Chapter 4
Section 2
 Do Now: Trivia: What was the first capital of the US.
 Obj:
 Trace Progress of war through the turning point at
 Examine the colonial economy and civilian life during
the Revolution
 HW:
 Active Read 4.4 and Critical Thinking #3
 Valley Forge
 Trenton
 Saratoga
 Inflation
 Profiteering
British War Strategy
 March 1776 – British move troops out of Boston
 Want to move war to Middle States
 Attempt to end “rebellion” by isolating New
 British move to attack NYC…
Defeat in New York
 British Gen. William and
Admiral Richard Howe send
32,000 men into New York
 Combine British soldiers
and Hessian (German
 Largest British force EVER
 Washington has 23,000 men
to defend NYC
 Vastly outnumbered
 Men untrained with poor
 Americans retreat in August
of 1776
 Washington left with 8,000
who’s enlistment was soon
up….he needed a victory!!!
The Battle of Trenton
 Washington had been pushed back into PA
 Washington takes calculated risk and attacks
Trenton on Christmas day
 2,400 of his men in small row boats cross the
Delaware River into NJ
 Surprise Hessian troops; who were still drunk from
the night before and capture 918 men and 6 cannons
 8 days later Americans defeat 1,200 British @ Princeton
 Moral victories that helped keep the “cause” going…
Isolate New England
 Burgoyne’s Plan Against
the Americans:
 Was to lead an army
down a route of lakes
from Canada to Albany,
where he would meet
Howe’s troops as they
arrived from NYC
 Joint forces would isolate
New England from the
rest of the colonies
 However; Howe would
never meet Burgoyne in
Victory at Saratoga
 Under Burgoyne’s
 4,000 redcoats, 3,000
mercenaries, 1,000 Mohawk
 Bad Luck:
 Food supplies ran low
 Clashing with Americans
caused Burgoyne to lose
many men
 Howe was preoccupied
with conquering and
occupying Philadelphia
that he wasn’t coming to
meet him
 Surrender at Saratoga:
 Massed American troops
surrounded Burgoyne
 Burgoyne surrendered
his army to General
 Surrender dramatically
changed Britain’s war
 British kept their troops
along the coast
 Close to the big guns,
and supply bases of their
Turning Point
 The French were still bitter about the British
defeating them in the French and Indian War
 Secretly sending weapons to the Patriots since the
previous year
 Saratoga victory supported their trust in the
American Army
 French recognized the American independence and
signed an alliance, or treaty of cooperation, in
February 1778
Winter at Valley Forge
 Washington’s struggles:
 Awaiting the French aid
Washington and his men
were struggling to stay
alive during the cold
winter with primitive
 Soldiers suffered from
 Surgeons worked
constantly to try to save
arms and limbs from
 2,000 men died
 What country were the Hessian mercenaries from?
 Germany
 What was the “turning point” in the American
 Battle of Saratoga
 What river did Washington cross to attack the British
at Trenton?
 Delaware River

Struggling Toward Saratoga -Fab