CHEA
International Commission
Washington D.C., 27 January
2011
UNESCO and Quality Assurance:
Progress and Issues
Stamenka Uvalić-Trumbić
Chief,
Section for Higher Education
UNESCO
UNESCO
What is New?
Qian Tang
Irina Bokova
UNESCO HQ Paris
A new structure
A new name
Section for Higher Education
Division of Basic to Higher
Learning
But, a familiar Old Team!
Mission Statement
To help Member States and their institutions
widen access to quality higher education
through diverse modes of provision adapted
to local development needs.
ARTICLE 26 (1)
‘Everyone has the right to
education. Education shall be
free, at least in the
elementary and fundamental
stages. Elementary education
shall be compulsory.
Technical and professional
education shall be made
generally available and
higher education shall be
equally accessible to all
on the basis of merit.’
HIGHER EDUCATION:
THE PROGRAMME
…nearly as old as the Organization
A resolution adopted by UNESCO’s 2nd
General Conference in Mexico (1947)
explicitly identified higher education as one of
its six areas of work of work under the
heading ‘Work with Universities”
1998 WCHE

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
The first World Conference on
Higher Education ever organized
by UNESCO
Numbers matter! Over 180
Member States; 130 ministers
responsible for higher education;
some 4,200 participants in all
representing all higher education
stakeholders
Objective: to lay down the
fundamental principles for the indepth reform of higher education
systems world wide
2009 World Conference on Higher Education
Paris - July 2009
The World Conference on Higher Education
Paris - July 2009
Theme:
The New Dynamics of Higher Education
and Research for Societal Change and
Development.
Over 1,500 participants
Governments, academics, QA experts,
students, civil society, private sector
Ministers…
Egypt
China
India
France
Researchers and scholars
from around the world…
Philip Altbach
Hebe Vessuri
Lidia Brito
J.R.de la Fuente
Mala Singh
Alice Dautry
Students were well represented…
FINAL REPORT AND CONFERENCE
COMMUNIQUÉ
Documents published
in hard and soft copy,
in English, French,
Spanish, Arabic,
Chinese, Russian and
Portuguese for a wide
dissemination among
key higher education
stakeholders
DOMINANT GLOBAL TREND:
MASSIFICATION

Globally, age participation rates have grown from 19% in 2000
to 26% in 2007

OECD estimates 50 % – 60 % participation rates are necessary
with a view to development

Low income countries: 5% in 2000 to 7% in 2007

150.6 million tertiary students globally in 2007, an increase of
53% since 2000
***Inability to meet growing demand in developing countries***
TERTIARY ENROLMENT RATES
UNESCO Institute of Statistics
What else is New?
ENROLMENT PROJECTIONS
36 million by 2020
44 million by 2020
26 million by 2050
Higher Education in a world
Changed Utterly – OECD
2010
Equity, Efficiency, Quality
BUT
What was new?
The Economic Crisis: Doing More with less
 Universities in search of revenue: ignoring
access and equity, but (a paradox?)…
 Social engagement – more intense today

New Dynamics Revisited
OECD/IMHE 2010

Crossborder – often empty shells

Diversification: but vocational and professional??

Rankings – risky!; will European rankings make a difference?
Do not trust League tables!

Academic Profession – students no longer interested (Nigeria)

Changing institutions/changing mindsets...

Does less money mean more innovation?
Europe and Beyond:

The European Higher Education and Research
areas must be open to the world
(EU Modernisation Agenda for Universities)

The world is becoming smaller as the economic
crisis hits both developed and developing
countries.
Austerity forces HEIs to do more with less

To do more with less:
- be more innovative
- embrace the new dynamics
Judith Eaton
“…quality assurance – and
especially the internationalization
of quality assurance – was one of
the most striking new
developments since UNESCO
held its previous World
Conference on Higher Education
in 1998.”
Inside Accreditation
WCHE COMMUNIQUE:
CALL TO ACTION
UNESCO
 ‘[Pursue]… capacity-building for quality assurance in
higher education in developing countries’
MEMBER STATES
 ‘Put in place and strengthen appropriate quality
assurance systems and regulatory frameworks with
the involvement of all stakeholders’
2009 World Conference on Higher Education Communiqué
GIQAC
UNESCO’s Work
GLOBAL OUTREACH THROUGH:


