THE PROGRESSIVE ERA The Origins of Progressivism Progressive Legislation Progressivism Under Taft and Wilson Suffrage at Last SECTION ONE: THE ORIGINS OF PROGRESSIVISM The Jungle by Upton Sinclair Revelations about working conditions and poor food quality sent shockwaves In the land of prosperity, the fact that live was horrendous for many didn’t seem to fit The Progressive Era Root of 20th Century Reform Progressivism an extension of earlier groups that fought for reforms and changes New Reformers were reacting to the changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution and the massive increase in immigration Despite poor conditions, immigrants and migrants continued to flood the cities and conditions got even worse New Reformers saw charity as important but not nearly enough help for those in need A political debate began about what could be done – THE PROGRESSIVE ERA PROGRESSIVE GOALS/BELIEFS The Progressives: Their Goals and Beliefs (included Republicans, Democrats and others) 4 Basic Goals Government should be more accountable to its people Government should curb the power and influence of wealthy people Government should be given expanded powers so that it could become more active in improving the lives of its citizens Governments should become more efficient and less corrupt s that they could competently handle their expanded role SECTION ONE: THE ORIGINS OF PROGRESSIVISM Igniting Reform: Writers and their Ideas – lively debates about HOW to reform Two Early Reformers Henry George – wrote a book to explain why poverty continued to plague even advanced societies - he concluded poverty existed because some held onto wealth (land) and did not use productively - proposed government charge a tax on land (not just improvements) Edward Bellamy – wrote a book about futuristic US – a utopia - where government had taken over businesses - businesses reorganized to meet the needs of the people, not make a profit - Book was a HUGE best seller MUCKRAKERS The MUCKRAKERS – writers who used their literature to expose the worst of the US system. T. Roosevelt condemned them saying “those who earn their livelihood by telling scandalous falsehoods about honest men.” Upton Sinclair - The Jungle Lincoln Steffens – The Shame of the Cities Ida Tarbell – The History of Standard Oil Company SECTION ONE: THE ORIGINS OF PROGRESSIVISM Progressive Reform Organizations (people inspired to get involved) The Labor Movement – begun in the 1800’s, Unions really succeeded during Progressive Era Socialists – Government control of property and income NCL - National Consumers League – investigated conditions under which goods were produced and sold Suffrage – Women’s Vote a key Progressive Era reform goal Temperance – outlawing liquor also a Progressive Era reform Two Women Reformers – pushed for reforms in workplace to protect women and children Many wanted an end to the capitalist system, redistribute wealth, and government ownership of American Industries Most wanted to reform the government thru the ballot box, but some willing to use revolution to create change Women’s Groups – Though unable to vote, women played a HUGE role in Progressive Era Business leaders used government courts to block strikes, but Unions continued to fight until they were able to force reforms in the workplace and in government actions Florence Kelley – Appointed by Federal government to investigate labor conditions. Resulted in laws passed to prohibit child labor, limiting work hours for women Mother Jones – along with her husband, Mother Jones became voice of the labor unions fight for better conditions. Became a national speaker on behalf of unions and child labor laws Progressive Reforms Meet With Resistance The increased role of government in people’s lives concerned many, including those who the reforms were intended to help Didn’t want kids to work, but needed the income to survive SECTION TWO: PROGRESSIVE LEGISLATION Triangle Shirtwaist Fire: An Expanded Role for Government Fire broke out in a shirt making factory. Only exit not locked from outside were the stairs to the roof of the 10 story building. In all 146 workers died. In the aftermath, a push for regulations to prevent this from happening again led the way to other government reforms After the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, people expected the government to DO SOMETHING Workers’ Rights, Working Conditions needed to be controlled Progressives did not want government to control essential services (water, electricity) SOCIAL WELFARE REFORMS: create a minimum standard of living Unemployment benefits Accident and health insurance Social Security for Elderly and Disabled Progressives wanted a government led by experts and run by professionals not politicians SECTION TWO: PROGRESSIVE LEGISLATION Municipal Reforms (many wanted HOME RULE – limited self rule) Attacking the Bosses New Forms of Municipal Government Commission form of government used to deal with the aftermath of the Galveston Hurricane It worked so efficiently, that many other cities looked to this style of management Council-Manager form of government used to deal with the Great Miami River Flood very effectively Cities Take Over Utilities Civil Services (NO PATRONAGE) While the push for reform changed some things, political machines will endure. They will just figure how to work within the new structure of government Reformers wanted to dislodge monopolies in water, electricity, gas (basic needs) Toledo Ohio and Detroit Michigan pioneered city control or ownership of utilities By 1915, nearly 2/3 ‘s of cities used some form of public ownership of utilities Providing Welfare