Chapter 22: The Development of U.S.
Foreign Policy
Flags from:
www.fotw.net
Section 2: Shared Foreign Policy Powers
Presidential Powers & Responsibilities
1.
Constitutional Powers
Commander-in-Chief
Head of State
What foreign policy powers does the
President have as Head of State?
Pictures from www.whitehouse.gov
2.
Section 2: Shared Foreign Policy Powers
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Foreign Policy Advisors
Secretary of State
Hillary Clinton
1.
Secretary of Defense
Robert Gates
2.
3.
National Security Advisor
General (ret.) James Jones
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Section 3: State & Defense Departments
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Department of State
created in 1789
Secretary of State is the
highest ranking member
of the Cabinet.
State Departments
“primary objective in the
conduct of foreign
relations is to promote
the long-range security &
well-being of the United
States.”
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Section 3: State & Defense Departments
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1)
2)
3)
4)
Department of State has four other important functions:
Keep president informed about international relations
To maintain diplomatic relations with foreign
governments
Negotiate treaties with foreign governments
Protect the interests of Americans traveling abroad
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Section 3: State & Defense Departments
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2.
3.
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5.
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Five assistant Secretaries of State administer five
geographic bureaus:
African Affairs
European & Canadian Affairs
East-Asian & Pacific Affairs
Inter-American Affairs
Near-Eastern Affairs
Official assigned to serve abroad are members of the
foreign service
State Department maintains embassies and
consulates in foreign capitals and major cities that
the U.S. has diplomatic relations with.
Section 3: State & Defense Departments
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1.
2.
3.
4.
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Pictures from www.wikipedia.org
Department of Defense
(DOD) supervises the
armed forces of the U.S.
Army
Navy
Air Force
Nuclear Arsenal
The U.S. military is
controlled by civilians.
The President is the
Commander-in-Chief &
he designates the
Secretary of Defense to
run the day to day
affairs and supervise the
Joint Chiefs of Staff.
Section 4: Foreign Policy in Action
When nation feel a common threat to their
security they form mutual defense alliances
The United States is a member of three regional
security pacts.
Since WWII mutual defense alliances and
regional security pacts, along with the United
Nations have prevented a third world war.
Collective Security: a system by which the
participating nations agree to take joint action
against a nation that attacks any one of them. “All
for one and one for all.”
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO)
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Formed after WWII to contain communism and
the Soviet Union.
Initially the Western European Democracies, the
U.S. and Canada
Since the end of the Cold War NATO has
transformed into a peacekeeping organization with
missions in the former Yugoslavia, & Afghanistan
Organization of American States
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Formed in 1947 with the Rio Pact
Has served as a peacekeeping force and
organization to promote democracy and diplomacy
in the American hemisphere
Strained by Cuban Crisis of the 1960s as well as the
1982 Falkland Islands War between Argentina and
the United Kingdom in
ANZUS
Australia, New Zealand, United
States
 Formed in 1951 as the main defense
pact in the Pacific.
 ANZUS strained after 1984 when
New Zealand adopted an antiNuclear policy