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UNESCO Global Forum on QA, Accreditation and the
Recognition of Qualification (2002; 2004; 2007)
UNESCO’s 6 recognition conventions
UNESCO-World Bank Global Initiative GIQAC
It takes a
community…
GIQAC
THE PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVE of GIQAC is to improve and
expand worldwide capacity for quality assurance (QA)
in higher education in developing and transition
countries.
GIQAC FY2010
Implementing
Networks
International Network for
Quality Assurance Agencies
in Higher Education
(INQAAHE)
African Association of
Universities (AAU) in
cooperation with the African
Quality Assurance Network
(AfriQAN)
Arab Network for Quality
Assurance in Higher
Education (ANQAHE)
Asia-Pacific Quality Network
(APQN)
Caribbean Area Network for
Quality Assurance in
Tertiary Education
(CANQATE)
GIQAC Worldwide
La Red Iberoamericana para
la Acreditación de la Calidad
en la Educación Superior
(RIACES)
GIQAC ACHIEVEMENTS
‘The GIQAC grant has accelerated the growth
of quality assurance agencies in various
countries and developed leaders who serve as
champions for QA in their own agencies. From
an initial membership of 47 agencies and
institutions in 2007, APQN now has 72
members in various categories. The grant has
also paved the way towards greater
cooperation and mutual understanding across
a diverse and populous region.’
— Concepción Pijano, President, APQN
GIQAC ACHIEVEMENTS
In 2010, GIQAC made an impact at the national
level in
 43 countries in Africa,
 11 countries in the Arab States,
 27 countries in Asia and the Pacific,
 33 countries in Latin America and the
Caribbean and
 31 countries in Europe and North America.
LOOKING AHEAD:
CHALLENGES

GIQAC FY2011
ENQA – ECA countries
 Future Sustainability: Beyond DGF


The next 3 years

Action plan
INQAAHE Forum
Windhoek, Namibia
May 2010
GIQAC meeting
Windhoek
Judith Eaton
“…Spread of the familiar”
FOLLOW-UP TO 2009 WCHE: NEW
DYNAMICS OF QUALITY ASSURANCE

Open Educational resources OERs

University rankings and accountability

Private higher education (including forprofit)
and

Cross-border higher education: what next
UNESCO
Paris, 5 – 8 July 2009
COMMUNIQUE
(8 July 2009)
ODL approaches and ICTs present opportunities to widen
access to quality education, particularly when Open
Educational Resources are readily shared by many countries
and higher education institutions
WCHE session on OERs
Imperative to ensure that all –
developed and developing
countries - are enabled to
contribute to OERs…
Policy Forum 1 (December 2010,
Paris)
UNESCO and the Commonwealth of Learning
Taking the Open Educational Resources (OER)
beyond the OER Community: Policy and
Capacity
Objectives of the Project

Ensure greater support for the use of OER created
and used both in developing and developed
countries by educational decision makers
(governmental and institutional)

Enhance capacity of educational practitioners in
developing countries to create and use OER.
Basic Premise

OERs will not be able to help countries reach
their educational goals unless awareness of
the potential can be rapidly expanded beyond
the communities of interest that they have
already attracted

Mainstreaming OER will contribute to the
quality of learning materials
Activities 2010

Development of an OER Dossier

3 Online Forums

4 Capacity-Building workshops

1 Policy Forum
Policy Forum 2
(October 2011, Paris)
UNESCO and the Commonwealth of Learning
Policy Guidelines on OERs
UNIVERSITY RANKINGS
BRITAIN’S TOP NINE UNIVERSITIES
Quality Rankings of Teaching
based on all subject assessments 1995-2004
(Sunday Times University Guide 2004)
1
2
3=
3=
5
6
7
8
9
CAMBRIDGE
LOUGHBOROUGH
LONDON SCHOOL OF ECONOMICS
YORK
THE OPEN UNIVERSITY
OXFORD
IMPERIAL COLLEGE
UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON
ESSEX
96%
95%
88%
88%
87%
86%
82%
77%
77%
UNESCO GLOBAL FORUM ON
UNIVERSITY RANKINGS AND OTHER
ACCOUNTABILITY TOOLS
PARIS, 16-17 MAY 2011
Goals:
 Healthy debate on Rankings and other accountability
tools
 Increased understanding of the impact of rankings
 Improved convergences between rankings and other
accountability tools
 Improved communication between the higher
education community and the public, particularly
governments, funding bodies, and potential students
 Access to reliable and transparent information
PRIVATE HIGHER EDUCATION

