Objectives
• Content: Interpret a map on the Marshall
Plan and rank the top two countries who
received aid.
• Learning: List 5 rights guaranteed in the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
The Cold War
Post WWII
and the 1950’s
Rebuilding After WWII
• United States wanted to prevent
economic and political instability in
Europe.
• Marshall Plan
– George C. Marshall’s plan to provide
Europe with massive economic aid ($) to
help rebuild their economies and to
prevent the spread of Communism
(Containment)
Post War Germany
• Germany was
partitioned into West
and East Germany
– West Germany
became Democratic
and returned to selfrule after occupation.
– East Germany became
Communist and stayed
under Soviet control.
Post War Japan
• America stayed in Japan
for 7 years to re-build
• Japan was demilitarized,
adopted a democratic
government, and
returned to self-rule
• Japan soon became an
ally of the United States
United Nations
• Formed near the end of WWII
to prevent future global wars
• First United Nations (UN)
meeting in 1946 in California
– 50 nations attended and
agreed to settle disputes
peacefully
• Eleanor Roosevelt and the
Universal Declaration of
Human Rights
U.S. Economy
• Switched from making war materials to
consumer goods
• The economy was strong
–Increased demand for American
products
–Healthy job market
–Increased productivity
• Increase in buying on credit
U.S. Workforce
• Men were able to return to work since
economy was booming
• Most women returned to caring for the
home and children full time.
• Labor Unions became more powerful
–Workers gain more benefits
–Higher salaries
Life in Post WWII USA
Baby Boom
• There was an
explosion of
baby births
following WWII.
• 1946-1964
– 79 million
babies were
born
Life in Post WWII USA
G.I. Bill of Rights
• Gave educational, housing, and
employment benefits to WWII veterans.
Life in Post WWII USA
Women’s Role
• Over time, expect women balance
household, children, and a job.
• Because of prosperity, the next
generation of women entered workforce
in large numbers
Technology in the USA
• Explosion of
technology
• The airline industry
grew with the use of
the Jet engine
• Eisenhower created
the interstate
highway system
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ggtH05LFF3k
Objectives
• Content:
– Analyze a political cartoon from the Cold War and
determine its message.
– Compare the Butter Battle Book and the Cold War
and explain its symbolism.
• Learning:
– List the characteristics of the two superpowers.
Origins of the Cold War
U.S.A. VS. U.S.S.R.
Cold War
• The state of tension and intimidation
between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
• There was no actual fighting, but the rest of
the world took sides.
Two Superpowers
United States
• Democracy – government where
supreme power rests with the
people.
• Capitalism – private ownership of
goods.
Two Superpowers
Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.)
• Dictatorship – absolute power in
the hands of one person
• Communism – all people own
equally
U.S. Policy
• During the Cold War, the United States
pledged to help any country threatened by
Communism.
– Containment - to stop the spread of
Communism
Superpower Competition
• Competition took place between the two
superpowers (U.S. and U.S.S.R.) in many
areas.
–Influence
–Weapons
–Technology
Influence
• After WWII, the U.S.S.R.
dominated Eastern
European countries and
forced them to accept
Communism/
Dictatorship.
• The U.S. used money to
influence countries in
Western Europe to be
Capitalist/Democratic.
“ From Stettin in the
Baltic to Trieste in the
Adriatic an iron
curtain has descended
across the continent”
-Winston Churchill,
1946
Weapons
• Arms Race competition for
military supremacy
(nuclear weapons)
• Both sides want
the most powerful
weapons and the
largest number of
them.
Duck and Cover Instructional Video
What is the political cartoon trying to
tell people about the Cold War?
Technology
• Space Race - competition for space
exploration
• Soviets launched first satellite into
space (Sputnik)
• U.S. was first to land on the moon
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDtWnCSsBSQ&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1
Berlin
• First serious Cold War conflict
• Blockade
• Soviet Union blocked cars and trains in and out of
West Berlin. This was an attempt to rid West
Berlin of Democracy
• Airlift
• U.S. responded by airlifting food and supplies to
the people of West Berlin
Berlin Wall: built by Soviets in 1961 and
stood until November 1989 to keep the two
sides separate.
http://youtu.be/C5FR_cuQsrc
Objectives
• Content:
– Compare maps from the beginning of the Cold
War to 1962.
