Think, Pair, Share • In Chapter 5 we learned that an increase in populations, mostly caused by an increase in immigration, helped the United States experience rapid industrial growth. • Come up with at least 5 reasons why immigrants came to the United States. Think, Pair, Share • Anticipate: – What kind of problems might these new immigrants face when they get to America? (Think about the problems immigrants face today) – What challenges might these immigrants cause for cities and towns when they begin to arrive in large numbers? Chapter 6: Urban America Why did millions of European and Asian immigrants come to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and what impact did the arrival of these immigrants have on America’s cities and culture? Section 1 Key Terms, People and Events Nativism – hostility towards immigrants Ellis Island – port of entry in New York Harbor Angel Island – port of entry in San Francisco Chinese Exclusion Act – barred Chinese from entry into the United States from 1882-1943 The Immigrant Experience Assignment • Write and perform a poem or rap detailing what life was like for an immigrant as they made their way to America. (Bonus Points) (Individual or Partner) • Write a series of journal (diary) entries detailing what life was like for an immigrant as they made their way to America. (Individual) • Create a six panel (colored) story board illustrating what life was like for an immigrant as they made their way to America. (Individual) • Write and perform a play which tells the story of what life was like for an immigrant as they made their way to America. ( Bonus Points) (Partner or Small Group) • A complete assignment will touch on the following: where did you come from, why did you leave the country of your birth, what was your experience on the ship, what was your experience at Ellis or Angel Island, what were your feelings when you saw the Statue of Liberty or the Pacific Coast, what were the challenges, hardships or joys you experienced in your new country. Section 1 - Immigration 1865-1914 25 million Europeans immigrate to the U.S. Before 1890 most immigrants were from northern and western Europe After 1890 most immigrants were from southern and eastern Europe (What’s the difference between these parts of Europe?) Why Did People Emigrate? Push factors Farm poverty and worker uncertainty Wars and compulsory military service Political tyranny Religious oppression Population pressure Why Did People Emigrate? Pull Factors Plenty of land and plenty of work Higher standard of living Democratic political system Opportunity for social advancement The Immigrant Experience • Ellis Island – New York City - Across the Atlantic • Angel Island – San Francisco – Across the Pacific • A virtual tour of Ellis Island • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5rredHTyKaQ Nativism Resurges • Asians, Jews, and Eastern Europeans (Catholics) • Feared Catholics beliefs were incompatible with American values and Protestant, British culture. • American Protective Association – 1887, members vowed not to hire or vote for Catholics. • Irish immigrants suffered the most from anti-Catholic attitudes: considered lazy and ignorant, were only able to get low paying, menial jobs. Asian Immigration Restricted • Workingman’s Party of California – 1870’s • Chinese Exclusion Act – 1882 A 10 year ban on Chinese immigration and prohibition of citizenship for Chinese already here. (Ban was made permanent in 1902, repealed in 1943). • 1906 San Francisco Board of Education orders all Chinese, Korean, and Japanese children to attend the “Oriental School”. • “Gentleman’s Agreement” between Theodore Roosevelt and Japanese Prime Minister. Order rescinded in exchange for a limit on Japanese immigration. A NATION OF IMMIGRANTS: A CARTOONIST ON CHANGING TIMES • Joseph Keppler was a cartoonist and also an immigrant to the United States; the issue of immigration therefore was close to his heart. Here are two views of immigration drawn by Keppler during different time periods. The top cartoon was drawn in the early 1880’s, and the bottom cartoon was drawn in the 1890’s. • Study the cartoons and answer the following questions: • In the top cartoon, who is the person on the left? How do you know? Who are the people facing him? • Who is greeting the immigrant in the bottom cartoon? How are they greeting him? • What do the shadows in the bottom cartoon’s background symbolize? • Stereotypes are exaggerations that make the false assumptions that all members of a group have the same characteristics. These characteristics