Private HE: fastest
growing sub-sector - 30%
global HE enrolment




Japan, South Korea: 80%
Latin America– 50%
Governance: relationship
between government and
PHEIs
QA: key tool for demandabsorbing private sector
GLOBAL DEBATE ON PHE
INCLUDING FORPROFIT
Web Portal
Higher Education Institutions
Degree Mills
What next?
Would a UNESCO legal
instrument be useful?
WEB PORTAL ON HEIS: COUNTRY INFORMATION
1.
Institutions recognized by competent
authorities
2.
Higher education programmes
recognized by competent authorities
3.
Information for students planning to
study in the country
4.
Information on the higher education
system
5.
Foreign credential assessment and
recognition
6.
Information on financial assistance
opportunities
7.
Cross-border higher education
8.
National Information Centre
9.
Other information sources
10. Definition of key terms
CURRENT PARTICIPATING COUNTRIES
FEBRUARY 2010
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Argentina
Armenia
Australia
Belarus
Belgium
Bulgaria
Canada
China
Costa Rica
Cyprus
Cuba
Croatia
Egypt
Ireland
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Jamaica
Japan
Kenya
Latvia
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Mexico
Malaysia
Namibia
New Zealand
Nigeria
Norway
Pakistan
Paraguay
•
•
•
•
•
•
Saudi Arabia
Sweden
Thailand
Trinidad and
Tobago
United Kingdom
United States of
America
COUNTRIES BEING PROCESSED
DECEMBER 2010
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Austria
Chile
Colombia
Dominican Republic
Estonia
Guyana
India
Indonesia
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Iran
Kazakhstan
Panama
St Vincent and the
Grenadines
Switzerland
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Guidelines for quality provision in
cross-border higher education
UNESCO and OECD
Implementation Survey and analysis
LEGAL FRAMEWORKS FOR ACADEMIC MOBILITY:
CONVENTIONS (December 1, 2009)
Region
Secretariat
Adopted
Number of
parties
SIDS /
UCSIS
Last
ratification
Last
meeting
Africa
UNESCO
Dakar
Arusha
1981
22
Seychelles
and
Holy See
2008
Addis
Ababa,
Sept 2009
Arab
UNESCO
Beirut
Paris
1978
14
None
1991
Beirut,
March
2006
Asia & the Pacific
UNESCO
Bangkok
Bangkok
1983
21
Maldives
and
Holy See
2008
Manila,
May 2009
LAC
IESALC
Caracas
Mexico
1974
19
Cuba,
Suriname,
and
Holy See
2007
Caracas,
October
2006
MED
UNESCO
Paris
Nice 1976
12
Malta and
Holy See
2007
Split, 2005
Europe
UNESCO &
Council of
Europe
Lisbon
1997
47
Malta and
Holy See
2010
Sevres,
June 2010
Welcome to Tokyo!
Asia and Pacific Convention
on Degree Recognition
Revised text:
Diplomatic Conference 25-26
November 2011, Tokyo,
UNESCO & MEXT
A WORKSHOP ON THE WEB
PORTAL WILL BE ORGANIZED
FLAGSHIPS PROJECTS 2012 – 2013

Diversified and innovative providers and modes of higher
education delivery for expanding equitable access: private
higher education, cross-border providers, ODL and OERs;

Strengthened use of quality assurance systems and other
accountability tools to promote quality and relevance of
sustainable higher education systems

Assistance to the creation of an African Higher Education
and Research Area
“global leadership in education”
political discourse
academic debate
THANK YOU!
[email protected]
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UNESCO and Quality Assurance - Council for Higher Education