Services Cities looked to provide public services like baths, parks, playground, kindergardens and lodging for the homeless It was believed by reformers that providing these services would make their cities better for everyone SECTION TWO: PROGRESSIVE REFORMS State Reforms (increased the role of government in business regulations and social welfare) More Power to Voters: * Direct Primary * Initiative * Recall * Referendum Reforms in the Workplace: * * ^ ^ Curb workplace hazards * Labor Departments to regulate business Workers’ Accident Insurance * Business owners sued government saying they infringed on property rights, contract rights (COURTS AGREED) Courts would only uphold if they could prove the reforms protected the public health Wisconsin’s Reform Governor: Robert La Follette – 3 terms – used to reform his state ^ ousted party bosses ^ public votes on reform measures ^ Direct Primary & civil service reform ^ Brought in academics to reform government SECTION TWO: PROGRESSIVE REFORMS Federal Reforms TR’s Square Deal – Coal Strike – TR intervened and demanded both sides agree to arbitration. Threatened to take control of mines with military. Workers got 10% raise and a cut to 10 hours per day work “Square Deal” for both sides Antitrust Activism – Used Sherman Antitrust Act to go after monopolies. Won 42 antitrust cases (Beef trust, Standard Oil, American Tobacco Co. were either broken up or forced to reorganize) Railroad Regulation – In 2nd term, TR aggressively pushed his reforms – took on railroads using both executive and judicial powers to enforce laws (limit rates) Protecting Public Health – Pure Food and Drug Act – required labeling of ingredients and strict sanitary conditioning (because of the book “The Jungle”) A New Labor Department – Department of Labor, Children’s Bureau, Women’s Bureau – created to pass and enforce reforms in the workforce Protecting the Environment – National Parks, US Forest Service – 200 million acres set aside. National Reclamation Act passed – money set aside from federal land sales to pay for irrigation projects New Constitutional Amendments – 16th Amendment – Congress could collect INCOME taxes – increased revenue to pay for relief programs 17th Amendment – Direct election of Senators – more accountability to the people 18th Amendment – Prohibition of Alcohol - saw alcohol as major cause of poverty and violence POSTER WORK In Groups of 3 – review p. 396-402 Identify 3 important points each for Taft & Wilson Policies Scandals Accomplishments Create a poster showing those points Rubric READABLE NEATNESS INFORMATION 2 2 5 10 SECTION THREE: PROGRESSIVISM UNDER TAFT AND WILSON Taft chosen by TR to continue on his programs. Easily won in 1908 Taft pledge to carry on reforms, but he wasn’t the politician TR was. Troubles from the very start when Taft did not put any Progressives on his cabinet CONFLICT OVER TARIFFS Called a “special session” to pass reductions in tariffs House barely passed his program, Senate instead raised tariffs. Taft signed compromise which angered Progressives THE BALLINGER-PINCHOT AFFAIR Richard Ballinger chosen as Secretary of Interior – he sided with business over conservation of federal lands. Businesses wanted to develop the lands Gifford Pinchot, head of US Forest Service, favored scientific management of federal lands Ballinger allowed a private interest to get rights to coal lands in Alaska. Pinchot charged Ballinger with improper favoring of investment group. While Pinchot was testifying to the corruption charge, Taft fired him. Pinchot was viewed as public hero. Ballinger eventually resigned under accusation of corruption SECTION THREE: PROGRESSIVISM UNDER TAFT AND WILSON Turmoil in Republican Party Democrats and Republicans teamed up to attack non-reformists in the Republican Party who had the power to block reforms. This bitterly split the Republican Party Midterm Elections in 1910 – TR returned from vacation in Africa to find Republican Party in turmoil. At first, he stayed quiet, but finally spoke up for reforms (business regulations, welfare laws, workplace protection for women and children, income and inheritance tax, and voting reform ) NEW NATIONALISM Republicans lost election (split vote) and Democrats gained control of House and Senate Election of 1912 TR opposed Taft for Republican nomination. TR popular with voters, but Taft control party. TR charged fraud and vowed to create his own party “THE BULL MOOSE PARTY” The Bull Moose Party – a reformist party, very popular with women TR shot while campaigning, continued his speech for 1/5 hours before going for medical attention Taft’s Record – Taft accomplished a lot when president (set aside millions of acres of federal lands, Children’s Bureau, 16th & 17th Amendments) Wilson’s NEW FREEDOM – Democratic Party led by Woodrow Wilson, a reformist. He promised to go after monopolies and trusts A Four-Way Election – Taft, TR, Wilson and Eugene V. Debs (Labor leader, Socialist) Split Republican vote handed Wilson the Presidency SECTION THREE: PROGRESSIVES UNDER TAFT AND WILSON WILSON’S Policies as President Tariffs and Taxes Attacking the Trusts To overhaul banking system, the Federal Reserve created. The “FED” is a national banking system that regulated banks by putting them under the control of 12 regional banks. Created rules for banks to hopefully make them stronger and more “user friendly” Brandeis to the Supreme Court Study showed a small group of men controlled most of the nation’s wealth, despite Sherman Antitrust Act 1914 – Clayton Antitrust Act strengthened government power to go after monopolies and trusts, protected unions Federal Trade Commission (FTC) created to control business practices Federal Reserve 1st action to reduce tariffs from 40% to 25% To make up for lost revenue, federal income tax created Louis Brandeis, a progressive lawyer, appointed to Supreme Court His appointment was the height of the “Progressive Movement” Wilson wins 2nd Term Progressive Drive and Anti-war promise won Wilson a 2nd term, barely SECTION THREE: PROGRESSIVES UNDER TAFT AND WILSON The Limits of Progressivism By the mid 1910’s, broad changes in society, government, and business had occured Social Justice and Progressivism Little done to aid tenant and migrant farmer Many Progressives favored immigration limits and literacy tests Jim Crow laws allowed to stand African Americans were, basically, ignored by Progressive Movement The End of Progressivism As World War I spread in Europe, Americans became more worried about war than reform By 1916, the “Progressive Movement” lost momentum and faded away The one push for reform that survived and grew strong was for WOMENS SUFFRAGE NEED TO KNOWS VOCABULARY Bull Moose Party Civil Disobedience Conservationist Federal Reserve System Holding Company Injunction Muckraker Municipal New Nationalism Progressive Era ESSAYS – ANSWER BOTH 1) How was President Wilson’s approach to economic reform similar to that of Theodore Roosevelt? How were they different? 2) What two main strategies did women’s suffrage activists use in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s? How did each strategy contribute to the passage of the 19th Amendment? CREATE A ORGANIZATIONAL CHART P. 403-407 Find 3 – 5 facts about what EACH women did to advance the cause of womens’ suffrage Alice Paul Susan B. Anthony Womens Suffrage Movement Carrie Chapman Catt Elizabeth Cady Stanton SECTION FOUR SUFFRAGE AT LAST For over 70 years, women’s organizations fought for the right to vote With every push forward, there were just as many pushes back Women weren’t capable of voting, women didn’t want to vote, women voting would damage society Anthony and Stanton: Preparing the Way Seneca Falls Convention-1st national meeting demanding women’s vote (1848) Later, group split into 2 factions Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony “Men, their rights and nothing more. Women, their rights and nothing less” National Womens Suffrage Association – focused on an amendment to ensure/protect women’s right to vote American Woman Suffrage Association – state by state approach to womens vote CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE – a nonviolent refusal to obey a law in an effort to change it Susan B. Anthony led her group (NWSA) and was arrested. Found guilty, she refused to pay. Judge let her go SUFFRAGIST STRATEGIES Constitutional Amendment 2/3 BOTH houses of Congress, ¾ of state legislatures vote to approve 1868 – 1st attempt failed 1878 – 2nd attempt got hearing “The right of a citizen of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state in the account of sex” 1887 – defeating in Senate by a vote of 16 for and 34 against (26 absent) Called up every year until 1896. Then not again until 1913 State by State More successful to begin with, especially out west Women had proven their worth working hard to survive the tough times SUFFRAGE AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) A New Generation Susan B. Anthony and Lucy Stone Many rights won for women (property rights most important) Social Groups formed to fight for their right to vote Began lobbying officials, marching, picketing, etc The rise of the Progressive Movement put new life into the fight for the right to vote Anthony died in 1902 and Stone died in 1906 without seeing their goal achieved Carrie Chapman Catt took lead of NAWSA Alice Paul also rose to lead the movement These women would lead a march of over 5,000 in Washington DC in 1913 Split in the Movement Paul (Congressional Union) called for aggressive, militant campaign for amendment NAWSA believed this would alienate followers, refused to back Paul, expelled from NAWSA Paul and CU demonstrated in front of White House and burned an effigy of Wilson. Paul and followers were arrested and jailed. They went on hunger strikes NEW PLAN NAWSA continued to back state suffrage campaigns. Pushed in 4 key eastern states, failed Catt reinstated at leader of NAWSA and came out with her “WINNING PLAN” World War I Get Congress to re-introduce a federal amendment for womens suffrage NAWSA, now with over 2 million in membership, won in NY state. This effected the electoral and congressional votes at the national level Women will pitch in and help in the war effort so well, they gain much respect The idea that women should stay out of the “man’s world” ended with the war effort 18th Amendment – Prohibition – adopted, with much support of women Finally, Victory 1919 – Congress formally proposed the Suffrage Amendment Political pressures were finally on the side of women voting Lasting embarrassment over the treatment of Paul and CU when jailed 1920 – Tennessee becomes state that pushed over the top 19th Amendment guarantees women the right to vote – last major reform of Progressive Era NEED TO KNOWS – CH 11 VOCABULARY Bull Moose Party Civil Disobedience Conservationist Federal Reserve System Holding Company Injunction Muckraker Municipal New Nationalism Progressive Era ESSAYS – ANSWER BOTH 1) How was President Wilson’s approach to economic reform similar to that of Theodore Roosevelt? How were they different? 2) What two main strategies did women’s suffrage activists use in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s? How did each strategy contribute to the passage of the 19th Amendment?