An Introduction to
Multinational Logistics
Barbara Gomoll
Senior Instructor, Multinational Logistics Course
ALMC, Fort Lee, VA
(804) 765-0279
1
Outline
 Definitions
 Multinational Support Options
 Challenges of Multinational Logistics
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Joint Pub 4-08
 Executive Summary
 Chapter I –
Fundamentals
 Chapter II –
Command Relationships
 Chapter III –
Support Arrangements
 Chapter IV –
Planning
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Definitions
 Alliance – The result of formal agreements (treaties)
between two or more nations for broad, long-term
objectives which further the common interests of the
members. (JP 1-02)
 Coalition – An ad hoc arrangement between two or
more nations for a common action. (JP 1-02)
 OPCON – Authority to perform those functions of
command over subordinate forces involving organizing,
and giving authoritative direction necessary to
accomplish the mission. (JP 1-02)
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Definitions
 Multinational Operations – A collective term used
to describe military actions conducted by forces of two
or more nations, usually undertaken within the structure
of a coalition or alliance. (JP 1-02)
 Multinational Logistics – Any coordinated logistic
activity involving two or more nations supporting a
multinational force conducting military operations under
the auspices of an alliance or coalition. (JP 1-02)
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Multinational Support Options
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National Responsibility
 Each nation provides its
own support and the MNF
HQ monitors the support
status of each unit.
 Traditional approach.
 Similar to ABCA
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Lead Nation
One nation assumes the responsibility for providing a
broad spectrum of logistics support for the
multinational force and/or headquarters.
Reimbursement by
agreements between the
parties involved.
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Role Specialist Nation
One nation assumes the responsibility for procuring a
particular class of supply or service for the
multinational force.
Reimbursement will then be
subject to agreements between
the parties involved.
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Multinational Integrated Logistics
Unit (MILU)
 Also called Theater Logistic Units.
 Assets provided by several
Troop Contributing Nations
(TCN).
 Support the Combined Joint
Task Force (CJTF).
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Multinational Integrated Logistics
Unit (MILU)
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Multinational Integrated Logistics
Unit (MILU)
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Multinational Support Agreements
Agreements concluded bi-laterally and/or among
multiple nations and NATO to ease national logistic
burdens. Extremely successful within the
Multinational Brigades and Divisions within KFOR
and SFOR.
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Third Party Contracting
Contracting has become increasingly important in the
conduct of operations, particularly when operating
beyond normal areas of responsibility. It is a
significant tool that may be employed to gain quick
access to in-country resources by procuring supplies
and services locally.
 Used extensively by many nations.
 Not necessarily the cheapest option.
 Saves military personnel.
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Other Options for Support
Civil Augmentation
Program (LOGCAP)
Acquisition & Cross
Servicing
Agreements
(ACSA)
Contingency
Contracting
Host
Nation
Support
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What is an ACSA?
An Acquisition & Cross Servicing Agreement (ACSA)
is an International Bilateral Agreement.
 With a government of a specified ally or with a
regional international organization of which the U.S. is
a member (e.g., NATO, UN)
 It allows the U.S. to transfer specified logistic
support, supplies, services to, or receive from, the other
party.
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What Does an ACSA Do?
 Provides the legal basis for logistics exchanges
between the U.S. and other armed forces, but does not
financially or politically commit either party to provide
any particular support.
 Provides the mechanism by which such transactions
can be done when mutually agreed.
 Alternative to standard contracting FMS procedures.
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How Does an ACSA Work?
 Either nation places a written order.
- Individual orders under ACSA must be mutually agreed
upon and consistent with both countries national priorities.
- Becomes binding upon acceptance.
 Transactions are reimbursable by currency, replacement
in kind, or equal value exchange.
 Reciprocal pricing used for acquisitions or transfers.
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Items Covered by an ACSA
 Food & Water
 Transportation & POL
 Training
 Use of Facilities & Billeting
 Maintenance
 Storage Services
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Items Prohibited by an ACSA
 Weapon Systems
 Major End Items
 Guided Missiles
 Chemical Munitions
 Naval Mines & Torpedoes
 Chaff & Chaff Dispensers
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Why We Need ACSA’s
 U.S. law prohibits DoD from
buying/selling/giving/loaning support without
legal authority.
 Title 10 U.S. Code § 2341- 2342 (ACSA
Statute) gives DoD that authority.
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Challenges of Multinational Logistics
 C2
 Goals
 Capabilities
 Training
 Equipment
 Doctrine
 Intelligence
 Language
 Leadership
 Cultural
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Command Structure
Multinational
Force
Commander
National
Contingent
National
Contingent
National
Contingent
OPCON (or similar agreed upon command relationship)
Advise & Coordinate
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Command Structure
COCOM
National
Contingent
Multinational
Force
Commander
National
Contingent
Key point – applies
to ALL multinational
command structures
National
Contingent
Command – always retained by each nation
OPCON (or similar agreed upon command relationship)
Advise & Coordinate
1
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C2 Structures
Parallel
Lead Nation
Integrated
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Parallel Command
US
Component
Commander
Allied
Component
Commander
US
Forces
Allied
Forces
Command & Control (OPCON)
Liaison & Coordination
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Lead Nation Command
Component
Commander
US
National
US
COMPONENT
Forces
COMPONENT
COMMANDER
COMMANDER
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Lead Nation
Component
Commander
Multinational
Augmented
Staff
Component
Commander
Component
Commander
National
Allied
Forces
Allied
Forces
Forces
National
Allied
Forces
Allied
Forces
Forces
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Integrated Command
Alliance MN
Component
Commander
US
Multinational
COMPONENT
Forces
COMMANDER
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Multinational
Forces
Integrated
Staff
Multinational
Allied
Forces
Forces
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MNFC and Nation Relationships
 Nations continue to exercise command over their
forces throughout the operation – Sovereignty.
