CHAPTER FIVE
The Classical Period:
Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E.
World Civilizations, The Global Experience
AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Stearns/Adas/Schwartz/Gilbert
*AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of The College Entrance Examination Board,
which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product.
Copyright 2007, Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Longman
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
I. Expansion and Integration
II. Beyond the Classical Civilizations
III. Decline in India and China
IV. Decline and Fall in Rome
V. The New Religious Map
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
I. Expansion and Integration
Synthesis
Confucius (ca. 551–478 B.C.E.), Laozi
Buddha (ca. 566–480 B.C.E.)
Socrates (ca. 469–399 B.C.E.)
Unification of territory
political, legal, commercial networks
social aspect
inequalities
uprisings
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
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Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
II. Beyond the Classical Civilizations
Independent developments
c. 600 C.E.
A. Sub-Saharan Africa
Upper Nile Region
Kush
by 1000 B.C.E.
Axum
conquers Kush by 300 B.C.E.
Ethiopia
conquest of Axum
Trade with Mediterranean
some converts to Judaism
Christianity by 300 C.E.
West Africa
southern fringe of Sahara
regional kingdoms
Ghana
Egypt, Kush and Axum
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
II. Beyond the Classical Civilizations
Independent developments
c. 600 C.E.
A. Sub-Saharan Africa
Upper Nile Region
Kush
by 1000 B.C.E.
Axum
conquers Kush by 300 B.C.E.
Ethiopia
conquest of Axum
Trade with Mediterranean
some converts to Judaism
Christianity by 300 C.E.
West Africa
southern fringe of Sahara
regional kingdoms
Ghana
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
II. Beyond the Classical Civilizations
B. Asia
Japan
agriculture well-established by 200 C.E.
regional states, c. 300 C.E.
writing introduced 400 C.E.
Shintoism
organized by 700 C.E.
state formation by 600 C.E.
East Asia at the End of the Classical Period
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
II. Beyond the Classical Civilizations
C. Northern Europe
Germanic, Celtic, Slavic peoples
loose kingdoms
oral culture
simple agriculture
sailing
animistic
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Germanic Kingdoms After the Invasions
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Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
II. Beyond the Classical Civilizations
D. Central America
Olmec, c. 800–400 B.C.E.
no writing
pyramids
agriculture
especially corn
potatoes in Andes
domestication of animals
turkeys, dogs
calendars
legacy to successor cultures
Teotihuacan
Maya
from 400 C.E.
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Civilizations of Central and South America
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Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
II. Beyond the Classical Civilizations
E. South America
Ancestors of Inca
Peru, Bolivia
F. Polynesia
Isolation
Fiji, Samoa by 1000 B.C.E.
Hawaii by 400 C.E.
The Spread of Polynesian Peoples
G. Nomads
Central Asia
Asia to Middle East trade
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Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
III. Decline in India and China
A. China
Han Dynasty
decline ca. 100 C.E.
Daoist revival
Yellow Turbans
Asia, c. 600 C.E.
Epidemics
Sui Dynasty
Tang
from 618 C.E.
Continuity
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
III. Decline in India and China
B. India
Invasions from 600 C.E.
Gupta empire destroyed
Fragmentation
Rajput
Indian Ocean Trading Routes in the Classical Period
Buddhism declines
Hinduism
worship of Devi popular
Islam
from 7th century
control of Indian Ocean
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Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
IV. Decline and Fall in Rome
A. Changes
Leadership
weak emperors
Plagues
Change from republican values
hedonism
Diocletian (284–305 C.E.)
emperor worship
Constantine (312–337 C.E.)
Constantinople
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
IV. Decline and Fall in Rome
B. Two Empires
Eastern
Greek
Constantinople
continuity, vigor
> Byzantine Empire
Germanic Kingdoms After the Invasions
Western
Latin, Germanic
Rome
decline, vulnerable
> Western Europe
Justinian (527–565 C.E.)
Justinian Code
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
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Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
IV. Decline and Fall in Rome
C. Middle East
Parthian Empire
Sassanids
from 227 C.E.
Zoroastrianism
D. North Africa
Augustine
bishop of Hippo
Coptic church
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
V. The New Religious Map
Common Features
piety
spiritual focus
afterlife
emerge in period of political instability
A. Hinduism, Buddhism, and Daoism
Buddhism
changes as it spreads
bodhisattvas
nirvana
Mahayana
China, Korea, Japan
minority religion
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
V. The New Religious Map
B. Christianity
Institutional church
Roman influence
papacy
bishops
Jesus of Nazareth
Salvation
Spread
Paul
Doctrine
trinity
Monasticism
Benedict of Nursia
Rule
Women
spiritual equals of men
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
Chapter 5: The Classical Period: Directions, Diversities and Declines by 500 C.E
V. The New Religious Map
C. Islam
Later, 7th century
D. The Spread of Major Religions
Animism declines
E. The World Around 500 C.E.
Stearns et al., World Civilizations, The Global Experience, AP* Edition, 5th Edition
Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman, Copyright 2007
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