can be physical or part of behavior. How does this cartoonist use stereotypes? • The title of the top cartoon is “Welcome to All”. Write a title for the bottom carton. • What has happened between the first cartoon and the second cartoon that accounts for the difference in the portrayal and reception of the immigrants? • Do you think Keppler’s views about immigrants changed from the time he drew the first cartoon to the time he drew the second cartoon? Explain your answer. Contributions of Immigrants: Your task is to research your assigned immigrant and write a 2 page paper on your immigrant. (12 point font, double spaced, normal margin, cite 2 sources – not Wikipedia) The following questions should be your guide. You will also be expected to share your information with the class. • When and where was this person born? • When did the person come to the United States? Why? What were his or her hopes and dreams when first coming to the U.S.? • How was he or she treated upon arrival to the U.S.? • What interesting facts did you learn about his or her family? • What was/is the person’s profession? • What contribution did he or she make to the U.S.? • What other relevant facts about this person or the process of immigration did you discover that you think would be useful in better understanding this person or the topic of immigration, in general? Frank McCourt, Author (Ireland) Edwidge Danticat, Author (Haiti) Jaime Escalante, Educator (Bolivia) I.M. Pei, Architect (China) Edward Teller, Scientist (Hungary) Isabel Allende, Author (Chile) Isaac Stern, Concert Violinist (Russia) Zubin Mehta, Conductor (India) Enrico Fermi, Scientist (Italy) Itzhak Perlman, Violinist (Israel) Max Frankel, Editor, The New York Times (Germany) Alfonso Cuarón, Movie Director (Mexico) Benicio del Toro, Actor (Puerto Rico) Kahlil Gibron, Poet/Philosopher (Lebanon) Farouk El-Baz, Geologist (Egypt) Gabriel García Marquez, Writer (Colombian) Roberto Clemente, Athlete (Puerto Rico) Desi Arnaz, Actor (Cuba) Tito Rodriguez(Machito), Musician (Cuba) Celia Cruz, Singer(Cuba) Anthony Quinn, Actor (Mexico) Henry Kissinger, Diplomat (Germany) Javier Bardem, Actor(Spain) Chinua Achebe, Writer (Nigeria) Albert Claude, Scientist (Belgium) Albert Kahn, Architect (Germany) Haing S. Ngor, Physician (Cambodia) Thomas Nast, Journalist (Germany) Leo Szilard, Scientist (Germany) Wernher von Braun, Scientist (Germany) Stokely Carmichael, Civil Rights Activist (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago) Section 2 – Urbanization: Americans Migrate to the Cities – Immigrants with little money settled into cities – Rural Americans and farmers moved to the cities for better paying jobs and more opportunities. – Limited space meant building up, not out. • 1885 Chicago’s 10 story skyscraper built • New York City had more skyscrapers than any city in the world. • Elevated railroads and underground subway systems developed Separation by Class • High Society – Super rich, multiple mansions, many servants, luxurious lifestyle • Middle Class Gentility – Large home in suburbs, one or more servants, wife didn’t work. • Working Class – lived in tenements, both parents worked, kids worked too, little money left over • Urban Poor – lived on street or homemade shacks in back alleys, relied on charitable organizations for food Urban Problems Crime and Pollution • Crime • Fire • Pollution Machine Politics • • • – horse manure in streets • – Smoke, soot and ash from coal and wood fires • • Disease – Typhoid fever – cholera Political Machines Party Bosses Fraud and Graft Tammany Hall William “Boss” Tweed George Plunkett and Machine Politics When George Plunkett died in 1924 he was eulogized this way; “He understood that in politics honesty doesn't matter, efficiency doesn't matter, progressive vision doesn't matter. What does matter is the chance for a better job, a better price of wheat, better business conditions." Cartooning for Justice Thomas Nast’s attack on the Tweed Ring in the pages of Harper’s Weekly contributed most to Nast’s fame as a political cartoonist. As head of the New York Commission of Public Works, “Boss” Tweed gave contracts to his cronies in return for “kickbacks.” An audit of a city account later disclosed that Tweed’s gang stole $200 million from New York’s citizens. Among the gang’s notorious tactics in draining the city’s funds were billing the city $50,000 a day for a plasterer’s wages and charging $180,000 for three tables and forty chairs. Tweed attempted to use bribery to “silence” cartoonist Nast, but his tactics were unsuccessful. Tweed