CHAPTER 2
The Rise of the Atlantic World, 1400-1625
1. What forces were transforming West Africa before
the advent of the Atlantic slave trade?
2. How did European monarchs use commerce and
religion to advance their nations’ fortunes?
3. What role did the Columbian exchange play in the
formation of an Atlantic world?
4. How did European relations with Native Americans
affect the success of early European colonizing
efforts?
African and European Backgrounds
West Africa: Tradition and Change
During the 14th and early 15th
centuries, Mali (capital city:
Timbuktu) was the leading power in
the West African savanna
This is a poem by Taylor Mali:
African and European Backgrounds
European Culture and Society
From this:
to this:
From this:
to this:
African and European Backgrounds
European Culture and Society
From this:
to this:
The Enclosure Movement resulted in massive overcrowding in the cities.
African and European Backgrounds
Religious Upheavals
THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION
(appealed to the poor and middling classes… NOT the rich)
MARTIN LUTHER
JOHN CALVIN
African and European Backgrounds
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625
Henry VIII (1509-1547): Created the Anglican Church (Church of England)
Edward VI (1547-1553): Calvinist
African and European Backgrounds
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625
 Mary I (1553-1558): Catholic
Elizabeth I 
(1558-1603):
Protestant
(mostly)
 James I (1603-1625): Anglican (disliked Puritans)
African and European Backgrounds
The Reformation in England, 1533-1625
Separatists
PURITANS
vs.
Non-separatists
Appealed to middling classes
Appealed to middling classes
Calvinists
Calvinists
Disapproved of many Catholic and
Anglican beliefs (i.e. church hierarchy)
Disapproved of many Catholic and
Anglican beliefs (i.e. church
hierarchy)
Wanted to separate from the Anglican
church
Wanted to purify the Anglican church
from within
Europe and the Atlantic World,
1400-1600
Portugal and the Atlantic, 1400-1500
Portugal, under the leadership of
Prince Henry the Navigator, led the
way in European long-distance
oceanic explorations
Caravel (ship)
Magnetic Compass
Astrolabe (early GPS system)
New, improved maps
Looking to trade or raid
Unintentional consequence…
Europe and the Atlantic World,
1400-1600
The “New Slavery” and Racism
Existing Slavery
“New” Slavery
- Due to indebtedness or POW
- Became a prosperous business
- Absorbed into the family or released after
paying off the debt
- Worked laboriously until death
- Not overly huge in numbers
- Unprecedented magnitude of slaves
- Not often tied to religion
- It became a Christian duty to own
slaves
- Race was not a factor
- Race became a HUGE factor
- A PERSON
- DEHUMANIZED PROPERTY
Europe and the Atlantic World,
1400-1600
To the Americas and Beyond, 1492-1522
Europe and the Atlantic World,
1400-1600
Spain’s Conquistadors, 1492-1536
Christopher Columbus
What many Americans perceive about Columbus…
• He was Spanish
• He was the first to propose that the
world was round
• He discovered America
• He discovered America
• He was friendly to the “Indians”
• He was famous
• He became rich
Europe and the Atlantic World,
1400-1600
Spain’s Conquistadors, 1492-1536
Christopher Columbus
What many people didn’t learn about Columbus…
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
He was Italian (Genoese)
He never reached the mainland of North or South America
He didn’t discover America as much as he ran into a
land mass that was already occupied
He died poor and fairly unknown
He was “America’s” first slave trader (Taino Indians
followed by black Africans)
He was responsible for “America’s” first gold rush
He was possibly “America’s” first
Christian missionary
Europe and the Atlantic World,
1400-1600
Spain’s Conquistadors, 1492-1536
Hernán Cortés
Francisco Pizarro
Conquered the Aztec Empire
Conquered the Inca Empire
Both were extremely brutal men
Central Mexican population in 1519:
13-25 million
Central Mexican population in 1600:
700,000
Used surprise and better weapons,
but mostly… SMALLPOX to
cultivate the greatest demographic
disaster in world history!
Europe and the Atlantic World,
1400-1600
The Columbian Exchange
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
Spain’s Northern Frontier
Hernando de Soto
He went looking for…
GOLD
He didn’t find any,
however he pretty much
wiped out the
Mississippian Native
American population
with diseases whilst
exploring
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
Spain’s Northern Frontier
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
He also went looking for gold… the seven cities of
gold
He also didn’t find any gold on his explorations
He did, however, make a lot of the Native
Americans dislike the Spanish
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
Spain’s Northern Frontier
Juan de Oñate
He proclaimed the
area of modern
day New Mexico
for the Spanish.
He was very brutal
and enslaved many
Native Americans.
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
Spain’s Northern Frontier
Saint Augustine, Florida (1565)
North America’s first
PERMANENT EUROPEAN
settlement
It was a Spanish military base
meant to fend off the English
and French. It was also used as
a missionary base.
Now it’s a tourist trap
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
France: Colonizing Canada
Giovanni de Verrazano and Jacques Cartier looked for gold and the NW
Passage… they found neither, but claimed a lot of territory for France
 Verrazano
 Cartier
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
France: Colonizing Canada
The French did find their “gold” in the form of…
 They became allies with
the Huron Indians, and
helped them fight their
enemies…
the Mohawks and other
tribes belonging to the
Iroquois Confederacy
Quebec (1608) established
by Samuel de Champlain
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
England and the Atlantic World, 1558-1603
Like everyone else, the English were looking for the NW Passage and gold.
Like everyone else, they didn’t find either of them. So, sea dogs (like
Francis Drake) started to raid Spanish fleets and ports (pirates). When the
English defeated the Spanish Armada (1588) it allowed them to focus more
on the New World.
Walter Raleigh attempted a permanent colony at
Roanoke, however, when he returned he found that
all the colonists were gone. All that was left was…
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625
A joint-stock company, the Virginia Company of London, went looking for
gold. In so doing, they created the first permanent ENGLISH settlement in
Jamestown, Virginia Colony (1607)
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625
John Smith
Pocahontas
John Rolfe
Saved the colony with
his policy of “He who
does not work, shall not
eat.”
Saved the colony with
Saved the colony with
her convincing her father, his salable variety of tobacco.
the Chief, to feed the
starving colonists.
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
Failure and Success in Virginia, 1603-1625
• Headrights greatly helped to
increase the population
• 50 acres to whomever paid their
transportation
• So… the RICH people paid the
way for many indentured
servants to come to Jamestown,
and the RICH folks got huge
tracts of land
• Most of the indentured servants
died before their service (usually
4-7 years) was over
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
New England Begins, 1614-1625
The Peanuts Gang actually does a fairly good job of telling the story… up
until the part where the colonists start mistreating the Indians.
Footholds in North America,
1512-1625
A “New Netherland” on the Hudson, 1609-1625
The Dutch explorers (who hired the Englishman, Henry Hudson) claimed
much of the Hudson River and the SW tip of Manhattan Island in modern
day New York. They also made fur their main focus. They allied
themselves with the Iroquois Nations, especially the Mohawks who were
enemies of the
Huron Indians
(who were allies
with the French.
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