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The story is set on a farm in England. The
historical events referred to in the allegory
actually took place in Russia in the first half
of the twentieth century. By setting the fable
in his own country, however, Orwell makes it
clear that his themes are universal. What
happened in Russia could just as easily
happen in anyone’s backyard.
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Mr. Jones –
Owns the Manor Farm
Is a drunkard who mismanages his farm
Represents the last Czar of Russia
Old Major –
Is a wise and benevolent prize boar.
Is highly respected by the animals.
Is a visionary dreamer and philosopher
Is the author of the Beast of England
Dies three days after revealing his dream
Represents Marx and Lenin.
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SnowballIs a great planner and organizer.
Speaks well
Is considered by the others not to have depth of
character.
Tries to implement Old Major’s ideas.
Represents Trotsky
Napoleon –
Is a large fierce-looking boar
Is not a talker but is used to getting his own way
Is secretive, ruthless, and cunning
Is considered by others to have depth of character
Represents Stalin
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Squealer – is a small fat pig with twinkling
eyes and round cheeks, who moves nimbly
and has a shrill voice.
Is a brilliant and persuasive talker.
Is Napoleon’s spokesman and propagandist.
Boxer – is a tall, strong cart horse.
Is loyal and hard-working.
Is well-meaning but not very intelligent.
Coins the slogans “I will work harder” and “If
Comrade Napoleon says it, it must be right.”
Represents the unthinking working class.
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Benjamin – is a donkey
Is the worst-tempered and the oldest animal
on the farm
Is a loner who keeps his opinions to himself
Is a skeptical of change
Never laughs
Is a hard worker who never shirks his duties
but never volunteers
Knows how to read but says there is nothing
worth reading
Says “Donkeys live a long time”
Is devoted to Boxer
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Clover – is a hard-working mare
Is not very intelligent
Is loving and maternal toward the other
animals
Is the only animal whose thoughts are revealed
Mollie – is a vain white mare.
Enjoys pretty ribbons, sugar, and human
attention
Is the only animal to leave the farm willingly
May symbolize the White Russians, who posed
the Red Army during the civil war
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Muriel – is a white goat
Is a good reader
Moses – is a raven
Was Mr. Jones’s pet
Flees with Jones but is later welcomed back by
the pigs
Is given beer by the pigs, even though he
does not work.
Soothes the animals with his story of
Sugarcandy Mountain
Represents the Russian Orthodox Church and
religious institutions in general
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Minimus – is a pig who composes songs and
poems honoring Napoleon.
The sheep – bleat whatever slogan they are
taught by the pigs.
Represent the unthinking masses
The Dogs – are vicious killers who protect the
pigs and do their bidding.
Represent Stalin’s secret police.
Mr. Pilkington – owns the neighboring Foxwood
Farm.
Spends too much time fishing and hunting to
run his farm efficiently
Represents England and the Allies
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Mr. Frederick –
Owns the neighboring Pinchfield Farm
Cheats Napoleon and leads a disastrous attack
on the farm.
Represents Germany.
Mr. WhymperIs a lawyer who serves as an intermediary
between Napoleon and the outside world.
Is sly and self-serving.
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Ensconced – settled comfortably
Tushes – tusks
Knacker – horse slaughterer
Trotter – pig’s foot
Dissentients – those who disagree
Mangel-wurzels – large beets
Vivacious – lively
Expounded – explained
Gambolled – skipped playfully
Scullery – kitchen storage area
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Chapter 1 – Old Major reveals his dream. The
animals learn Beasts of England.
Chapter 2 – Old Major dies. The animals drive
out Mr. Jones. “The Manor” Farm becomes
“Animal Farm.” The Seven Commandments of
Animalism are written by the pigs.
Chapter 3 – The animals run the farm.
Snowball organizes committees. Napoleon
educates the puppies.
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Chapter IV
 Mr.
Jones tries to recapture
the farm, but he and the
other farmers are driven off
in the Battle of Cowshed
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Chapter V
 Snowball
proposes a windmill.
Napoleon signals the dogs to
drive Snowball away.
 Napoleon cancels Sunday
debates and announces that
the windmill will be built after
all.
 Chapter
VI
 Napoleon announces trade with
the humans
 The pigs move into the
farmhouse
 Napoleon blames Snowball for
the collapse of the windmill
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Chapter VII
The hens protest when Napoleon
decides to sell their eggs.
 Squealer tells the animals that Snowball
was in league with Mr. Jones from the
start.
 The dogs kill Napoleon’s enemies and
some self-confesses traitors.
 Napoleon abolishes the singing of
Beasts of England.
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Chapter VIII
Mr. Frederick pays for the pile of timber
with forged banknotes.
 Mr. Frederick and the other farmers
attack the farm and destroy the windmill
but are driven off by the animals in the
Battle of the Windmill.
 The pigs celebrate their “victory” by
getting drunk.
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Chapter IX
Boxer collapses and is taken away by
the slaughterer
 Squealer says that Boxer died in the
hospital
 The pigs hold a memorial banquet for
themselves in Boxer’s honor.
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Chapter X
Few animals remain who remember life
before the rebellion.
 The pigs walk on hind legs, carry
whips, and become indistinguishable
from humans.
 “Animal Farm” becomes “The Manor
Farm.”
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