The New Nation
1789–1800
p201
• Calls during the ratification process for greater
guarantees of rights resulted in the addition of
a Bill of Rights shortly after the Constitution
was adopted.
Demographics of the new nation
• Census 1790
• 4 million people
• Cities growing- Philadelphia, New York, Boston,
Charleston, and Baltimore
• 90% rural
• 95% lived east of the Appalachians
• Within fourteen years, Vermont, Kentucky,
Tennessee, and Ohio all added as states within 14
years
• As the first national administrations began to
govern under the Constitution, continued
debates about such issues as the relationship
between the national government and the states,
economic policy, and the conduct of foreign
affairs led to the creation of political parties.
– Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
– Hamilton’s Financial Plan
– Proclamation of Neutrality
Election of Washington
• Unanimously chosen by the Electoral College
in 1789
– Only presidential nominee to be chosen
unanimously
• Took oath of office on April 30, 1789 in NYC
Department Heads Under
Washington
• Secretary of State- Thomas Jefferson
• Secretary of the Treasury- Alexander Hamilton
• Secretary of War- Henry Knox
Table 10-1 p182
Bill of Rights
• Adopted in 1791
• Protection of freedoms
– Freedom of speech, press, religion, assembly and
petition
– bear arms, trial by jury
• Protection against abuse of power
– No cruel and unusual punishment
– Protection against arbitrary gov’t seizure of
private property
• 9th Amendment
– People have rights beyond those enumerated
• 10th Amendment
– All powers not delegated or prohibited by the
Constitution belong to the states or the people
Judiciary Act of 1789
• Organized the Supreme Court (John Jay
became the first Chief Justice)
• Established federal district and circuit courts
• Established the office of attorney general
Hamilton’s Financial Plan
• “Funding at par”
– Federal government would pay off its debts at
face value- more than $54 million
– (people had been losing faith that the new
government would be able to meet its obligations
and the value of government bonds had
depreciated to 10-15 cents on the dollar)
• “Assumption”
– Federal government would assume state debts.
This would tie the states more to the fed. gov’t.
The Bargain
• 1790
• Hamilton convinced Jefferson to support the
plan for assumption in return for the new
federal district (D.C.) to be located on the
Potomac
Figure 10-1 p184
Debt as a national blessing?
If the government owes people money, those
people have a stake in the success of that
government
Revenue
• Foreign trade and protection of American
manufacturing were two elements of Hamilton’s
economic plan
• Custom duties (tariff revenues)
– Dependent upon foreign trade
– 1789 a low tariff was passed
• Designed to raise revenue and protect infant industries
• Excise taxes (internal tax on certain goods)
– Whiskey
– Fell heavily on backcountry distillers
Whiskey Rebellion
• 1794, southwestern Pennsylvania
• Distillers used arguments and symbols of the
Revolution
• Washington called for militias from the states.
13,000 troops responded.
• Whiskey Rebellion faded.
• Government was strengthened
p185
A National Bank
• Hamilton proposed it
– Argued that the Necessary and Proper (“elastic”) clause
gave the government the authority to create one. This was
an “implied power.”
-”loose construction”
• Jefferson opposed it
– Argued that since it was not in the Constitution, the power
to create banks remained with the states (Article X)
• Washington signed it into law
• The Bank of the United States created 1791
– Chartered for 20 years
– Capital of $10 million (1/5th owned by Fed. Gov’t)
Spirit, pp.190-203
• Where do Hamilton and Jefferson stand on
the various issues?
• At its core, what is their debate really about?
Pair-Share
• What do you know about our two current
political parties and the two-party system?
Political Opinion Poll
• Political opinion poll- http://www.peoplepress.org/political-party-quiz/newshour/
The Emergence of
Political Parties
• Organized opposition to Hamilton’s revenueraising and centralizing policies began to build
• Previously, factions (Whigs/Tories, Feds/AntiFeds) had existed as opposed to organized
political parties
• Beginning of America’s two-party system
• The party out of power (“the loyal
opposition”) acts as a check on the party in
power
Table 10-2 p186
Table 10-3 p198
• To what extent do our current political parties
align to Hamilton’s Federalists and Jefferson’s
Democratic-Republicans?
