Objective: To examine the life and presidency of
Andrew Jackson.
The Early Years
• Andrew Jackson was born in a log cabin in the backwoods
of the Carolinas in 1767.
• Jackson joined the Patriots during the American Revolution
at the age of 13.
Jackson’s Early Years (4:44)
(click on the second square, entitled “Early Years”)
• At the age of twenty, Jackson moved to Nashville,
Tennessee, where he eventually becomes a wealthy
attorney.
Jackson and the Frontier of Tennessee (6:40)
(click on the third square, entitled “Tennessee”)
Entering Public Service
• Jackson became the first person from Tennessee to serve in
the House of Representatives and he also served as Senator
before becoming President in 1828.
Young Congressman Jackson (1:40)
(click on the fourth square, entitled “Young Congressman Jackson”)
• As a young general in the army, President James Monroe
sent Jackson to protect the border of Florida against the
Seminole and Creek Indians.
• After defeating the Creeks battle, they began to refer to
Jackson as “Sharp Knife” after Jackson forced them to give
up lands that had been guaranteed to them in earlier
treaties with the U.S.
Florida Invasion (2:16)
(click on the eighth square, entitled “Florida Invasion”)
earned
the nickname,
Hickory”
after a soldier
• Jackson also
gained
fame for his“Old
military
achievements
Andrew
Hero
of American
New Orleans
(3:41)
said that
wasJackson:
as hickory.”
during
theheWar
of“tough
1812 leading
forces
to victory
over the British in the Battle of New Orleans.
Elections of 1824 and 1828
However,
Jackson
defeated
Adams
in
the
election
• Choosing
While
earning
from
the
theeasily
most
top three
popular
votevotes
getters,
in the
the
presidential
House
of of
1828
to become
the
first President
from
aenough
western
state.
Representatives
election
of 1824,selected
Jackson
John
did not
Quincy
receive
Adams
to be
electoral
the
sixth
votespresident
to secureof
the
the
victory.
United States.
Presidential
Candidate
John Quincy Adams
Andrew Jackson
Henry Clay
William H. Crawford
Q:
Howelectoral
many votes
A: 131
electoral
votestowere
were needed
win
needed
to win the
the election.
election?
Electoral
Votes
84
99
37
+ 41
Popular
Votes
108,740
153,544
47,531
40,856
= 261 total electoral votes
130 5
2 26 1.10
Elections of 1824 and 1828
• corrupt bargain- election goes to House
– Henry Clay gives support to JQA then gets a
Cabinet post
• Election of 1828 campaigned across the
country (a new idea)
• National politics growing more democratic
electors chosen by people, property
restrictions dropped so more could vote)
Jacksonian Democracy
• Jackson was extremely popular with the “common man”,
which he considered to be farmers, factory workers and
western frontiersmen.
Jackson's Personality and Legacy (3:37)
• Jackson’s belief in shifting the political power from the
wealthy and educated elite to the “common man” was part
of what became known as Jacksonian democracy.
• However, Jackson’s critics viewed his popularity as a danger
sign that his presidency was coming to resemble that of a
king.
• As a result, Jackson earned
yet another nickname. His
opponents called him
“King Andrew”, fearing
Jackson’s intentions of
strengthening the powers
of the presidency.
• Used the veto power
more than any other
president before him
The Spoils System
• Upon assuming the
Presidency, Jackson fired over
200 government workers and
replaced them with his own
Democratic supporters.
• A supporter of Jackson’s
replied to criticism of the
president by stating, “To the
victor belong the spoils.”
Spoils system – practice of
rewarding supporters with
government jobs
• Jackson appointed some of his most dedicated supporters
with jobs within his Cabinet, although few of them were
qualified for the job.
• Instead of relying on his Cabinet for advice, Jackson relied
on a small group of unofficial advisors known as the
“kitchen cabinet”
since Jackson
frequently met
with them in the
White House
kitchen.
Native American Removal
• Jackson - Strong political base in the South
• 60,000 Native Americans lived here
• Indian Removal Act of 1830
– Cherokee, Creek, Chocktaw, Seminole, Chickasaw
– land seized
– Jackson believed it assimilation was impossible
and it would take too many troops to keep white
settlers off land
Native American Removal
• Supreme Court rules
(Worcester v. GA) that
GA can’t interfere with
Native Americans
• Jackson ignored it!
