Courtney Kyritz, Sarah Colon,
Claire Walker
What was the Pan-Slavic Movement?
Major Contributors to Pan-Slavism
Which Flag
• Russia
Austria’s tie with Slavic Ethnicities
• Austria’s relationship with Russia grew with
tension, as they (Austria) began to look the
weaker of the two countries
• Slavism in Austria acted as a political movement
• 1867- Austria-Hungary
(Austria Hungary compromise)
Hungary’s tie with Pan-Slavism
• A few years after the Pan-Slavism congress
Austria unified with Hungary in 1867
• Feelings of enmity grew between AustriaHungary and Russia
• Hungary was made up of two foundational
groups: Hungarian Nationalist, and Slavic
Russia’s tie with Pan-Slavism
• In the 1860’s the movement became particularly
popular in Russia
• Pan-Slav’s sought leadership and protection
• This peaked a rivalry between Russia and
Austria regarding power
• It was Russia’s mission to rejuvenate Europe
• Russian government did not really support this
view, it was strongly headed by the Slav’s
Ottomans tie with Pan-Slavism
• Southern Slav’s were some of the first to revolt
against the decaying Ottoman Empire
• After Serb revolts in 1806 and later in 1815, the
Serbs regaining power
• Serbs began seeking power over all Southern
Slav’s not under Serbian rule
German Unification and
Homogenization (1871)
• Occurred at the Versailles Palace in France
• Germany became a politically and
administratively unified nation state after the
Franco-Prussian War (German Victory)
Congress of the Slav’s in Prague 1848
• Meant as a manifestation of power, and unity amongst
the Slav’s
• The idea of congress originated from Kukuljeck
Sakginiski in April 1848
• 340 Delegates arrived at the first meeting as well as 500
official guests, all split into three sections (Czechs and
Slovak's, Poles and Russians/Silesians, and Southern
• Vagueness of the agenda proved a major discontentment
early on
• The congress revealed political divisions among the
Slav’s and in the end brought much disappointment to
the group
Second Italian War of Independence
• Failure of First Italian War of Independence
▫ Austria still dominates Italy
• Cavour allies with France against Austria
• Garibaldi joins under Cavour’s leadership
• March 17, 1861 Kingdom of Italy was ruled
under Piedmont’s central government
• 1866 Austrian controlled Venetia became an ally
of the Prussians in the Austro-Prussian War
• 1870 Franco-Prussian War
Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
• Austria tightened its grip after failed Hungarian
revolutions of 1848-1849
• Loss of Italian War in 1859 leads Austria to
create a new Parliament called the Reichsrat
• Disaster of Austro-Prussian War led to the
Ausgleich of 1867
Dual Monarchy continued
• Overall alienation of
Slavic groups
• Austrians actually more
lenient towards ethnic
• Hungarians had a
uniform Magyar culture
• 1907 Austria granted
universal male suffrage
▫ Revival of Pan-Slavism
Russia-Poland Conflict
• Russian loss in Crimean War
• 1861 Protests begin in PolishLithuanian territories
• 1863 the January Uprising
▫ Prussians side with Russia
• 1864 Uprising crushed by
▫ Poland punished
The Conflicts In the Balkans-Austrian
• Austria did not care about the Balkans initially,
and preferred a weak Ottoman Empire
▫ Ruling Germans feel no ethnic ties to the Slavs
▫ Economic wealth concentrated in Italy and
Bohemia, not Balkans
▫ Magyars fear the annexation of more Slavic lands
Russo-Turkish War 1877-8
• Serbians declare independence in 1835, but
Ottomans don’t leave
• View themselves as leaders of the Yugoslavs
• In the 1870s unrest, mainly due to religion,
▫ Revolts in Herzegovina (1875) and Bulgaria (1876)
• April 1877 Russia declares war on Turkey
Russo-Turkish War 1877-78
• Romania supports Russia
• Siege of Pleven 1877-Russian success
• Great Britain & other great powers fear Russian
• Treaty of San Stefano signed when Russia fears
interference of Great Britain
• Treaty of San Stefano:
