TRENDS in RESEARCH WRITING for INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATIONS DR. DAVID CABABARO BUENO Dean- Graduate School Director- Research and Publications Office Columban College, Inc.-Olongapo City [email protected] [email protected] Research Is exploration combined with learning. A "detailed study of a subject in order to discover information or achieve a new understanding of it." R E S E A R C H A process of searching, discovering, and investigating information, as well as collecting, interpreting, and evaluating the information you find. R E S E A R C H Research = expansion of knowledge + inquiry and investigation aimed at the discovery of facts, theories, or laws. S U R V I V O r Tip To be a successful researcher, you need to develop knowledge and skills in information literacy and research and build upon these skills year after year. I N F O R M A T I O N LITERACY To be a successful researcher, you need to develop knowledge and skills in information literacy and research and build upon these skills year after year I N F O R M A T I O N LITERACY One must know how to apply the tools and techniques for finding, evaluating, and using information effectively WHY do R E S E A R C H Applying concepts learned in coursework to "real life" situations. Learning about issues, and methods in chosen fields. Sharpening skills. Learn problem-solving to read primary literature. WHY do R E S E A R C H Exploring and preparing for future careers. Enhancing professional communication skills. Developing marketable skills. Collaborating with others and working effectively as part of a team. WHY do R E S E A R C H Discovering personal interests. Growing as a critical, analytical, and independent thinker. Developing internal standards of excellence. CHALLENGES in PUBLICATION •Journal publication is a process that entails close coordination between human resources and technology. CHALLENGES in PUBLICATION The knowledge and skills of the workers should be optimized to get a wide array of publication jobs done no matter the cost. CHALLENGES in PUBLICATION The technology that the publication office needs to upgrade should be given due consideration. CHALLENGES in PUBLICATION This is a revolutionary concept that also requires establishing and updating standards. Source: Style Sheet for PAIR International Journals QUALITY ASSURANCE Authors are advised to subject their paper to plagiarism detection, grammar checker, and readability prior to submission since quality assurance begins with the writer. They should apply the corrections indicated and append the first and final reports. QUALITY ASSURANCE The Editorial Board of each journal prefers scientists who, on their own, initiate the sanitizing part of scientific writing. Standards for Submission C R I T E R I O N #1. Scope, Newness and Relevance/ Applicability to International Community Standards for Submission S T A N D A R D S The scope (extent of what one intends to cover) of the study is wideranging. The aspects of the paper such as, but not limited to, methods and results are seemingly new. The entire paper is interesting to read by other nations. Standards for Submission S T A N D A R D S The research results have international character and applicability. The quality of academic writing reflects the nature and nuances of the discipline. The quality of academic writing is graduate level. Standards for Submission C R I T E R I O N #2: Results of Plagiarism, Grammar and Readability Check Standards for Submission S T A N D A R D The manuscript obtains the minimum result: plagiarism detection – 95%; grammar check – 90%. Standards for Submission C R I T E R I O N #3: Quality of References Standards for Submission S T A N D A R D S Sources (journals, books, and other references) are traceable online unless otherwise a justification is made. Journals are internationally refereed and indexed. Standards for Submission S T A N D A R D S Articles on Wikis and gray literature (non-scientific sources) must be avoided. Scientific sources cited were published preferably in Year 2010 onwards unless otherwise a justification is given. Standards for Submission C R I T E R I O N #4: Completeness of Parts Standards for Submission S T A N D A R D S Each part of the manuscript contains appropriate and sufficient substance. The paper demonstrates the following parts: Standards for Submission 1. HEADING P A R T S Title Name of the Author(s) Email Address Affiliation Address Standards for Submission 2. ABSTRACT P A R T S 3. KEYWORDS 4. INTRODUCTION 5. FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY 6. