, the Native Texans were
promised by Houston the title to their
land they occupied in East Texas.
 The Texas Congress refused to
uphold this treaty (promise)
Houston had agreed upon.
http://images.amazon.com/images/P/0306805863.01.MZZZZZZZ.jpg
Many Texans wanted the Native Texans out because the land
they occupied was the richest farmland in Texas.
 Houston, unlike most Texans, was sympathetic to the Native
Texans.
 The Texas Rangers had to be called in to patrol the frontier.
 Attacks on both sides continued.

ELECTION OF 1838
President Houston had to
hand over the government in
1838 when he lost to Lamar
 Vice-President Lamar remained
popular by the Texas people
and was elected as the second
president of the Republic of
Texas.

http://dl.tamu.edu/Projects/sodct/images/mlamar.jpg
HOUSTON





was bold
liked flashy clothing
worked on keeping
peace with Mexico and
the Native Texans.
spent little money
promoted annexation
of Texas to the U.S.
LAMAR





liked quiet reading
did not shy away from
conflicts with Mexico and
the Native Texans.
wanted to get rid Texas of
ALL Native Texans
spent LARGE sums of
borrowed money on
military expeditions
wanted Texas to remain
independent and expand
its borders
 Lamar’s
aggressive
approach to Texas’s
policies was obvious in
his 1838 inaugural
address:
◦ “If peace can be
obtained only by the
sword, let the sword do
its work.”
http://dl.tamu.edu/Projects/sodct/images/mlamar.jpg
 Unlike
Houston, Lamar wanted to kill or
force all of the Native Texans out of Texas.
 Lamar’s generals forced the Cherokees out
of East Texas.
◦ The Cherokees went to live in present-day
Oklahoma.
Lamar is best known for his contributions to
public education.
 Lamar believed that a strong educational
system would make Texas a great nation.
 The Texas Congress set aside almost 18,000
acres of land in each county for public
schools.
 Although few schools were actually build
during Lamar’s administration, he became
known as the “FATHER EDUCATION IN
TEXAS”.

Texas’s financial problem got worse during
Lamar’s presidency.
 Lamar expanded the use of bills known as
“redbacks”.

◦ They were called “redbacks” because of the color of
ink that was used.
The redbacks went down in value.
 Lamar spent money on battles that he didn’t
have.
 Public debt increased to almost $7 million by the
end of Lamar’s term.

Public debt – amount of money a national government owes
Photo from http://www.srttexas.org/Graphic/Texas%20Flag%20Redone.jpg
Lamar vs. Houston
Republic of Texas Presidential
Elections 1838
Choose either Mirabeau Lamar or Sam Houston as
your pick for the president of the New Texas Republic
and create a campaign flyer supporting that candidate.
Use the chart on the back and your notes to help you
figure out how each candidate feels about specific
campaign issues. Use the space below to draw your
campaign flyer. Your official poster must include:
-An specific issue (Native Americans, annexation) (20 pts)
-Show how the candidate feels about the issue (15 pts)
-A clear bias towards one candidate (15 pts)
-Creativity/Neatness (20 pts)
-Color/Pictures (30 pts)

Flyer examples

Lamar vs_ Houston - Murchison Middle School