Church History and Patrology
• CH_Pat_1: 1st Century; Foundation of the Church
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CH_Pat_2: 1st Century; Examples of the Apostolic Fathers
CH_Pat_3: 1st Century; Heresies and Martyrdom
CH_Pat_4: 2nd and 3rd Centuries; Anti-Nicene Fathers
CH_Pat_5: 2nd and 3rd Centuries; Anti-Nicene Fathers of
the School of Alexandria
• CH_Pat_6: 4th Century; 1st Ecumenical Council (Nicaea)
• CH_Pat_7: 4th Century; 2nd Ecumenical Council
(Constantinople)
CH_Pat_8: 5th
Century; 3nd Ecumenical
Council (Ephesus I) until Chalcedon
The Church in the
5th Century
1) The 3rd Ecumenical Council
(Ephesus I at 431 AD)
2) Ephesus II and Chalcedon
L8: The Church in the 5th Century
The Council of Ephesus
Christ’s Two Nature Heresy
Against the Theotokos Heresy
1st Council of Ephesus
2nd Council of Ephesus
The Council of Chalcedon
Christ’s Two Nature Heresy
1)
By Nestorius Patriarch of Constantinople
2) The Heresy:
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3)
Christ was 2 separate persons; a human born
from St. Mary then the divine settled in it.
The divine Christ could not suffer nor die on the
cross.
The Defense:
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St. Cyril the 24th Pope of Alexandria
The union of the divinity with humanity occurred at the
same time in St. Mary’s womb
The two nature in Christ are without mix or change =>
the example of the molten iron in fire
Against the Theotokos Heresy
1) By Nestorius Patriarch of Constantinople
2)
The Heresy:
•
St. Mary gave birth to the human Christ and
thus cannot have the title “Mother of God”
The Defense:
3)
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The nature of the Word was not originated by
St. Mary but the Word was hypostatically united
with the flesh in the sanctified St. Mary’s womb
The human mother has no share in creating the
spirit of her child yet she is the mother of the
whole person not only his physical nature
The 1st Council of Ephesus
1) Called by Emperor Theodosius at 431 AD
2) Attended by 200 bishops; the main figure is
St. Cyril the 24th Pope of Alexandria
3) The council excommunicated Nestorius,
exiled to Ekhmim in upper Egypt until died
4) The council laid down the beginning of the
creed “We exalt you, O mother of the true
Light….”
The
nd
2
Council of Ephesus
1) Held at 449 AD to defend against the
heresy of Eutyches (head of a monastery)
2) The other extreme of Nerstorius; Christ has
one Divine nature but took supernatural
humanity; not a real one thus Christ is only
Divine appeared in a human (Monophysite)
3) In the council, Eutyches and followers
regretted their views and were forgiven
The Chalcedonian Council
1)
Held at 451 AD to overcome the strong Coptic
Patriarch and leadership
2)
Pope Dioscorus of Alexandria (25th) held a local
council to excommunicate bishop “Leo” of Rome
when he confessed the Nestorian heresy.
3)
In turn, Leo held the Chalcedonian council and
accused wrongly Pope Dioscorus with
“Monophysite” , excommunicated and exiled him
4)
This lead to the 1st division in the church.
5)
The right description of our church is “Miaphysite”
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Slide 1 - St. Mary Coptic Orthodox Church