Ch 34
Section 1
Congress Party
Who: Hindus & Muslims
What: India’s national political party
Where: India
When: 1940s
Why: India had 350mill Hindus & 150 mill
Muslims; most of Congress party were Hindu,
but some Muslim; advocated for
independence against GB & fought for Indian
Mohandas Gandhi
• Who: leader of the Congress party
• What: launched the 1st nonviolent campaign for
• Where: India
• When: 1920s
• Why: his ideas inspired Indians of all ethnic,
religious backgrounds to achieve independence;
he puts the thoughts of independence in Indians’
heads; a Hindu who doesn’t like his peacefulness
b.n Hindus & Muslims extremist assassinated him
in 1948
1. What were the major concerns of
the Muslim league?
• They thought that the mainly Hindu Congress
party looked out primarily for Hindu interests,
not Muslim interests
• Wanted to ensure a safe & secure region for
Muslim League
• Who: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Indian Muslims
• What: an organization founded to help protect
Muslim interests; rival group to the Congress
• When: 1906
• Where: India
• Why: they felt the Congress party only looked out
for the Hindus; they stated they would never
accept independence if it meant rule by the
Hindu-dominated Congress party
2. What problems had to be resolved
in the months prior to independence?
• Division of India- who should be in power?
How should we divide the land? Where would
ppl go and how would the gov’t be run?
• Who: British officials, Muslims & Hindus
• What: the term given to the division of India
into 2 separate Hindu and Muslim nations
• Where: India & Pakistan
• When: 1946
• Why: British officials were convinced that
partition was the only way to ensure a safe
region; the NW & Eastern regions of India
where most Muslims lived = Pakistan
3. What were the terms of the cease
• 1/3 of Kashmir under Pakistan control & the
rest under Indian control
4. How did Nehru contribute to India’s
• He led new independent nations in neutral
• He industrialized
• Pushed for social reform
• Expanded human & women’s rights
Jawaharlal Nehru
• Who: Prime Minister
• What: the independent nation of India’s first Prime
• Where: India
When: 1947-1964
• Why: he was one of Gandhi’s devoted followers;
he led other newly independent nations of the
world in following an alliance of countries that
were neutral in the Cold War; he pushed for
industrialization & sponsored social reforms; he
tried to elevate the lower castes; his death left the
Congress party w. no strong leader= divisions in
5. What events led to the creation of
E. Pakistan was hit by huge tidal wave
W. Pakistan didn’t transfer aid quickly enough
Demonstrations broke outCivil war in Pakistan
2 separate nations
6. What major problem did Indira
Gandhi face?
• Disarming the Tamil rebels
• Challenges from Sikh extremists that wanted
to be an independent state
Indira Gandhi
Who: Nehru’s daughter, Prime minister
What: took control of India after her father died
Where: India
Why: she faced many threats from Sikh
extremists & other political factions throughout
India; sent Indian troops to overrun Golden
Temple= killed 500 sikhs & destroyed sacred
property = assassinated by Sikhs in 1984
7. What was the cause of turmoil in Sri
• Group of militant Tamils fought for their own
country of Tamil
Benizir Bhutto
• Who: Bhutto’s daughter; Prime minister
• What: took over Pakistan after her father was
• Where: Pakistan
• When: 1970s- 1996
• Why: she was removed from office by a
military coup = the military rules Pakistan =
continues to struggle w. challenges from
Muslim militants & ongoing disputes w. India
Southeast Asia
Section 2
Bell Act
• Who: Americans & Filipinos
• What: established free trade b.n US & the
• Where: Philippines
• When: 1960s
• Why: this est. & had to be passed b4 the US
would pay the $620million in war damages it
promised to the Philippines; Filipinos were
worried that this would allow US to exploit their
resources- but they passed it anyway
a. Why did the Filipinos object to this
• Filipinos were worried that this would allow
US to exploit their resources
b. Why did they agree to sign it?
• To have free trade w. the US & get the $$ the
US promised them
Why did the US demand a long lease
on it’s military and naval bases in the
• To maintain military presence in Asia w. the
start of the Cold War
• To get valuable resources
Ferdinand Marcos
• Who: President of the Philippines
• What: President who imposed an authoritarian
regime & stole billions of $$ from Philippines
• Where: Philippines
• When: 1965-1986
• Why: stoles millions of $$ from public treasury;
limited to 8 years of presidential office but
imposed a law to keep power; an election brought
Corazon Aquino who challenged him- he refused to
acknowledge her victory = the public overthrew
him =he fled to Hawaii & died
3. Why does the Philippines restrict
the Pres. To a single term?
