Chapter 5
Cadences and Nonharmonic Tones
Nonharmonic Tones
Nonharmonic tones are pitches that sound
along with a chord but are not chord
pitches.
 Pitches are dissonant
 Occur in a pattern of three pitches:

1
Preceding tone (chord tone)
 2 Nonharmonic tone (not a chord tone)
 3 Following tone (chord tone)
Nonharmonic Tones
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Passing Tone (PT)
Neighboring Tone (NT)
Escape Tone (ET)
Anticipation (ANT)
Suspension (SUS)
Retardation (RE)
Appoggiatura (APP)
Changing Tone (CT)
Pedal Tone (PED)
Unaccented NHT
Unaccented nonharmonic tones are
nonharmonic tones that occur off the beat
 Consist of passing tone, neighboring tone,
escape tone, and anticipation

Unaccented NHT

Passing Tone
 Approach
by a step, depart by a step in the
same direction
Unaccented NHT

Neighboring Tone
 Approach
by a step, depart by a step in the
opposite direction
Unaccented NHT

Escape Tone
 Only
occur as unaccented nht
 Approach by a step upward, depart by a skip
down by a third
Unaccented NHT

Anticipation
 Only
occur as unaccented nht
 Approach by step, depart by the same tone
Accented NHT
Accented nonharmonic tones are
nonharmonic tones that occur on the beat
 Consist of passing tone, neighboring tone,
suspension, retardation, and appoggiatura

Accented NHT

Passing Tone
 Approach
by a step, depart by a step in the
same direction
Accented NHT

Suspension
 One
note carries over into the next chord,
resolves downward
 Melodic pattern is always as follows: the
preparation, the suspension, the resolution
 The suspended tone (the middle tone) is
always dissonant
 Suspensions are designated numerically by
the interval forming the suspended tone and
resolution with the lowest sounding voice
Accented NHT

Suspension
Accented NHT

Retardation
 Similar
to a suspension, except it resolves
upward instead of downward
Accented NHT

Appoggiatura
 Approach
by a skip, depart by a step in the
opposite direction
NHT with three or more pitches
Successive passing tones
 Changing tones
 Pedal tone

NHT with three or more pitches

Succesive passing tones
 Two
passing tones occasionally fill in a fourth
 Can be accented, unaccented, or a
combination of both
NHT with three or more pitches

Changing tones
 Consist
of two successive nht’s.
 Leads by a step from the chord tone, skips to
another nht, and then leads by a step to a
chord (often the same chord tone)
NHT with three or more pitches

Pedal tone
A
held or repeated note
 Usually in the lowest voice
 Alternates between consonance and
dissonance with the chord structures above it
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