Modern Latin America
(1945 to Present)
Mexico
GDP (PPP) rank = 11th
• 1994 December Economic
Crisis (U.S. sends aide)
• 1997 non-PRI party wins
control of congress
• 2000 Democratization
(Vicente Fox elected first
non- PRI president)
• 2006 Felipe Calderon wins
• 2000’s Mexico Drug Wars
• 1940-1980 “The Mexican
Miracle” (period of
economic growth)
• 1946 Institutional
Revolutionary Party (PRI)
= authoritarian govt.
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1960’s social inequality
1982 Economic Crisis
PRI begins political decline
1994 NAFTA signed
Nicaragua
GDP (PPP) rank = 125th
• 1980’s Contras vs.
Sandinistas in civil war
• 1990 election =
democratic reforms
• 2006 Daniel Ortega
elected president
• 2011 re-elected Ortega
• 1940’s Somoza
reigns as dictator
• 1956 Somoza
assassinated (family
still has power)
• 1960’s-1970’s
economic growth
(oil & beef exports)
• 1979 Sandinistas
lead revolution &
seize power
• Daniel Ortega
leader; moves
toward communism
Brazil
GDP (PPP) rank = 7th
• 1990’s free market
reforms
• 1998 economic
crisis & recession
• 2000’s political
stability
• #1 economy in
Latin America
• 1945 dictator
removed by army
• 1945-1964
democracy &
economic boom
• 1964 military coup
est. dictatorship
• 1964-1980
Brazilian Miracle
• 1985 elections =
democracy returns
Argentina
GDP (PPP) rank = 21st
• 1982 Invasion of
Falkland Islands
• 1983 free elections
• 1990’s-2000’s
democracy
• 1999-2003 economic
recession
• 2003-Present
economic growth
• 1943 military coup =
dictatorship
• 1946 Juan Peron
chosen as leader
(wife is Eva Peron)
• 1955 military coup
overthrows Peron
• 1960’s political
turmoil & violence
• 1973 Juan Peron
elected president
• 1976 military coup
• 1976-1983 Dirty War
Chile
GDP (PPP) rank = 43rd
• 1990’s economic
prosperity (1st in region)
• 2000’s growing & stable
economy
• 2006 Pinochet dies
• 1940’s-1960’s = model for
stable democracy in region
• 1970 Salvador Allende elected
president = economic decline
• 1973 military coup; Allende
killed; Augusto Pinochet
becomes ruthless dictator
• 1980’s economy improves
• 1988 plebiscite held;
choose democracy
• Patricio Aylwin Azocar
president; Pinochet
military leader
Peru
GDP (PPP) rank = 40th
• 1940’s-1970’s = rotation
between democracy & military
govt.; economic problems
• 1980’s = economic depression;
terrorism by Shining Path &
Tupac Amaru Revolutionary
Movement (MRTA)
• 1990 Alberto Fujimori
elected president
• 2000 Fujimori flees & is
arrested
• 2000’s economic growth;
terrorists still active
Colombia
• 1945-1974 = La Violencia results
in rotation between democracy
& military govt.
• 1970’s = model stable economy;
FARC (guerilla group) vs. govt.
GDP (PPP) rank = 40th
• 1970’s = Drug Era begins
• 1980’s = war on drugs
• 1990’s = drug wars and
violence
• 2000’s U.S. aides in fight
against violence; overall
decrease across nation
El
Salvador
GDP (PPP) rank = 93rd
• 1990’s = FMLN vs. ARENA
for political power
• 2000’s = poor economy
• 2009 = FMLN candidate
wins presidency
• 1940’s-1960’s =
dictatorship
• 1969 = Football War
(invasion of Honduras)
• 1970’s = govt. protests
• 1979-1992 = civil war
• 1992 = Chapultepec
Peace Accords ends
civil war
Panama
GDP (PPP) rank = 90th
• 1980’s = U.S. & Panama
relations strained (drugs)
• 1989 = U.S. Invasion of
Panama
• 1990’s = moves to democracy
• 1999 = U.S. turns over
control
of Panama Canal
• 2000’s = war on drugs;
economic investments
• 1940’s-1950’s = a
republic
• 1950’s = military
challenges govt.
• 1964 = Martyrs’ Day
riots
• 1968 = military coup;
Omar Torrijos dictator
• 1977 = Torrijos-Carter
Treaty
• 1981 = Torrijos dies;
Manuel Noriega
dictator
Cuba
Cold War Battleground:
1961 = Bay of Pigs Invasion
1962 = Cuban Missile Crisis
1962-63 = U.S. trade/travel
embargo
• 1960’s = Cuba aides
communist revolutions
• 1960’s-1980’s = economic
and social problems
• 1990’s = economic reforms
• 2008 = Fidel Castro steps
down; Raul Castro becomes
president
GDP (PPP) rank = 63rd
• 1940 = free
elections; Fulgencio
Batista president
• 1944 = Batista looses
re-election
• 1952 = bloodless coup;
Batista dictator
• 1956 = Cuban Revolution;
Fidel Castro dictator
Puerto
Rico
GDP (PPP) rank = n/a
• 1950’s = Operation Bootstrap
• 1950’s-60’s = economic growth
• 1970’s-80’s = economy slows;
people move to U.S.
• 1993 & 1998 = vote to remain
as commonwealth of U.S.
• 2000’s = struggle to define
political status
• 1947 = U.S. grants self
govt.
• 1948 = Luis Munoz
first governor
• 1950 = constitution
• 1952 = commonwealth
of the United States
Dominican
Republic
GDP (PPP) rank = 73rd
• 1965 = U.S. sends aide to
prevent communism
• 1966 = constitution;
democracy spreads
• 1970’s-80’s = political
stability; economic growth
• 1990’s = economic recession
• 2000’s = poverty, immigration;
democratic elections
• 1930-61= dictatorship;
Rafael Trujillo
• 1950’s = economic issues
• 1960 = OAS sanctions
• 1961 = Trujillo killed
• 1962 = Juan Bosch elected
• 1963 = military coup
Haiti
GDP (PPP) rank = 139th
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• 1970’s = economic & political
decline/problems
• 1980’s = Duvalier resigns, new
election; military coup
• 1990’s-2000’s = Jean-Bertrand
Aristide to Rene Preval “circus”
• 2010 earthquake kills est.
200,000 to 300,000 people
1930-46 = democracy
1946 = military coup
1950 = military coup
1956 = general strike;
leader resigns
• 1957 = Francois Duvalier (aka
Papa Doc) president
• 1960’s = authoritarian govt.
• 1971 = Jean-Claude Duvalier
(aka Baby Doc) president