• To prevent the abuse of power that occurred
under Marcos’ rule
Corazon Aquino
• Who: Benigno Aquino’s widow, opponent to Marcos
• What: challenged Marcos to presidency of Philippines
& won
• Where: Philippines
• When: 1986
• Why: she won the presidency decisively- Marcos
refused to acknowledge it- he made a law to stay in
power = ppl were mad = kicked him out & made her
president; promised a more open & democratic form
of gov’t; ratified a new constitution; ended the lease
on US bases thru negotiation
4 A. What role did General Ne Win
play in Burmese history?
• Set up a military gov’t w. a goal to make a
socialist state
4B. What role did National League for
Democracy play in Burmese history?
• They won 80% of the seats in the 1990
election- but the military gov’t denies it
• = the military gov’t stayed in charge in Burma
Aung San Suu Kyi
• Who: daughter of Aung San, leader of National
League for Democracy
• What: was active in Nat’l League for Democracy
• When: 1988-2003
• Where: Burma, Southeast Asia
• Why: for her pro-Democracy activities she was
put on house arrest 2 separate times = left many
Burmese residents doubting whether their
country will ever accept democracy; military gov’t
5A. What’s the current political status
of Singapore?
• Independent city-state
5B. What’s the current political status
of Malaya? Sarawak & Sabah?
• United into a federation of what’s called
• Who: Indonesian President
• What: led the effort to establishing an independent
• Where: Indonesia
• When: 1949
• Why: he proclaimed Indonesia’s independence
from Netherlands & named himself president; a
guerilla army backed him up; the Dutch attempted
to regain control but after losing support of the US
the Dutch gave Indonesia it’s independence
• Who: General Suharto
• What: sought power for himself, began a bloodbath in
which 500,000 to 1 mill Indonesians were killed
• Where: Indonesia
• When: 1965-1998
• Why: named President in 1967; turned Indonesia into a
police state; heavily criticized; little tolerance for
religious freedoms; bribery & corruptioncommonplace; economy improved for awhile BUT
gov’t repression & economic crisis = forced him to step
down= then they moved towards Democracy
6. What factors finally forced Suharto
to step down?
• Growing unrest over both Gov’t repression &
a crippling Economic crisis
Sec 3
Negritude Movement
• Who: Africans & W. Indians
• What: a movement to celebrate African culture,
heritage, & values
• Where: Africa
• When: 1950-1960s
• Why: the Africans pushed for independence in the
decades b4 WWII; French speaking Africans & W.
Indians began to express their growing sense of
black consciousness & pride in traditional African;
when WWII broke out African soldiers fought w.
Europeans = after the war, they were unwilling to
accept colonial domination
1. Ghana
• Tactics used by Nkrumah: organized strikes &
• Nkrumah’s reforms: new roads, schools, &
expanded health facilities; Industrialization
• Problems: spending too much time on African
efforts & the expense of his programs
undermined the economy
Kwame Nkrumah
• Who: Ghana’s first Prime minister & president for life
• What: leader of Ghana’s nonviolent movement for
• Where: Ghana, West Africa
• When: 1947-1966
• Why: He worked to liberate Ghana from the British; he
organized strokes & boycotts = ultimately, they got
independence; he became leader of Ghana; pushed for
new roads, schools, health facilities, industrialized &
gave welfare = his programs were too $$ = crippled
Ghana’s economy= the army & police took control &
kicked him out of power
2. Kenya
• Tactics used by Mau Mau: Guerilla warfare
• Kenyatta’s reforms: unite countries of various
ethnic & language groups
• Problems: killed hundreds & left 1000s
homeless; corruption & ethnic conflicts
Jomo Kenyatta
• Who: African revolutionary; Kenyan
Nationalist & president
• What: promoted his beliefs & was put in jail
• Where: Kenya, Africa
• When: 1891-1978
• Why: got independence for Kenya; became
president; united many ethnic groups; after he
died- no one was as successful at governing
the country
3. Zaire
• How independence was gained: Belgium gave
it to them & then Mobutu seized power
• Mobutu’s rule: maintained control through
force; 1 party rule; gifts to supporters;
• Problems: overthrown by a rebel leader;
constant civil wars; promise of Democracy
never fulfilled
4. Algeria
• How was independence gained: Algerian
National Liberation Front (FLN) sent ½ mill