Assignment
Washington’s Farewell Address
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/washing.asp
-Briefly summarize George Washington's beliefs about political parties.
-What warning about foreign nations does Washington give in his
farewell address? Why was it to the advantage of America to remain
aloof? Did Washington reject all alliances in all circumstances? Are
the concerns that Washington had about the nation's foreign affairs
still applicable today? Why or why not?
-Why do you think Washington was so concerned about these two
issues (political parties and foreign entanglements)?
-Considering the role of political parties in our country today, were
Washington's concerns valid?
Foreign Policy
Key Concepts- Review
• In response to domestic and international
tensions, the new United States debated and
formulated foreign policy initiatives and
asserted an international presence.
• As western settlers sought free navigation of
the Mississippi River, the U.S. forged
diplomatic initiatives to manage the conflict
with Spain and to deal with the continued
British presence on the American continent.
The French Revolution
• 1789
• 1792 France declared itself a Republic
• 1793 King Louis XVI beheaded and Reign of
Terror begins
• The French Revolution’s spread throughout
Europe and beyond helped fuel Americans’
debate not only about the nature of the
United States’ domestic order but also about
its proper role in the world.
p188
p187
• French Revolution was initially supported by
many Americans, especially Jefferson and the
Democratic-Republicans
• When a world war erupted as a result,
however, Americans became less supportive
Neutrality Proclamation
• 1793
• Officially declared America’s neutrality in the
battle between England and France
• Marked the beginning of America’s isolationist
tradition
Key Concept
• During and after the colonial war for
independence, various tribes attempted to
forge advantageous political alliances with one
another and with European powers to protect
their interests, limit migration of white
settlers, and maintain their tribal lands.
– Iroquois Confederation, Chief Little Turtle, and the
Western Confederacy
Map 10-1 p191
• 1790-1791 Chief Little Turtle and the Miami
Confederacy (which had been armed by the
British) defeat U.S. forces in one of the worst
U.S. defeats in the history of the frontier
• 1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers
– Miamis defeated
• Treaty of Greenville (1795)- the Miami Indians
surrendered their claims to much of the Old
Northwest.
p192
Map 9-3 p167
Tensions w/ Britain
• British goods flooded the American market
while American exports were blocked by
British trade restrictions and tariffs
• Britain maintained forts in North America that
they had agreed to leave under the Treaty of
Paris
• Britain impressed American sailors and seized
naval and military supplies from American
ships
Jay’s Treaty
• 1794-95
• Britain agreed to abandon the northwestern forts
and provided the U.S. with a commercial treaty
(although U.S. commerce with the British West
Indies remained restricted).
• Other issues (Canadian-Maine border,
compensation for pre-revolutionary debts, and
British seizures of American ships) were to be
resolved by arbitration.
• Maintained peace with Britain, but was
unpopular with the American public.
Pinckney’s Treaty
• 1795
• Resolved territorial disputes between Spain
and the U.S.
• Granted American ships the right to free
navigation of the Mississippi and duty free
transport through the port of New Orleans
Key Concept
• Although George Washington’s Farewell
Address warned about the dangers of divisive
political parties and permanent foreign
alliances, European conflict and tensions with
Britain and France fueled increasingly bitter
partisan debates throughout the 1790s.
Washington’s Farewell Address
• 1796
• Printed in the newspapers
• Warned against permanent alliances
(Washington favored temporary alliances for
extraordinary emergencies)
State of the Union
• The central government was solidly
established
• The country was expanding
• International commerce was growing
• U.S. had avoided foreign entanglements
• “The experimental stage had passed. . . .”
(p.201)

APUS Unit 3 Ch.10 The New Nation PPT