A. The Bismarckian System
1.
Systems of alliances
2.
New unified GR upset
balance of power
3.
1873 - Three Emperor’s’
League: GR, A-H, RS
B. The Balkans: Decline of
Ottoman Power
1. Decline of Ottoman Empire, Rise of Nationalism
2. A-H & RS both want territory
3. Conflict in 1876 – Serbia & Montenegro declare war
on Ottomans
4. 1878 - Treaty of San Stefano
5. 1878 - Congress of Berlin
C. New Alliances
1. RS ended Three Emperors’ League in 1879
2. 1879 – Bismarck makes alliance with A-H
3. 1881 – GR forms secret alliances with A-H & RS =
Alliance of Three Emperors
4. 1882 – Italy joins GR & A-H = Triple Alliance of 1882
5. 1887 – RS declined to renew alliance, Bismarck
suggested RS-GR Reinsurance Treaty
6. 1890 – Emperor William II dismissed Bismarck
D. New Directions and New
Crises
1.
William II dropped
Reinsurance Treaty
2.
1894 – Alliance between
FR & RS
3.
GR policies pushed BR
away
4.
1905 – GR upset over FR
expansion into Morocco
5.
1907 – Triple Entente of
BR, FR, RS
E. Crisis in the Balkans,
1908-1913
1.
Bosnian Crisis of 19081909 - Austria annexed
Bosnia & Herzegovina
2.
RS threatened war
against A-H
3.
1912 – First Balkan War
– Serbia, Bulgaria,
Montenegro & Greece
formed Balkan League,
defeated Ottomans
4. 1913 – Second Balkan War –
Greece, Serbia, Romania &
Ottomans against Bulgaria
5. London Conference –
Arranged by A-H after
Balkan Wars, created
independent Albania
6. Europe on the brink of war
F. Outbreak of War
1.
Increasing tension in
Balkans
2.
Assassination of Francis
Ferdinand June 28, 1914 in
Sarajevo
3.
Heir to A-H throne with
wife Sophia
4.
Assassinated by Serbian
revolutionaries – “Black
Hand”
5. A-H wanted revenge – delivered ultimatum to
Serbia
6. GR’s “Blank check”
7. A-H declared war on Serbia July 28, 1914
G. Declarations of War
1.
Military war plans aggravated diplomatic and political
decisions
2.
July 29, 1914 – Tsar Nicholas II ordered full mobilization of RS
army
3.
Aug.1, 1914 – GR declares war on RS
4.
Schlieffen Plan
5.
Aug. 2, 1914 – GR sends ultimatum to BLG demanding right
to march thru
6.
Aug. 3, 1914 – GR declares war on FR
7.
Aug. 4, 1914 – GB declares war on GR
8.
All great powers of EU entered war
H. Contributing Factors
1. Nationalism  competition instead of cooperation
2. Internal Dissent  not every ethnic group had its own
nation-state, growing Socialist labor movements
3. Militarism  growth of mass armies, military influence in
politics
4. A-H’s desperation to survive  rash decisions
5. GR expanded small war into big war  invasion of BLG
Study Questions
1.
How did Bismarck’s system of alliances help maintain peace?
How did Kaiser William II’s actions destabilize Bismarck’s
system?
2.
Discuss the diplomatic developments that led to the creation of
two rival blocks of power in Europe by 1914.
3.
What role did nationalism play in the outbreak of the First World
War? What impact did the Congress of Berlin (1878) have on the
Balkan area? What were the origins and causes of the Third
Balkan War in 1914?
4.
Which of the major powers do you believe was most responsible
and least responsible for the war? Explain.