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Standards for Submission P A R T S 7. METHODOLOGY (for non-experimental researches) MATERIALS AND METHODS (for experimental researches) Standards for Submission P A R T S 8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 9. CONCLUSIONS 10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 11. REFERENCES FULL MANUSCRIPT 1. HEADING Title Boldface 12-15 Title characters by result (preferably); the most important result is made as the title. 1. HEADING Title Catchy, interesting, relevant to international audience Language universally understandable Set the first letter of each key word in uppercase. Do not use title by scope; broad titles For example, Title by Scope: Categorizing Communication Strategies in the Oral Expositions of Tourism Management Students (X) Title by Result: Fillers, Mime and SelfRepetitions as Most Frequently Used Communication Strategies in Oral Expositions (√) 1. HEADING Name of the Author(s) Provide middle initial in the author’s name (or names of the authors for team research), if applicable. Set in uppercase 1. HEADING Email Address Use an email address that is not embarrassing. Pursuant to ISO Standards, no author shall use yahoo mail. An email address (preferably Google account) should at least have his/her name or nickname on it to help other people easily identify him/her. 1. HEADING Affiliation Use the name of the institution in which the author is connected and its geographical location (City and country). 1. HEADING Affiliation For submissions (thesis, dissertation, seminar paper, etc.) completed by a graduate student, the name of the institution from which he/she graduated should be used if funding has been granted, otherwise the author decides on which institution should be used. ILLUSTRATION Research Skills of Graduate School Professors as Input to Training and Development DAVID CABABARO BUENO http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0072-0326 [email protected] Columban College, Inc. Olongapo City, Philippines 2. ABSTRACT Should contain 190 (minimum)- 210 (maximum) words The Abstract must contain five parts written in one paragraph: Introduction to the topic, chief purpose/objective, method, results, and conclusion. 3. KEYWORDS Indicate the discipline of the study, concepts studied, research design/ process and setting of the study (country and continent) as keywords. Set keywords in sentence case. Example: Keywords- Education, teaching strategies, lecture-discussion, descriptive-survey design, Philippines, Asia ILLUSTRATION Abstract- To achieve an effective graduate educational reform, faculty development emerged as a key factor. It facilitates the professional and instructional growth of lecturers and promotes improvement in the institution through helping them to become contributors to the school’s mission. The study was designed to determine the research skills of graduate professors based on the Expected Performance Standards (EPS) set by one Private Higher Education Institution (PHEI) as input to training and development. The descriptive-cross-sectional design and descriptive statistical analysis were used. The teaching outcomes were based on the average performance from the three assessments conducted by the Dean among the professors during the academic year 2014-2015. The results exposed that the faculty were outstanding in achieving the objectives of the graduate program by showing mastery of subject matter, relating current issues and community needs and participating the activities of professional organizations. However, they were just satisfactory in demonstrating mastery of research skills in relation to research output, assisting graduate students in developing research competencies, and showing professional growth through research activities and publications. It is undeniably essential to include in the training and development program the need to continually upgrade their research preparation, dissemination and utilization. Keywords – Graduate education, research skills, professors, training and development, descriptive-cross-sectional design, Olongapo City, Philippines 4. INTRODUCTION The INTRODUCTION should contain: First Section Global situational analysis of the problem supported by the literature from different continents 4. INTRODUCTION Second Section Regional situational analysis supported by literature from the region of the study. Researchers from Middle East, North Africa, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) such as Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam must include literature from these countries to capture the perspective in the study. 4. INTRODUCTION Third Section Local Fourth Gap situational analysis of the problem Section in the literature from the literature reviews that the study intends to find Differentness of the study from other previous studies Compelling reasons of the writer for choosing the problem 4. INTRODUCTION Use several sources with several authors embedded in a sentence. Utilize research review papers and scientific sources preferably from subscription journals because they are more authoritative and credible such as Pubmed, Science Direct, Springer, Proquest, EbscoHost, among others. Note: Basic research and other types of research may follow a different format. 