Unit 3: Industrialization and
Nationalism
A. Decentralized; disunity; rich in resources
▪ Hundreds of different languages
▪ Politically diverse-villages to large empires
▪ Religious differences-traditional, Muslim, Christian
B. Early European Contact (late 1400s)
▪ Coastal-rugged geography and hostile people
▪ slave trade (West)
▪ salt trade (North)
▪ trading posts (South)
▪ by 1880-only 10% under European control (not in interior)
A. Interior
 realm of missionaries and explorers
 African “mystique” sparked interest in publications
▪ 1870s-Henry Stanley’s search for Dr. David Livingstone
(well-publicized); opened Congo to European interest
B. Belgium est. control over Congo (1880)
▪ Leopold II uses humanitarian front (end slavery) to mask
exploitation of Africans
▪ Rubber plantations drained economy  led to starvation
▪ Belgium’s wealth encouraged other European nations to compete
for African “pie”
1.
2.
3.
Industrial Revolution -resources and markets
Nationalism -colonies increased nation’s
prestige
Racism -belief in European/white racial
superiority
 Social Darwinism (strongest races survive)
4.
5.
Missionary zeal to “Christianize” the heathen
Technological/ Scientific Advancements
 technology superiority (esp. in weaponry)
 transportation (opened up continent to European
control)
 medical advancements (quinine)
6.
African disunity
A. Berlin Conference (1884-85)
 Europe meets to divide Africa “fairly”
 Guidelines for control
▪ if you can show a “just” claim
▪ if you can hold it
 By 1914-only Liberia and Ethiopia NOT under
European control
B. Benefit to Europe

Natural Resources -gold, diamonds, rubber, copper, tin,
agri. products

Dutch (Boers) settled Cape Town (South Africa) in 1600s as
trading base

British-moved in Cape colony in 1800s
1. Boers escaped northward-“The Great Trek”
2. Were pushed into Zulus  conflict

Discovery of gold and diamonds increased European
immigration
1. Boers tried to limit newcomers’ influence; blamed British

Fierce fighting breaks out; concentration camps; guerilla
fighting; innocent civilians killed

“modern war” foreshadowed future horrors

Britain won and est. Union of So. Africa (under British control)
1. The Zulu Wars -1879
 British invade Zulu Territory and conquer this
powerful tribe in 6 months; made them a colony
2. French West Africa
 Malinke tribe wages war against French control in
Guinea for 15 yrs; finally defeated in 1898
3. German East Africa
 Maji Maji Rebellion (1905): Africans believe that
spirits will protect them in rebellion against
Germans; tens of thousands killed before uprising
is squelched
Emperor Menelik II
took steps to
modernize Ethiopia
 1895- Italy invades
Ethiopia over treaty
dispute
 Menelik’s modern
army able to defeat
Italians in less than a
year

Menelik II
Causes:
 European nations needed raw materials
 European powers wanted power & land
 Europeans strongly influenced by Social
Darwinism
Effects:
 Africans lost their land and independence
 Many Africans died resisting the Europeans

Ch. 11: The Age of Imperialism Sec. 3: The Scramble for Africa