Chapter 23 Guiding Questions
• The Progressive Era
• Who were the progressives, and what were
their major causes?
• Who were the muckrakers, and what impact
did they have?
• What were Theodore Roosevelt’s and
William Howard Taft’s progressive programs,
and what were those programs’ goals?
• Why was the election of 1912 significant?
• How was Woodrow Wilson’s progressivism
different from Roosevelt’s?
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
Elizabeth Cady
In this 1870s
Stanton speaks at
a meeting of the
National Woman
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
Which states first gave
women the right to
Why did it take fifty-one
years, from Wyoming’s
grant of full suffrage to
women until ratification
of the Nineteenth
Amendment, for women
to receive the right to
How was suffrage part
of a larger women’s
reform movement?
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
Cover of McClure’s
Magazine, 1902
This cover features
Ida Tarbell’s
muckraking series on
the Standard Oil
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
Child labor was
A young girl
working as a
spinner in a
cotton mill in
Vermont, 1910.
From CHAPTER 18 – Mother Jones
Big Business and Organized Labor
• “I’m not a humanitarian, I’m a hell-raiser.”
• Lost her husband and four children to a yellow fever
epidemic in Memphis (1867)
• Moved to Chicago and saw her dressmaking shop, home,
and belongings destroyed in the great fire of 1871
• Drifted into the labor movement and dedicated her life to
the cause of wage workers and their families
• Traveled to speak for the Knights of Labor, the United
Mine Workers, other unions and the Socialist party
• Promoted higher wages, shorter hours, safer workplaces
and restrictions on child labor
• Organized women and children to march and get things
• “You don’t need to vote to raise hell.”
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
• The meat industry
• Pigs strung up along the hogscraping rail at Armour’s
packing plant in Chicago, ca.
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
Taylorism and Efficiency
• Frederick Winslow Taylor - The
Principles of Scientific Management
• Wealthy Quaker Family
• Perfectionist as a child
• Could have gotten an education and
lived out his wealth
• Asks a factory owner if he can be an
apprentice (would do it for free)
• Was asked to be a foreman over his
• Demands efficiency
• Begins quest for scientific management
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
Roosevelt’s duality
Roosevelt’s energy,
and impulsiveness
elicited sharp
Theodore Roosevelt as
an “apostle of
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
Roosevelt’s duality
Roosevelt’s energy,
and impulsiveness
elicited sharp
Theodore as a
Roman tyrant.
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
“The Lion-Tamer”
confronts the
beasts of the steel
trust, the oil trust,
the beef trust, and
others in the arena
of Wall Street.
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
Roosevelt Progressivism
• The Square Deal
• Regulating Trusts and
• Cleaning up the meat and
drug industries
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
Taft Progressivism
• Continued Trust Busting
• Continued Tariff Reform
• BUT, many saw the tariff
reductions as weak.
Chapter 23 - 1912 Election
Why was Taft so unpopular?
How did the division between
Roosevelt and Taft give Wilson
the victory?
Why was Wilson’s victory in
1912 significant?
Political giants A cartoon
showing Roosevelt
charging through the air at
Taft, who is seated on a
Chapter 23 - The Progressive Era
Wilson Progressivism
• New Freedom
• Less federal intervention in
• Return of the low tariff
• Anti-trust program
• Establishment of the Federal
Reserve System
• Did NOT support FEDERAL
programs promoting social justice,
child labor reform or women’s
Selected Progressive and
Imperialism Documents
• The White Man’s Burden (1899)
• Rudyard Kipling - U.S. Imperialism
• The Black Man’s Burden (1920)
• E.D. Morel - Response
• The Jungle
• Upton Sinclair
• How the Other Half Lives
• Jacob Riis
• Italian Dramatist Giuseppe Giacosa Offers his Assessment of
American Slaughterhouses
• Giuseppe Giacosa
The 14th Amendment
State Reforms and Legal Backlash (p. 942)
Section 1
All persons born or naturalized in
the United States, and subject to
the jurisdiction thereof, are
citizens of the United States and
of the state wherein they reside.
No state shall make or enforce
any law which shall abridge the
privileges or immunities of
citizens of the United States; nor
shall any state deprive any
PERSON of life, liberty, or
property, without due process of
law; nor deny to any person
within its jurisdiction the equal
protection of the laws.
The word PERSON in the
clause included
They start to look at
“substantive due process”
in this context. (not just
procedures). Looked at the
substance of legislative
Judges were able to
overturn laws that
deprived persons (and
property to an
unreasonable degree.

Chapter 23 Guiding Questions