soldiers to fight against French colonists
• Ben Bella’s programs: attempted to make a
socialist state
• Problems: overthrown by his army
commander; unemployment; dissatisfaction
w. the govt
Ahmed Ben Bella
• Who: leader of FLN & president of Algeria
• What: became first president of newly
independent Algeria
• Where: Algeria, Africa
• When: 1962-1965
• Why: He attempted to make Algeria a socialist
state; overthrown in 1965 by his military
5. Angola
• How independence was gained: fighting & an
independence movement against Portugal
• Causes of Civil war: Communist- Leaning
MPLA declared itself the new nation’s rightful
govt = rebel groups fought for power = civil
• Other problems: various rebel groups fought
for power; abandoned case-fire agreements =
continued war
Middle East
Section 4
1. Britain issues the Balfour
• Causes: Sir Arthur Balfour promoted the idea
of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine
• Effects: hostility between Palestinians & Jews
continued to grow
2. Independent Israel is created
• Causes: The UN voted for a partition of
Palestine into a Palestinian state & a Jewish
• Effects: the new nation of Israel got a hostile
greeting from it’s neighbors- the day after it
proclaimed itself a state- six Islamic states (
Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, &
Syria) invaded Israel = Arab-Israeli war
3. The 1956 Arab-Israeli war breaks
• Causes: Israel became an independent nation
& 6 Islamic states invaded; Israel claimed
lands that Arabs felt should have exclusively
been Arab
• Effects: 1956 Suez crisis occurred which led to
Israel & Europe withdrawing from Egypt; the
expansion of Israeli boundaries
4. 1967 6 day war began
• Causes: Arabs were about to attack w. Soviet
help; Israelis were convinced the Arabs were
about to attack so they struck airfields in
surrounding Islamic countries
• Effects: Israel defeated Arabs & Arabs lost
15000 ppl
Anwar Sadat
• Who: Egyptian president
• What: planned a joint Arab attack on Yom Kippur
(Jewish holiday)
• Where: Egypt
• When: 1973
• Why: the Israelis were caught by surprise; Arab forces
inflicted heavy casualties and recaptured some of their
territory lost in 1967; both sides agreed to a truce
several weeks after fighting; 1977-he stunned the world
by extending a hand to Israel- the first Arab country to
do so =historic opportunity for peace; signed the Camp
David Accords= ended 30 years of hostility
Golda Meir
• Who: Israel’s prime minister
• What: launched a counter attack against Egypt
(Arabs, Anwar Sadat) in the Yom Kippur War
• Where: Israel
• When: 1967
• Why: he regained territory they had lost to
Egpyt; agreed to a truce w. Anwar Sadat
5. The 1973 Yom Kippur war begins
• Causes: conflicts b.n Arabs & Jewish Israel
• Effects: Israel regained territory it had lost
previously; Egypt & Israel signed a truce
Who: Palestinians
What: Palestine Liberation Organization
Where: Palestine
When: 1964
Why: this organization pushed for the formation
of a Palestinian state; made up of different
groups- guerilla fighters, laborers, teachers, etc. ;
guerillas took over the organization and said the
only way to get what they wanted was through
armed struggle
Yasir Arafat
• Who: chairman of PLO
• What: his group carried out numerous attacks
against Israel in order to form their own
Palestinian state
• Where: Israel & Palestine
• When: 1960s, 1970s
• Why: his attacks on Israel & Arabs gave
Palestine it’s own state
6. Sadat & Begin sign the Camp David
• Causes: Arabs wanted permission to nuke
Israel; Israel wanted Egypt to recognize them
as their own independent state
• Effects: ended 30 years of hostilities b.n Egypt
& Israel and became the first signed
agreement b.n Israel & an Arab country
Camp David Accords
Who: Jimmy Carter, Sadat, & Begin
What: a signed agreement
Where: Camp David, USA
When: 1978-1979
Why: ended 30 years of hostilities b.n Egypt &
Israel and became the first signed agreement
b.n Israel & an Arab country
• Who: Palestinians
• What: Palestinians began to express their
frustration in a widespread campaign of civil
disobedience or uprising (called Intifada)
• Where: Gaza Strip, occupied by Israel
• When: 1987- 1990s
• Why: they took the form of boycotts,
demonstrations, & attacks on Israeli soldiers;
cont’d thru the 1990sw little progress; this affected
world opinion which put pressure on Israel to
negotiate peace w. Palestinians
Oslo Peace Accords
• Who: Palestinians
• What: document called the Declaration of