5. FRAMEWORK (Optional for experimental researches) It should contain basic explication of the meaning of the variables of the study. Present the framework in either schematic or textual form merging the theories discussed in which the study was anchored. 5. FRAMEWORK Remove No diagram unless very essential. framework is required (for experimental study). 6. OBJECTIVES State the OBJECTIVES of the study in paragraph form. Use objectives that show what the researcher shall do with the data and not words to indicate what the researcher intends to do as a research process. 6. OBJECTIVES Write the objectives in paragraph form setting one from the others by a number in close parenthesis. Do not use problem statements/ questions. ILLUSTRATION OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY This study was conducted to determine the training needs of graduate faculty based from the expected performance standards set the graduate school in relation to professional performance, instructional procedures and techniques, and evaluation and grading. Moreover, it aimed to propose a specific training and development program to address the research skills of the faculty imbedded on the mentioned performance standards. 7. METHODOLOGY For Pure Sciences: MATERIALS AND METHODS Research Design Research Site Participants Instrumentation Construction, try-out, reliability and validity 7. METHODOLOGY • Research Ethics Protocol Informed consent Clearance from the Ethics Review Board Gratuitous permit from a government agency for floral and faunal studies Permit from the head of the indigenous peoples of the research sites Representative of animal welfare society for clinical studies involving animals Data Collection Statistical Techniques (No formulae needed ) 7. METHODOLOGY For Social Sciences: METHODOLOGY Research Design Research Site Participants Instrumentation Construction, Try-out, Reliability and Validity 7. METHODOLOGY For Social Sciences: Research Ethics Protocol Informed consent Clearance from the Ethics Review Board Data Collection Statistical Techniques ILLUSTRATION METHODOLOGY Research Design The descriptive-cross-sectional design of research was used in the study to obtain information concerning the analysis of the research training needs of the graduate faculty. It one of the common study designs to assess the research skills of the faculty using survey-questionnaire at a given academic year (Alexander, L.K., Lopes, B.; Masterson, K.R. & Yeatts, K.B., 2016). ILLUSTRATION Participants The respondents of the study were the faculty members of the graduate school in one private higher education institution in the Philippines with at least an average of three teaching loads from first to third trimester during the academic year 2014-2015. There were 16 faculty members subjected to the trimestral assessment and evaluation conducted by the Office of the Graduate School. All of them finished doctorate degrees in various specializations such as educational administration, business management, and public administration. Majority of them have been in the graduate school teaching for more than 10 years now. ILLUSTRATION Instrument An instrument on the performance standards was patterned and tailored from the surveyquestionnaire of the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities-Commission on Accreditation (PACUCOA) used during the preliminary visit to the various graduate programs of the College. The specific requirements on professional performance, instructional procedures and techniques, and evaluation and grading were used as the criteria. The same instrument was used for the purposes of determining the training needs of the faculty. To assess the performance standards for graduate faculty, there are 10 items under professional performance (endeavors to achieve the objectives of the graduate school and of the program); 10 items related to instructional procedures and techniques (provides a functional and well-planned syllabus which specifies the target competencies, research and class activities required for course); and seven items for evaluation and grading (uses valid techniques to evaluate student performance). The instrument used the 5 point Likert scale with the corresponding descriptive ratings and analysis for the possible areas for training and development program: (1) Descriptive Rating (DR): (5) 5.00-4.20= Outstanding Competence (OC); (4) 4.19-3.40= Very Satisfactory Competence (VSC); (3) 3.39-2.60= Satisfactory Competence (SC); (2) 2.59-1.80= Fair Competence (FC); (1) 1.79-1.00= No Competence (NC); (2) Analysis: (5) 