▫ Huge success for pan-Slavism
▫ Serbia, Romania, Montenegro completely independent
▫ Bosnia & Herzegovina and Bulgaria become
Congress of Berlin 1878
• Great Powers dislike Treaty of
San Stefano
• Congress called by AustriaHungary, dominated by
• Treaty of Berlin Replaces
Treaty of San Stefano
▫ Limit Bulgarian autonomy
▫ Bosnia-Herzegovina controlled
by Austria-Hungary
▫ Ottoman Empire shrinks
▫ Great Britain satisfied
Pan-Slavism Post Congress of Berlin
• In Austria Hungary: nationalities set against each
other in order to stop Slavic unification-Iron Ring
• Austrian relations with Balkans improved in 1880s
• Three Emperors’ League (1873-1878) and Three
Emperors’ Alliance (1881-87)
• Unrest in Austria-Hungary during 1890s and early
20th century
• Russia lost interest in Balkans and focused on East
• Serbian and Austrian relations deteriorate
culminating in the start of WWI
Religion & Pan-Slavism
• Christian; majority are Orthodox (Yugoslavs &
Russians), minority Catholic (Those associated
with Austria-Hungary)
• Conflicts with Ottoman Empire often rooted in
religious differences
• Identify and analyze the political and cultural
issues in the debate over Pan-Slavism
Political Issues:
•Group of Slavic people want to
establish a unified Slavic nation
•Austrian Empire fears Slavic
nationalism in Austria as they
connect it to Russia’s hatred of
them due to their failure to ally
with Russia in the Crimean War
•Most Empires are worried about
the effect of a Pan-Slavic nation
on their industry and political
power (they would lose territory
and population)
Cultural Issues:
•Slavic people feel a loss of
identity and culture living in an
oppressed country with rulers
who are foreign to them
•However, a large group of
Slavic people are opposed to a
Pan-Slavic nation as they
believe that it is impossible to
melt all of the different Slavic
ethnicities into one culture
• Documents 4,7,9 explore the idea that PanSlavism can never really exist
• Documents 3,4,7 are views of Pan-Slavism from
• 1,2,5,12 Pan-Slavism and its relation to Austria
• 10,13,14 Russian Perspectives on Pan-Slavism
Point of Views
• Doc 3 “Among the Slavs nationality comes after
humanity. Scattered Slavs, let us be a unified whole, and
no longer mere fragments. Let us be all or nothing. Who
are you, a Russian? And you, a Serb? And you, a Czech?
And you, a Pole? My children seek unity! Say: I am a
–Jan Kollar, early advocate of Pan-Slavism
• Impassioned, a call to arms, embodies the efforts of the
Slavs in Italy, Austria, Russia, Ottoman Empire, etc
• Doc 1- No key and no concentrations listed-questionable
• Doc 13- Tsar Nicholas using exaggeration to gain support
Works Cited
• "Austro-Hungarian Empire, 1914." Gale World History in Context. Detroit: Gale,
1914.World History In Context. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.
• "Congress of Berlin (European History)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia
Britannica, n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.
• "The Great Powers and the "Eastern Question"" The Great Powers and the "Eastern
Question" N.p., 11 June 2009. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.
• "History of The Balkans." History World. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.
• "Russo-Turkish Wars." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d.
Web. 24 Feb. 2013. <>.
• Showalter, Dennis. "Franco-Austrian War." Europe 1789-1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of
Industry and Empire. Ed. John Merriman and Jay Winter. Vol. 2. Detroit: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 2006. 866-867. World History In Context. Web. 24 Feb. 2013.
• Weeks, Theodore R. "Poland." Encyclopedia of Russian History. Ed. James R. Millar. Vol.
3. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2004. 1192-1196. World History In Context. Web.
24 Feb. 2013.

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