CHAPTER 5 WATER IN EARTH’S CLIMATE SYSTEM __________________________________________________________ MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. On the continents, annual precipitation is __________ annual evapotranspiration. a. less than b. equal to *c. greater than 2. On the ocean, annual precipitation __________ than annual evaporation. *a. less than b. equal to c. greater than 3. Condensation is to evaporation as deposition is to a. precipitation. b. evapotranspiration. c. freezing. *d. sublimation. e. None of these is correct. 4. Precipitation includes water in __________ form. a. liquid b. frozen c. freezing *d. All of the above are correct. e. None of the above is correct. 5. The net flow of water in the atmosphere is from a. land to sea. *b. sea to land. 6. The pressure at any altitude within the atmosphere is equal to the weight per unit area of the atmosphere __________ that altitude. a. below *b. above 7. If the air temperature is 20 °C and the vapor pressure is the same as the saturation vapor pressure, the relative humidity is a. less than 100%. b. more than 100%. *c. 100%. 8. On a clear and calm day, the relative humidity usually is __________ around sunrise and __________ in the mid afternoon. *a. highest…..lowest b. lowest…..highest 9. At a relative humidity of 100%, the temperature is __________ the dewpoint. a. less than *b. the same as c. greater than 10. Where are the highest long-term average precipitable water values located? *a. tropics b. middle latitude c. polar regions 11. What instrument measures humidity on a radiosonde? a. dewpoint hygrometer b. hair hygrometer *c. electronic hygrometer d. psychrometer e. All of the above are correct. 12. The probability of cloud development __________ as relative humidity nears 100%. *a. increases b. decreases c. does not change 13. When a gas is compressed, its temperature *a. increases. b. decreases. c. does not change. 14. As the temperature of a saturated (cloudy) air parcel falls, its relative humidity a. increases. b. decreases. *c. does not change. 15. Within a(n) __________ air layer, an ascending air parcel becomes cooler than the ambient air and returns to it original altitude. *a. stable b. unstable 16. Which process affects a location’s vertical temperature profile (and stability)? a. local radiational heating or cooling b. air mass advection c. large-scale ascent or descent of air *d. All of the above are correct. e. Only b and c are correct. 17. Conditional stability indicates that an air layer is a. stable for both saturated and unsaturated air parcels. *b. unstable for saturated and stable for unsaturated air parcels. c. stable for saturated and unstable for unsaturated air parcels. d. unstable for both saturated and unsaturated air parcels. e. None of the above is correct. 18. Which type of temperature profile indicates absolute stability? a. isothermal b. inversion *c. Both of the above are correct. d. None of the above is correct. 19. __________ climates are found on the windward slopes of prominent mountain ranges, such as the Rocky Mountains. a. Dry *b. Moist 20. Semiarid conditions characterize the __________ part of Washington State. *a. eastern b. western 21. The activation temperature of most ice-forming nuclei is __________ 0 °C. a. well above b. about *c. well below 22. Hygroscopic nuclei __________ water molecules. a. repel *b. attract 23. Hygroscopic nuclei a. have numerous natural and human-related sources. b. are relatively abundant downwind of urban-industrial areas. c. favor cloud formation at relative humidities under 100%. *d. All of the above are correct. e. Only a and b are correct. 24. Condensation nuclei come from a. natural sources alone. b. manmade sources alone. *c. a combination of natural and manmade sources. 25. Of the following cloud types, which one is coldest? *a. cirrus b. stratus c. cumulus d. altocumulus e. fog 26. A vertically developed cloud that can surge to great altitudes is a a. status b. nimbostratus c. fair weather cumulus *d. cumulonimbus e. fog 27. Cirrus clouds are typically composed of a. water droplets only. b. a combination of ice crystals and water droplets. *c. ice crystals only. 28. Precipitation from __________ clouds is generally light to moderate and may be continuous for 12 hours or longer. a. cirrus *b. nimbostratus c. cumulonimbus d. All of the above are correct. e. None of the above is correct. 29. The temperature in a cold cloud is at or below a. 40 °C. b. 20 °C. c. 10 °C. d. 5 °C. *e. 0 °C. 30. Which one of the following cloud types would most likely be responsible for producing heavy, showery-type precipitation? a. cumulus *b. cumulonimbus c. altocumulus d. cirrocumulus e. cirrus 31. To be considered fog, visibility must be restricted to __________ or less. a. 5000 m *b. 1000 m 32. Fog may develop when air becomes saturated through which process? a. radiational cooling b. advective cooling c. addition of water vapor d. expansional cooling *e. All of the above are correct. 33. Persistent radiation fog is likely to develop on a a. hilltop. *b. river valley bottom. c. valley slope. d. mountain summit. e. None of these is correct. 34. Advection fog forms when *a. warm humid air streams over the cold surface of a lake. b. extremely cold and dry air flows over a large unfrozen body of water. c. ascending humid air undergoes expansional cooling. 35. Steam fog forms when a. warm humid air streams over the cold surface of a lake. *b. extremely cold and dry air flows over a large unfrozen body of water. c. ascending humid air undergoes expansional cooling. 36. At saturation and at the same temperature, the vapor pressure is greater over __________ than over __________. a. ice…..water *b. water…..ice 37. The terminal velocity of a large hailstone is __________ that of a snowflake. a. less than b. equal to *c. greater than 38. The Bergeron process is key to __________ cloud precipitation. a. warm *b. cold 39. In what type of cloud do droplets grow by the collision-coalescence process? *a. warm b. cold 40. In cold clouds, a vapor pressure that is saturated for water droplets is __________ for ice crystals. *a. supersaturated b. saturated c. unsaturated 41. In the lower troposphere, the vertical layer of temperatures above 0 °C is thickest in the formation of a. sleet. *b. freezing rain. 42. Hail forms in thunderstorms characterized by a. weak updrafts. b. an abundant supply of supercooled water droplets. c. great vertical cloud development. d. All of the above are correct. *e. Only b and c are correct. 43. Raindrops falling from a cloud in Wisconsin most likely began as *a. snowflakes. b. raindrops. c. drizzle. 44. Most precipitation that falls in middle latitudes originates in __________ clouds. a. cirrus or cirrostratus b. cumulus or stratocumulus *c. nimbostratus or cumulonimbus d. altostratus or stratus e. fog or mist 45. A cold cloud is composed of a. tiny water droplets exclusively. b. ice crystals exclusively. *c. a mixture of ice crystals and supercooled water droplets. d. supercooled water droplets exclusively. e. None of the above is correct. 46. Using the very general snow/melt-water ratio, 30 cm of fresh snow would melt to what water equivalent? a. 2 cm of water *b. 3 cm of water c. 10 cm of water d. 30 cm of water e. 100 cm of water 47. Which weather variable changes continuously from one place to another? a. temperature b. pressure c. precipitation d. All of the above are correct. *e. Only a and b are correct. 48. A __________ rain gauge performs better at subfreezing air temperatures. a. tipping-bucket *b. weighing-bucket 49. Weather radar continually emits pulses of *a. microwaves. b. UV radiation. c. infrared radiation. d. sound waves. e. visible light. 50. Rainfall rates for a hurricane in the central Gulf of Mexico would best be measured by a. land-based weather radar. b. radiosondes. c. dropwindsondes. *d. TRMM satellite sensors. e. land-based tipping-bucket rain gauges.