5.00-4.20= Not Needed (NN); (4) 4.19-3.40= Sometimes Needed (SN); (3) 3.39-2.60= Needed (N); (2) 2.591.80= Much Needed (MN); (1) 1.79-1.00= Very Much Needed (VMN). ILLUSTRATION Instrument (cont.) These criteria were subjected to face and construct validity by the previous administrators of the graduate school and graduate education experts and professors after taking into consideration the expected performance standards for graduate faculty by an external accrediting agency. The juries used the same descriptive ratings and analysis clearly indicated in the instrument. The result of the average computed mean of the juries was 4.62 interpreted as “Outstanding Competence”. After the validation of the instrument, reliability test was conducted to determine the consistency of the scores using the instrument measuring the same set of skills with similar type of study was established. In this study, the Test-Retest Method was used to examine the reliability of the questionnaire. The validated instrument underwent pilot testing to a select group of graduate faculty in one private university. After two weeks, the same questionnaire was administered to the same group. Pearson-Product Moment Correlation was used to correlate data gathered. The computed coefficient of correlation was 0.89 (Very High). The result was interpreted based on the following: 1.0 (Perfect); 0.81 - 0.99 (Very High); 0.61 - 0.80 (High); 0.41 - 0.60 (Moderate); 0.21 0.40 (Low); and 0.01 - 0.20 (Negligible correlation). Thus, the computed correlation value indicated that the instrument was reliable. ILLUSTRATION Data Gathering Procedure After subjecting the questionnaire to validity and reliability tests, a letter of request to the Office of the President endorsed by the Vice President for Academics and Students Services (VP-AASS) was properly secured in the conduct of survey and assessments of the graduate faculty. Data were gathered towards the end of every trimester (first to third trimester) during the academic year 2014-2015 among the graduate faculty. The Dean conducted face-to-face and personal assessment using the instrument. Each faculty was formally introduced to the purposes of the study and assured of the strict confidentiality of the data gathered. The data gathered were collated, treated and analyzed in accordance to the objective of the study. A spreadsheet software was used for more efficient, effective and accurate treatment of data. The level of competence of the faculty relative to the specific indicators of the performance standards was the basis for the analysis towards training and development program. Thus, the gap between what is expected as to the level of competence and the trainings needed to improve such professional performance was determined. 8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Sometimes termed DISCUSSION only for theoretical papers Answers to objectives Highlight salient findings of the study supported by global, regional and local 8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Use keywords from objectives as side-head of the Results and Discussion. Intercontinental literature support of the data (in-text citation) Summary tables and significant results 8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Long tables with brimming data should be avoided especially when the text can stand to discuss and/or explain the data. Validation of the theory used (integrated) Provide a critique on the methods and theories used in the last paragraph. 9. CONCLUSIONS In paragraph form, not broken down Highlight new discovery (if any) that you obtained only after completing the study, something (not found in the literature) which contributes to new knowledge. This section supports or negates previous conclusions, validates theory used and/or generates new theory. ILLUSTRATION CONCLUSION In order to capacitate graduate school faculty to become globally competitive, research capability training and development become the first priority in the strategic planning and development initiative of the school administrators. The integrated activities in the strategic plan will surely hone the faculty competencies and efficacies in research as evidenced by their own research publication, assisting students in developing competencies at the graduate level research, and eventually showing interest dealing with professional growth through post-doctoral studies, research writing and publications; and sharing their knowledge or expertise with external stakeholders. Regular attendance to in-service training programs will likewise develop stronger awareness relative trends and issues in graduate education. It is undeniably important that administrative and financial support to faculty to continually upgrade their research skills and preparation, publication, dissemination and utilization are needed. 