Principles from secret talks held in Norway about
Israeli-Palestinian peace
• When: 1993
• Where: about Israel, held in Norway
• Why: Israel agreed to grant Palestinians self-rule
in Gaza strip and the West Bank; the Prime
Minister of Israel was assassinated afterwards by
an extremist that was against Palestinians =there
was still difficulties
7. Rabin & Arafat issue Declaration of
• Causes: Palestine territories occupied by Israel
were a bitterly divided issue
• Effects: Israel agreed to grant Palestinians selfrule on Gaza Strip; Israeli Prime minister was
Central Asia Struggles
Sec 5
Transcaucasian Republics
• Who: Central Asians
• What: 3 nations that lie in the Caucusus
Mountains b.n the Black & Caspian Seas
• Where: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia
• When: 1991-present
• Why: they have a lot of oil & natural gas fluids
that the Soviets want which led to a solid
economy; with the fall of the Soviet Union &
Communism = these nations separated from the
USSR & formed their own republic = they had a
difficult time standing on their own w.o SU help =
dependent on the SU even after independence
Central Asian Republics
• Who: Central Asians
• What: 5 nations that are east of the Caspian Sea &
extended into Pamir Mountains
• Where: Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikstan, Kazakhstan,
• When: 1991-present
• Why: with the fall of the Soviet Union & Communism =
these nations separated from the USSR & formed their
own republic = they had a difficult time standing on their
own w.o SU help = dependent on the SU even after
independence; they’ve struggled economically & are now
some of the poorest countries in the world; prob stems
from reliance on SU
1. Since gaining independence, why
have the nations of Central Asia
struggled economically?
• Because of their heavy reliance on the Soviet
Union for economic help
• Dependence on one crop hurt development of
a balanced economy
• Soviet Union converted a lot of farmland to
grow all cotton
2. Why have many regional wars been
fought in Central Asia?
• It’s a mixing pot of different religions and
ethnicities that don’t like each other
• Soviet Union prevented hostilities from
breaking out = When SU was no longer in
charge = hostilities broke out into wars
3. During the 1800s, why did GB want
to gain control over Afghanistan?
• To protect the northern borders of it’s Indian
• Why did Russia want control over this region?
– They wanted access to the Indian Ocean for a
warm-water port so they could trade all year long
4. Why did the Soviet Union invade
Afghanistan in 1979?
• To conquer the country and add it to their
Soviet/Communist Empire
• There was a rebellion & Soviet Union needed
to step in
• Who: Afghan holy warriors
• What: a group of Afghans in opposition to the Soviet
control of Afghanistan
• Where: Afghanistan
• When: 1979-1980
• Why: these rebels fought fiercely against the Soviet
government; they felt that Communist policies
conflicted w. the teachings of Islam; the Soviet
government w. its superior military was not able to put
down the rebellion b..c the Afghans used guerilla
tactics & the US provided $$$ = the SU withdrew
troops = the Mujahideen won
• Who: Afghan rebel group
• What: conservative Islamic Afghan rebel group that
wanted control of Afghanistan
• Where: Afghanistan
• When: 1998-now
• Why: leaders restricted women’s lives by forbidding
them to go to school or jobs; they banned everything
from tv, movies, and modern music; breaking these
rules= beatings or death; this group played a role in
world terrorism- 9/11 = US eventually kicked them outta
power in the war; they fought other Afghan groups for
control of Afghanistan & won- controlled 90% of the
Osama Bin Laden
• Who: terrorist leader of the Al-Qaeda
• What: responsible for numerous attacks on the
West including 9/11 World Trade Centers &
• Where: Afghanistan
• When: 1957-2011
• Why: after the 9/11 attacks, the Taliban refused
to give him up to the USA = US bombed Al-Qaeda
airfields & training camps = US drove the Taliban
from power = US captured Bin Laden in 2011 &
executed him
5. How did rule by the Taliban affect
• Brought order to the war torn nation
• Followed an extreme interpretation of Islamic
law & applied it to every aspect of Afghan
– Restrictive of women banned media
– Punished ppl severely
– Supported terrorism
– #6 I will give in class tomorrow.. Before your test

Decolonization - wilsonworldhistory1213