(Favored states here)
• “John Marshall made
his decision; now let
him enforce it!”
• Trail of Tears – route traveled by thousands of
Indians; starved, frozen, beaten, shot – over
4,000 died
• Trail of Tears
The Bank War
• Jackson believed that the Bank of the United States had too
much power and served the needs of the rich over those of
average Americans.
• For example, the Bank of the
United States had the ability to
limit the amount of money state
banks were allowed to lend to
small business owners such as
farmers and merchants.
• Jackson felt particular anger
towards the bank’s president,
Nicolas Biddle.
Henry
Clay
In theand
corner
to my right,
Nicholas
Welcome,
ladies
and gentlemen,
coming
in withWebster…
aClay…
combined total
Daniel
Henry
to THEBiddle!
BANK WAR!
of 500 pounds, are…
Henry
Clay
Andrew
Jackson
HEY! Introduce me
already or I’ll fight
you, too!
and
“King
Andrew”
to
his
And,
inman
the
corner
toto
my
left,
“Old
his
Coming
inHickory”
at
a lean,
mean
155
No,
the
that’s
okay.
who
inspired
Introducing
the
thethe
pride
ofknown
the common
man…
the
man
who…
detractors.
man
asJackson!
“Sharp
admirers…
pounds,
may
I introduce
to you…
President
Democratic
Andrew
donkey…
Knife” to the Creeks…
• Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, political enemies of
Jackson, devised a plan to exploit Jackson’s hatred of the
Bank of the United States to help weaken him before the
1832 presidential election.
Hey,
Daniel,
I’ve to
gotget
a plan
that’s Hello, gentlemen. I
Well,
first
we need
the president
certain
hurtofJackson
in 1832
and came as quickly as I
of the to
Bank
the United
States,
could!
finally bring
Whig He’ll
partyhelp
intous.
Nicholas
Biddlethe
in here.
power!
He and Jackson
hate each other!
Okay, what
have you
got?
Henry Clay
Daniel Webster
Nicholas Biddle
• Clay and Webster convinced Nicholas Biddle to submit his
application to renew the charter for the Bank of the United
States earlier than required.
Yes, thank you for coming. Mr. Biddle, I Yeah, the current
would like you to submit an application charter isn’t even
to renew the charter for the Bank of set to expire soon!
the United States.
What would
that prove?
Henry Clay
Daniel Webster
Nicholas Biddle
Don’t be so short sighted! What do you I don’t know. Veto
it?
think Jackson will do when you apply
to renew the charter?
I’m sure that’s
exactly what
he’ll do.
Henry Clay
Daniel Webster
Nicholas Biddle
• Clay, Webster and Biddle predicted that Jackson would veto
the charter application, angering so many Americans that
he would eventually lose his bid for reelection in 1832.
Precisely! The American people will be
furious with him. He’ll never win
Brilliant!!
reelection in 1832! (By the way, did I
mention that I’m going to run for
president in 1832?)
By golly, I think
it’ll work!!
Henry Clay
Daniel Webster
Nicholas Biddle
Henry
Clay
Andrew
Jackson
VETO!
Yes! He
fell for it!
BANK
CHARTER
Oh,
really? Fat
chance!
Bring it
on, Clay!
Bank War
Summary (4:24)
Yes! The people will be
furious
and
Jackson
Oh,Fools!
Mr. President!
You know
Here’s
very
well
the
that
application
I will
never
win
reelection!
to
never
renew
accept
the charter
this!
So,for
letthe
me
Bank
makeofsure
the
Hadisappoint
ha ha
ha….(evil
not United
to
States!
you! laugh)
• It turns out that Clay, Webster and Biddle underestimated
Jackson’s popularity.
• Jackson defeated Clay in the election of 1832.
• Jackson also succeeded in destroying the Bank of the
United States by having it shut down in 1836.
Jackson fights
the Bank in
1832 (1833
print)

Age of Jackson PowerPoint