10. RECOMMENDATIONS Write recommendations only for national, regional and global significance and application. 11. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS (Optional) Limited to funders of the research with grants award number code and data Acknowledge service agencies that funded the study (required). Sources of data mined, e.g. WHO, UNESCO Do not acknowledge God, family, friends, colleagues 12. REFERENCES All references used in the manuscript should be traceable online. Authors are cautioned from using gray literature (any work that is NOT scientifically peer reviewed and published in internationally indexed research journals). Prefer references which have earned citations already. 12. LITERATURE CITED URL should be shortened; go to goo.gl and paste your long URL in the search box to obtain the short URL then replace your long URL. Include Digital Object Identifier (DOI), copy the DOI and DO NOT copy the URL anymore. 12. LITERATURE CITED NOTE: Do not label this section “Bibliography”. A bibliography contains references that you may have read but have not specifically cited in the text. Bibliography sections are found in books and other literary writing, but not scientific journal-style papers. 12. LITERATURE CITED Long URL Speer, J. H. (2010). Fundamentals of tree-ring research. University of Arizona Press. Retrieved on May 1, 2014 from http://books.google.com.ph/books? id=XtxEbCzbKUUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=trees +2010&hl=en&sa=X &ei=ha8U8vKIsn3igKH9oHADA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q =trees%20 2010&f=false 12. LITERATURE CITED Shortened URL through goo.gl Speer, J. H. (2010). Fundamentals of tree-ring research. University of Arizona Press. Retrieved on May 1, 2014 from http://goo.gl/Od2qtR 12. LITERATURE CITED o Authored book (two authors) Taraban, R. & Kerr, M. (2004). Analytic and pragmatic factors in college students’ metacognitive reading strategies. Reading Psychology Retrieved on February 12, 2013 from http://www.cognitivesolutionslc.com/metacogread.pdf 12. LITERATURE CITED o Authored book (more than two authors) Taraban, H., Cotter, R., Confir, T. & Jefferson, F. (2004). Analytic and pragmatic factors in college students’ metacognitive reading strategies. Reading Psychology Retrieved on February 12, 2013 from http://www.cognitivesolutionslc.com/ metacogread.pdff 12. LITERATURE CITED Article in an online scientific journal Include the issue number in parenthesis (not underlined) immediately following the volume number and preceding the page numbers. Bogaards, P. (2013) Deux langues, quatre dictionnaires. Lexicographica, 12(6),162-173. Retrieved on March 12, 2012 from http://www.wuenjournal.com/ regular.pdf Differences Between a Thesis/ Dissertation and a Journal Article Questions? REFERENCES Bueno, D.C. (2007). Elements of Research and Thesis Writing. Syneraide Publishing, Quezon City, Phil. Bueno, D.C. (2016). Educational Research Writing. Great Books Trading, Manila, Philippines Bueno, D.C. (2016). Research Writing for Business and Hospitality Students. Great Books Trading, Manila, Philippines. Bueno, D.C. (2016). Practical Quantitative Research Writing. Books at ibpa, Manila, Philippines. Bueno, D.C. (2016). Practical Qualitative Research Writing. Great Books Trading, Manila, Philippines. Bueno, D.C. (2016). Statistics for Research. Great Books Trading, Manila, Philippines. JPAIR Multidisciplinary Research Journal Publication System Bibliography Altrichter, Herbert; Feldman, Allan; Posch, Peter; & Somekh, Bridget. (2008). Teachers investigate their work: An introduction to action research across the professions (2nd Ed.). London: Routledge. Craig, Dorothy Valcarcel. (2009). Action research essentials. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Johnson, Andrew P. (2008). A short guide to action research. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. Lassonde, Cynthia A.; & Israel, Susan E. (2008). Teachers taking action: A comprehensive guide to teacher research. Newman, DE: International Reading Association. Mertler, Craig A. (2009). Action research: Teachers as researchers in the classroom. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Sagor, Richard. (2005). The action research guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. “Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest.”-Matthew 11:28 Dr. David Cababaro Bueno Dean, Graduate School Director, Research and Publications Office AB-General Science BSE-General Science Master of Arts in Science Education Doctor of Education Master in Public Management Master in Business Administration Doctor in Business Administration Doctor in Public Management (ip) LET Author of 21 Books and Modules Author of 89 Research Journal Articles/ Abstracts [email protected] [email protected] fb : Doc Dave Thank You po !!!