 Generally nations give the MNFC OPCON over
their assigned forces.
 OPCON does not include authoritative direction
for logistics or administrative matters.
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Goals
 Political goals drive military goals.
 Level of threat dictates willingness to sacrifice
national goals for common goals.
 Smaller partners often feel “bullied”, under-
appreciated.
 Larger partners feel they carry inequitable share
of risks and burden. (Casualties, $)
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Capabilities
 Not all partners have the same capabilities.
 Leadership must be sensitive to inequality of
national contributions and share burden equitably –
not equally.
 Each nation contributes what it can to the effort
and must be tasked within its capability.
 Diplomacy is the key.
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Training
 Resources and standards for training vary widely
different between nations.
 May be little or no time to train between
notification and commencement of operations.
 Forces with lower standards must be used within
limits of their training state.
 Impact on selection of forces for tasks, especially
individuals? Limitation for commanders?
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Difference in Safety Protocols
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Equipment
 Quality, quantity, especially interoperability are
significant challenges.
 Problem of technological asymmetry – countries
are not able to operate with others which are
technologically far superior.
 Communications equipment inequities have
potential to seriously hamper coordinated efforts.
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Difference in Equipment
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Doctrine
 Doctrine reflects national character and
determines force structure/procedures of nations.
 STANAGs/Accords de normalisation
 Ways to overcome differences:
- Multinational training exercises
- Skilled liaison officers/teams
- Assign special missions or augment from
other national forces
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Doctrine
NATO Class I
FOOD AND FORAGE
NATO Class II
CLOTHING, WEAPONS, TOOLS,
SPARE PARTS & VEHICLES
NATO Class III
GASOLINE, FUEL OIL, GREASES,
COAL & COKE
NATO Class IIIa
AVIATION FUEL & LUBRICANTS
NATO Class IV
FORTIFICATION & CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS,
PLUS ADDITIONAL QUANTITIES OF CLASS II
NATO Class V
US Class I
US Class II
US Class III
US Class IV
US Class V
US Class VI
US Class VII
US Class VIII
US Class IX
US Class X
SUBSISTENCE
CLOTHING, INDIVIDUAL EQPT,
TOOLS, ADMIN SUPPLIES
PETROLEUM, OILS, LUBRICANTS
CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS
AMMUNITION
PERSONAL DEMAND ITEMS
MAJOR END ITEMS: RACKS,
TRACKED VEHICLES, ETC
MEDICAL
MATERIALS
REPAIR PARTS
MATERIAL FOR NONMILITARY
PROGRAMS
AMMUNITION, EXPLOSIVES &
CHEMICAL AGENTS OF ALL TYPES
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Intelligence
 Intelligence sharing a sensitive issue
- Nations may have legal restrictions
- Former enemies may be part of
coalition/alliance
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Language
 Lack of understanding can lead to disaster
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Language
• Lack of understanding can lead to disaster
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Language
 Lack of understanding can lead to disaster.
 Lack of common terminology is a problem.
 Acronyms/abbreviations.
 English is most common language but others may
be used.
- Russian for Eastern European
- French for African nations
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Leadership
 Leadership must be persuasive, not coercive and
be sensitive to national needs.
 Must have: clear chain of command, common
rules of engagement, single controller of airspace.
 Presence of NGOs/IOs/PVOs increase
coordination requirements.
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Cultural Considerations
 Discipline and Cultural Tolerance
 Work Ethic
 Standard of Living
 Religion
 Gender Distinctions
 National Traditions
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Cultural Considerations
 Discipline and Cultural Tolerance
- Large variance between armies
- Some forces must be kept apart
 Work Ethic – Differences between nations
complicates cooperative efforts.
 Standard of Living
- U.S. military lives at lower standard in field but
still perhaps at a much higher level than some
nations.
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Cultural Considerations
 Religion – Coalitions consist of a variety of
religions.
- Religious holidays & festivals (Ramadan)
 Food restrictions
**Consider the operational & logistical implications**
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Cultural Considerations
 Class and gender considerations
- Officer/Enlisted distinction
 Role of women in the military
 Dress when not on duty in host nation
 Alcohol
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Conclusion
 Definitions
 Multinational Support Options
 Challenges of Multinational Logistics
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Check on Learning
 Joint Publication for Multinational Logistics?
 What is the definition of a Coalition?
 What is meant by Lead Nation? Role Specialist?
 What are some challenges to Multinational Logistics?
 What does ACSA stand for?
 Ways to lessen impact of national differences?
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An Introduction to
Multinational Logistics
Barbara Gomoll
Senior Instructor, Multinational Logistics Course
ALMC, Fort Lee, VA
(804) 765-0279
52
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Multinational Logistics