Mexico’s Fight for Independence
New Spain(Modern Day Mexico and
Central America) was one of Spain's
most profitable Colonies
Issues in New Spain early 1800’s
• Creoles want full equality of the peninsulares
– Merchants wanted open trade with other nations
• Could only trade with spain
• Meztizo working class- Mines & farming wanted
better wages
– Angry- at elite land owners controlling food prices
– Elite would hold onto suplies of food until hit max
price
• The Indigenous and Mullatos want end to Tribute
– Tax paid to large land owners and the gov
• Small slave population wants freedom
Situation in Spain
• 1808-1810 Napoleon takes control of Spain
– Creole elites take this opportunity to fight for
independence
– They fear Napoleons liberal government will take
their rights
– They “claimed” to fight for King Ferdinand VII
Initial uprising
• Centered in Queretaro
Group of middle and upperclass creoles planned a
revolt
– needed support of masses so
sympathized with demands of
the Indigenous and mestizo.
– Father Miguel Hidalgo(creole)
had influence to recruit the
masses
• Spanish Authorities began to
arrest rebel conspiritors
Father Miguel Hidalgos Revolt
• Grito de Dolores- Sept 16th 1810 Hidalgo gathered his
parishioners declared New Spain free from the Spanish
Crown
• The mod went on to take control of the city
• By Sept 28 took key city of Guanajuato
– Killed many Spaniards
– Attacked may business
( most owned by Creoles)
– Opened to Grain
storage for the poor
Fear in Hidalgo’s Revolution
• Hidalgo’s army fought for the right of the poor
• Creole elites wanted freedom not a class and race
revolution
• Hidalgo’s goals
–
–
–
–
–
–
Independence from Spain
End of Slavery
End of tribute
More equality for all social classes
No forced labor
Better wages
• These changes would take power from Creole elites
Hidalgo’s Peasant Army
• His soldiers began to take vengeance on both
Spaniards and Creole elites
• His forces were unable to take Mexico City and
were driven north
• By Summer of 1811 Hidalgo and his leaders
were captured and executed
Jose Maria Morelos
• Morelos was a Priest who
continued the fight of Hidalgo
– mestizo
– His forces centered south of Mexico
City
His goals were the same as Hidalgos
-Independence from Spain, End of Slavery, End of tribute, equality for all
social classes, No forced labor, Better wages
•
He worked to gain more support of some Creole Elites( some
views were too radical
• His forces were centered in the state of
Oaxaca
• His use of Guerrilla tactics were very
effective
National Congress of Chilpancingo1813
• Created a Congress inviting
many creole revolutionaries
– Set himself as chief executive
– Created a Judicial and Legislative
Branch
– Enacted many of the social
changes he planned
• Congress only had control of
southern territories he
controlled
• Congress did not have a stable
home
The Down Fall of Morelos
1. Lost battles to royalist forces using
traditional war methods
2. Some of his changes too radical to
gain full Creole support
-Many fought against him
3. 1814 King Ferdinand VII regains
power in Spain
-More Spanish troops are sent
to stop
Rebellion in New Spain
In 1815 Morelos is captured, put on
trial, and executed 12/22
1815-1820 Guerrilla fighting continued
• fighting against Royalists
continued with no central
Organization
• Vicente Guerrero Continued a
Guerrilla campaign against
Royalist forces in
Oaxaca(Southern Mexico)
– Mix Creole, Indigenous, Black
• The Cost of fighting, high
taxes, and mistreatment of
Creoles by Spain began to
anger the elites
Creole Elites Take Control of the Revolution
• 1820 Spanish King Ferdinand VII was
deposed(temporily)
• New Spanish Gov enacted liberal Constitution
– This would take some rights from the Creole elite
• Augustine Iturbide-Royalist Creole
– Feared losing power and used this as an excuse to rebel
– Switched sidesto join
– Revolutionary
• (Ironic- joined rebels to
keep creole elite control)
Opposites Combine
Iturbide asked Guerrero to join in support
Guerrero(Liberal)
• Independence from Spain
• Catholic Church
• Representative Republic
• Liberal social reforms of
Hidalgo
Iturbide(Conservative)
• Independence from Spain
• Catholic Church
• Monarchy
• Equality of peninsulares and
creoles
Mexico is Free
• Aug 24, 1821 Treaty of
Cordoba Signed- The Mexican
Empire was declared
independent
• The combined forces enter
Mexico City Minimal
resistance
• Iturbide is crowned Emperor
– Short lived He steps down
from power
– A Republican government is
formed
• Name Mexico comes from the
name of the Aztecs MEXICA.