and his cronies were ultimately convicted and forced from office. Tweed was sentenced to a one-year jail term, but his unsavory saga did not conclude there. Tweed fled to Spain and attempted to hide out there. However, he was eventually extradited and imprisoned. Examine the two cartoon depicting Boss Tweed and then answer the following questions: Who are the three figures in the cartoon on the right? What is the center figure doing? Why has Nast drawn the figures in this cartoon of such differing sizes? What actions do the two frames of the cartoon on the left depict? What are the woman, child and baby suffering from and who might they be? Why might cartoons like these have prompted Boss Tweed to say, “I don’t care a straw for your newspaper articles; y people don’t know how to read, but they can’t help seeing them…pictures?” Cartooning for Justice Political Cartoon Assignment Bring in a recent political cartoon from a newspaper or on-line source that is related to a current politician or the United States government. Interpret the meaning of the cartoon and explain the symbolism and stereotypes being used. Do you agree or disagree with the cartoon? Why? Attach the cartoon to a piece of loose-leaf paper, along with your written responses. Due Filthy Cities – New York Dan Snow gets down and dirty in the murky history of New York, exploring its filthy history from the bottom up. Industrial New York: Dan Snow travels back to a seething Manhattan in the throes of the industrial revolution. Millions fled persecution, poverty and famine in Europe in the 19th century in search of the Promised Land. When they arrived what they found was even worse than what they’d left behind. New York was a city consumed by filth and corruption, its massive immigrant population crammed together in the slums of Lower Manhattan. As you watch the show, take notes on the specific challenges faced by the city and the newly arriving immigrants. Also note the ways the city and its residents tried to solve these challenges. Yes, this is for a grade. Section 3 – The Gilded Age • Individualism – abilities will allow for success • Naturalism – failure can be out of your control • Social Darwinism – “Survival of the fittest” • Gospel of Wealth – Help people help themselves – Schools, hospitals, libraries, etc… • The Social Gospel – Salvation Army, YMCA, settlement houses – Jane Adams – Hull House Section 3 Assignment • Read section 3, pages 230 – 232 and 236 – 239 1. Make and complete a chart similar to the one below. Main Idea Positives Negatives Social Darwinism Gospel of Wealth Social Gospel 2. Write a paragraph explaining which social theory you think is best and why. Section 5 – The Rise of Segregation • Exodusters head to Kansas • Imposing Segregation – Poll Tax – Literacy tests – “grandfather clause” – Jim Crow Laws • Plessy v. Ferguson 1892 -“Separate but Equal” • The African American Response – Booker T. Washington – compromise & education – W.E.B. Du Bois – activism & change now Chapter 6 Study Guide • How did Booker T. Washington think African– Americans should work to end discrimination? • How did W.E.B. DuBois think African-Americans should work to end discrimination? • What issue did Jacob Riis think was a problem for society? • How did immigration patterns change between 1870 and 1900? • What organization did nativists fear would gain too much power because of immigration? Chapter 6 Study Guide continued • What did organizations like the Salvation Army and the YMCA offer to the urban poor? • How did Tammany Hall operate? • What were “streetcar suburbs”? • What “pulled” many Chinese immigrants to the United States? • What were the main ideas of Social Darwinism? • What were the main ideas of the Gospel of Wealth? • What were the main ideas of the Social Gospel? Chapter 6 Study Guide continued • • • • What function did Ellis and Angel Island serve? What was the philosophy of Individualism? What was the philosophy of Naturalism? What did immigrants receive from political machines in exchange for their votes? • Why were subway systems initially developed? • What was the main goal of nativists? • Why were skyscrapers developed and what was the first one like? Chapter 6 Study Guide continued • Why did labor unions oppose immigration? • Why was the Workingman’s Party formed? • Who was William “Boss” Tweed and what happened to him? • What “push” factors brought many immigrants to the United States? • What “pull” factors brought many immigrants to the United States? • What problems existed in cities and what caused those problems?