What does “gilded” mean? It’s an artistic technique of applying metal powder or ultra-thin pieces of metal (leaf) to another surface—usually something much less expensive that the metal itself, like wood, stone, plaster, or cheaper metals. http://www.superiorsigndesigns.com/windows_files/gold_leaf_vinyl_sample.jpg http://site.richardrothstein.com/images/slideshows/gold-leaf.jpg What does “progressive” mean? It describes ideas and actions that are meant to modernize life and to make gradual but important improvements or reforms. Improvements or reforms of what? The national or local economy, politics, social and moral behaviors. Why? To reduce waste and inefficiency; to decrease or eliminate disease, crime, poverty, and ignorance. http://www.thedctraveler.com/files/2008/02/c ocain-toothache-drops-flickr-dklimke.jpg http://www.motherjones.com/files/images/car ry-nation-inline.jpg http://www.shorpy.com/files/images/03871u2 _0.jpg The Gilded Age (1878-1889 ): a time of explosive industrial growth and expansion dominated by the growth of big business, expansion west, transportation improvements, and improved communication. These features were the “gilding” or glitter of the time. The Progressive Era (1890-1913): a time of economic, political, social, and moral reform aimed at fixing the problems that plagued the Gilded Age. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/comm ons/7/7f/The_Breakers_rear.jpg http://www.wrightinwisconsin.org/WrightAnd Like/2009/Bradley%20House.JPG Social Darwinism: Based on Charles Darwin’s concept of “survival of the fittest,” social Darwinists believed that being poor was the result of being genetically inferior. Why does it matter? Many Social Darwinists thought that criminal behavior, health, and intelligence were all connected to genetic makeup. This conflicted with ideas of Progressives. http://blogs.njit.edu/ajz4/files/2009/10/eug231.jpg http://blogs.njit.edu/ajz4/files/2009/10/eugenics11.jpg Corporation: a business formed for profit by the people who own it to be a separate legal entity from those people. It may be publicly or privately owned. Monopoly: when an industry is controlled and/or owned entirely by one company. http://www.wilogo.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/09/histoire_logo_ibm.png http://rvanhandel.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/monopo ly1.jpg Trust: when a few companies make an agreement to work together to control an industry. Tenement: an apartment or dwelling that is run down and poorly maintained and home to poor, working-class families. http://apus-0607.wikispaces.com/file/view/CartoonStdOil.JPG http://www.uiowa.edu/policult/assets/Depr ession_antiPoverty/hine_tenement.jpg Transportation: Railroads expand! 1860—30,000 miles of track 1870—52,000 miles of track 1880—93,000 miles of track 1890—163,000 miles of track 1900—193,000 miles of track • Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869. Communication: Telegraph and Telephone • Telegraph makes communication faster and more efficient across the country and around the world. • Telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, and was in use by the 1890s. The modern corporation emerges: corporations had existed since the colonial period, but following the Civil War, corporations began to sell stock to the public in order to finance their businesses and large projects The first corporations: railroad companies were the first to incorporate in large numbers Others incorporate: Soon other industries such as steel, mining, meatpacking, and manufacturers created corporations ANDREW CARNEGIE Scottish immigrant and owner of Carnegie Steel Corporation Net worth in 2007 dollars: $298.3 billion JP MORGAN American Financier and Banker Net worth in 2007 dollars: $1.42 billion JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER Owner of Standard Oil Company Net worth in 2007 dollars: $318.3 billion Steel and elevators develop: these developments led to the creation of skyscrapers, allowing the city to grow up instead of out. Subways, Elevated Trains, Cable Cars and Trolleys: All developed to help transport people around increasingly growing and developing cities. Electricity changed life in cities dramatically: The phonograph is invented in 1877 and in 1879 the light bulb is invented. The First Skyscraper: Home Insurance Building, Chicago http://ecuip.lib.uchicago.edu/diglib/social /chi1919/dline/d1/hib.bmp.gif Edison’s Phonograph, 1877 http://www.gutenberg.org/files/16593/16593h/images/image_196.jpg http://www.brooklynrail.net/images/historic_brooklyn/Trolley/ coneyislandandbrooklynrr747.JPG Brooklyn’s first Trolley (upper picture) and the New York subway in 1871 (lower picture) http://amny.image2.trb.com/amnynews/me dia/photo/2004-10/1470844.jpg Lewis Howard Latimer: • Granville Woods: • Created a new and improved filament for Edison’s light bulb. Created the electric incubator, electro-magnetic brakes for trains, and an automatic circuit breaker. Henry Ford: • In the 1890s, Henry Ford began experimenting with a gas-powered automobile engine • By 1908, his famous Model T rolled off the assembly line. Henry Ford’s Model T http://www.uh.edu/engines/model-t.gif Incomes Rise: Almost at every level people were making more money. While not everyone was rich like Carnegie, Rockefeller, and Morgan, this increase in wages earned created the middle class. Jobs of the middle class: middle class workers were typically clerks, accountants, middle managers, doctors, lawyers, and in other “white collar” positions. The middle class as consumers: with the mass production of goods, came a new consumer culture. Products such as ready-made clothes and machinemade furniture resulted in lower prices making nice things available to more people. Shopping: with the new consumer culture came the development of department stores and mail order catalogues. • F.W. Woolworth opened in 1879 • Montgomery Ward opened in 1872 • Sears Roebuck opened in 1887 • Macy’s opened in NY • Filene’s opened in Boston • Wanamaker’s opened in Philadelphia http://newyorksocialdiary.com/socialdiary/2 006/08_09_06/images/helenhaywhitney.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ef/John_Singer_Sargent.jpg Macy’s New York http://blog.kir.com/archives/images/macys-new-york-city-store.jpg 1897 Sears Roebuck and Co. Catalogue https://store.nysha.org/files/images/products/sears_catalog001.jpg Sports: with more leisure time formal sporting events and new games developed • Baseball develops into the national pastime: The Cincinnati Red Stockings is created, 1869 1903-First modern World Series • Football, Boxing, and Basketball also develop into popular spectator sports. The Cincinnati Red Stockings http://baseballcardslive.com/wpcontent/uploads/1869HarpersWeeklyBaseballRedStockings.jpg Other Forms of Entertainment: Theatre, Italian Operas, Musical Comedies, Vaudeville (variety shows), movie theaters, and nickelodeons all appeared. Literature: Mark Twain wrote The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Stephen Crane wrote The Red Badge of Courage, and Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle. • Literature began to focus on the social problems of the day. For example, Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle focused on the poor sanitation of the meat packing industry. http://darkartsmedia.com/vaudeville.jpg Vaudeville Show http://countafitt.tripod.com/progressive_ag e/jungle.jpg Nickelodeon http://www.lambertcastle.org/nickelodeon.jpg Free Public Secondary Education: The number of public high schools grew during the Gilded Age. By 1900 there were 6,000 public high schools. Carlisle Indian Industrial School (Penn): a school that emphasized a practical “industrial” education for Native Americans. The school also sought to “civilize” them. Colleges and Universities: Land Grant Colleges were created beginning in the 1860s. Education for Women: In the 1880s many women’s colleges began emerging. Vassar, Wellesley, Smith, Bryn Mawr, Wells, and Goucher all opened their doors This student attended the Carlisle Indian Industrial School and was “civilized.” http://explorepahistory.com/images/ExplorePAHistory-a0j6u5-a_349.jpg Vassar College http://nyshei.files.wordpress.com/2007/04/vassar-library.jpg Wellesley College http://www.stateuniversity.com/assets/logo/image/3925/large/ campus.jpg Monopolies and trusts develop: • In order to control their industries, corporations began to consolidate or to make deals with one another in order to make as much money as possible. • These monopolies and trusts made it so that no small businesses could compete in the market. • While the business owners made large amounts of money, that money did not trickle down to the average worker. This political cartoon is a comment on the oil monopoly controlled by Standard Oil. John D. Rockefeller’s corporation is taking over the country by capturing competitors as well as the government. http://www.matternetwork.com/images/Matter/Standard_oil_600.jpg Workers in factories faced many dangers and hardships • Machinery was loud and dangerous • Accidents were common Steel workers were burned from hot steel Coal miners died in cave-ins Textile (cloth) workers suffered lung problems because of the fibers they inhaled. Garment workers suffered in sweatshops with poor lighting and little ventilation • 10 to 12 hour work days • Low pay Women workers: • By 1900, more than a million women worked in industry • Women earned about half what men earned doing the same task Child labor was common • Laborers were not supposed to be younger than 10 or 12, but children much younger could be found in factories Child Labor in Factories http://www.fundamentalfinance.com/images/child-labor.jpg http://www2.potsdam.edu/gonosgc/child_labor.jpg http://www.ukuleleman.net/uploaded_images/child%20Mill%20Labor-777308.jpg Besides the dangers of their work, the working class could only afford to live in cramped and unsanitary conditions in tenements. There were many health problems in these areas. Many died of whooping cough, diphtheria, and measles. Tuberculosis was common as well. Poverty also led to more crime. Orphaned children became pick-pockets and gangs formed in urban areas. http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/cp/vox-pop/images/gny3.jpg http://www.brinklindsey.