– Order events from the Cold War
• Learning:
– Define Domino Theory
NATO vs. Warsaw Pact
• U.S. and other free countries signed an
agreement called the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization (NATO)
– Promise to defend each other against an attack by
a Communist nation (“to attack one is to attack
all”)
• In response to NATO, Communist countries
signed a similar agreement called the Warsaw
Pact.
– The U.S.S.R. was the leader
U.S. At Home: The Red Scare
• Red = Communism
• Senator Joe McCarthy began a Communist
witch hunt in the early 1950’s. He identified
US citizens he believed to be supporters of
Communism. (McCarthyism)
• Thousands of people were accused of
espionage (spying), ruining their lives and
careers.
http://youtu.be/X_uTbVfDtgI
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were accused of
spying for the Soviets and were executed
Korean War 1950-1953
• After WWII, Korea was
occupied by Soviet Union in
the North and the U.S. in the
South.
• Both became their own states
– North Korea led by Kim Il Sung
(Communist)
– South Korea led by Syngman
Rhee (anti Communist)
• North Korea invaded South Korea and the
U.S. sent troops to help South Korea resist the
spread of Communism.
• After the United Nations sent troops to help
South Korea, China helped North Korea.
Korean War 1950-1953
• The war eventually ended in a stalemate
• The dividing line between North and South
Korea is almost in the same position as before
the war.
Rising Tensions
• U.S. U2 spy plane shot down over the Soviet
Union (1960)
• Cuban Revolution (1953-1959)
– Overthrow of a pro U.S. government by Fidel
Castro
– Cuba becomes Communist
Cuba
• Bay of Pigs
Invasion (1961)
– Failed U.S.
sponsored
invasion of
Cuba to take
down the
Communist
government led
by Fidel Castro
According to this map: Which countries are now Communist?
Is the United States containing communism?.
Cuba
• Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
– “The closest the world ever came to nuclear war”
– U.S. spy plane captures pictures of Soviet nuclear
missiles in Cuba.
– President Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of
Cuba and demanded the removal of the missiles.
• http://youtu.be/iZAwvCKoSi8
Cuba
• 13 day standoff lead to the agreement:
– U.S. will never again invade Cuba
– Soviet Union will remove all nuclear
weapons from Cuba
Vietnam
• Vietnam was divided after
they won independence
from France in 1954.
• North Vietnam was
Communist (leader: Ho Chi
Minh)
• South Vietnam was not
(leader: Diem).
• North Vietnam wanted to
unify both states to form
one country with Ho Chi
Minh as its leader.
Gulf of Tonkin
• Gulf of Tonkin Incident
– President Johnson used a
reported attack on two U.S.
ships to pass the Gulf of Tonkin
Resolution
– The resolution granted Johnson
the authority to militarily assist
South Vietnam without
Congress’ approval.
Vietnam War 1955-1975
• By 1965 U.S. was actively fighting with the
South Vietnamese to stop the spread of
Communism from North Vietnam.
• Remember the Domino Theory: If one country
falls to Communism, all the surrounding
countries are at risk to fall too!
Rise of Anti-War Protests
• Americans were sharply
divided over involvement
in the Vietnam War
• Protests increased
because there were not
enough volunteers for the
war. This caused the U.S.
government to draft
soldiers for the war.
Kent State Massacre May 1970
War Ends in Vietnam
• The Vietnam War finally ended for the U.S.
with a cease fire agreement.
• U.S. troops withdrew in 1973.
• By 1975 North Vietnam took Saigon and South
Vietnam surrendered.
Objectives
• Content: Decide who won the Cold War and
defend your answer.
• Learning: Summarize the results of the Cold War.
Communism’s Height in 1980
Red = Pro Soviet Union
Yellow = Pro China
Black – neutral
Problems for the U.S.S.R.
• Too many different ethnic
groups, languages and
cultures to stay united.
• Unable to keep the
country successful with
strict communism (and
an arms race with the
United States)
Berlin Wall
• 1987- U.S. President Ronald Reagan tells
Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev to “Tear
down this wall!”
• 1989 – Berlin Wall is taken down
• Germany reunited in 1990.
•
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtYdjbpBk6A&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mo
de=1&safe=active
•
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wnYXbJ_bcLc&feature=related
End of the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.)
• By December 25th, 1991 the Communist
government of the USSR Collapses
– 15 independent countries
– Boris Yeltsin - Russian President
Communist countries today (5)
Cuba, China, Laos, Vietnam & North Korea
Who won the Cold War? Explain.

The Cold War