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/riis-2.gif http://www.brinklindsey.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/06/riis1.thumbnail.jpg http://www.eastmeadow.info/booksimages/tenement.gif Business was booming… at the same time, so was political corruption. Political Machines: Powerful organizations linked to political parties that controlled government in many cities. Corrupt Politicians: These political bosses accepted bribes from tenement slumlords to overlook the poor conditions, received campaign contributions from contractors hoping to do business, and accepted “kickbacks.” Boss Tweed: The most famous of the political bosses, he “owned” politics in New York City with the help of his “Tweed Ring” or his network of city officials. Boss Tweed http://nhs.needham.k12.ma.us/cur/Sintros3/SpoilsSystem/Boss_Tweed.JPG In the mid-1880s, immigration to the U.S. began to surge once again. New Immigrants were from southern and eastern Europe. Because they did not speak English nor did they have similar customs and cultures to other Americans, they had a hard time assimilating. Immigrants settled in large cities worked in the booming factory system for low wages and lived in the tenements. Nativism: This movement was aimed to favor the native citizens and to prohibit further immigration of “inferior” Europeans. Solving the Problems of Progress: Although the Gilded Age created many opportunities and progress, there were equally as many problems. As the 19th century ended, people began to try to fix these problems. Socialists: Socialists believed that all of the nation’s resources and industry should be owned and operated by the government to avoid the poverty that was growing. The leader of the socialists was Eugene V. Debs. Progressives: While this group was also alarmed by the wealth of so few and the poverty of the many, they rejected socialism. Instead they supported government efforts to reform industry and society. Also, this group formed community organizations to help remedy other problems. Muckrakers: These journalists were progressive reformers who sought to expose injustice and corruption. They were called “muckrakers” because they raked up the muck or dirt and corrupt of politics and society. Famous Muckrakers: • Lincoln Steffens—Exposed Corrupt Political Machines • Ida Tarbell—Exposed the Oil Trust • Upton Sinclair—Exposed the Meat Packing Industry Muckraking Leaders Lincoln Steffens http://media-2.web.britannica.com/ebmedia/16/26116-004-2553E2AB.jpg Ida Tarbell http://www.aliciapatterson.org/APF1804/Weinb erg/Weinberg01.jpg Upton Sinclair http://media.photobucket.com/image/ Upton%20Sinclair/PhotozOnline/Upton _Sinclair_Seated_Writing.jpg Labor Organizations: Unions develop to help combat poor working conditions and low wages. Knights of Labor: A union of garment cutters established in 1869. The union when national under the leadership of Terrance V. Powderly. American Federation of Labor: This union was created in 1881 and represented workers of various crafts. Samuel Gompers led the group and helped to fight for higher wages, shorter working hours and better conditions. The group established collective bargaining. Strikes: Strikes were the major tool of the union. By ceasing work, the strikers were hoping to force employers to meet their demands. Founders of the Knights of Labor http://media.photobucket.com/image/knights%20of%20labor/midt owng/KoL.jpg AFL Seal http://staff.harrisonburg.k12.va.us/~cwalton/solpracticetests/USHistory/AFL.jpg The Pullman Strike, Illinois http://www.press.uchicago.edu/Images/Chicago/knight01.jpeg Political Reform: The federal government passed legislation to end trusts and monopolies. Also political parties such as the Populists developed to fight for the common people. Conservation: The nation’s first conservation efforts began during the progressive era with the creation of national parks such as Yellowstone and Yosemite. Social Work: This work included helping immigrants assimilate, meeting the needs of the poor, and bettering living conditions. Farmers’ Unions: The Grange was established to offer farmers education, fellowship, and support. The group also fought against corrupt railroad pricing. Temperance: Groups of women (and men) who fought to make alcohol illegal. Suffrage: Woman fought for the right to vote. Women’s Clubs: Groups of women who worked to bring culture throughout America. As a group, you are going to learn about nation and local efforts to reform during the progressive era. Consider what role women played in these reforms, what they were trying to reform, how wide-spread these reforms were, and the successes and/or failures of these reforms. Appleby, Joyce, et. al. Discovering Our Past: The American Journey to World War I. New York: McGraw Hill Glencoe, 2006. Brinkley, Alan. American History, A Survey vol. II, 10th ed. Boston: McGraw Hill, 1999.