TRENDS in RESEARCH WRITING for
INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATIONS
DR. DAVID CABABARO BUENO
Dean- Graduate School
Director- Research and Publications Office
Columban College, Inc.-Olongapo City
[email protected]
[email protected]
Research
 Is
exploration combined
with learning.
A
"detailed study of a
subject in order to discover
information or achieve a
new understanding of it."
R
E
S
E
A
R
C
H
A
process of searching,
discovering, and
investigating
information, as well as
collecting, interpreting,
and evaluating the
information you find.
R
E
S
E
A
R
C
H
Research
= expansion
of knowledge + inquiry
and investigation aimed
at the discovery of facts,
theories, or laws.
S
U
R
V
I
V
O
r
Tip
To
be a successful
researcher, you need to
develop knowledge and
skills in information
literacy and research
and build upon these
skills year after year.
I
N
F
O
R
M
A
T
I
O
N
LITERACY
To
be a successful
researcher, you need to
develop knowledge and
skills in information
literacy and research and
build upon these skills
year after year
I
N
F
O
R
M
A
T
I
O
N
LITERACY
One
must know how to
apply the tools and
techniques for finding,
evaluating, and using
information effectively
WHY
do
R
E
S
E
A
R
C
H
 Applying
concepts learned in
coursework to "real life"
situations.
 Learning
about issues, and
methods in chosen fields.
 Sharpening
skills.
 Learn
problem-solving
to read primary literature.
WHY
do
R
E
S
E
A
R
C
H
 Exploring
and preparing for
future careers.
 Enhancing
professional
communication skills.
 Developing
marketable skills.
 Collaborating
with others and
working effectively as part of a
team.
WHY
do
R
E
S
E
A
R
C
H

Discovering personal
interests.

Growing as a critical,
analytical, and independent
thinker.

Developing internal
standards of excellence.
CHALLENGES in PUBLICATION
•Journal publication
is a
process that entails close
coordination between human
resources and technology.
CHALLENGES in PUBLICATION
The knowledge and skills of
the workers should be optimized
to get a wide array of publication
jobs done no matter the cost.
CHALLENGES in PUBLICATION
The technology that the
publication office needs to
upgrade should be given due
consideration.
CHALLENGES in PUBLICATION
This is a revolutionary
concept that also requires
establishing and updating
standards.
Source: Style Sheet for PAIR International Journals
QUALITY ASSURANCE
 Authors
are advised to subject their
paper to plagiarism detection, grammar
checker, and readability prior to
submission since quality assurance begins
with the writer.
 They
should apply the corrections
indicated and append the first and final
reports.
QUALITY ASSURANCE
 The
Editorial Board of each
journal prefers scientists who,
on their own, initiate the
sanitizing part of scientific
writing.
Standards for Submission
C
R
I
T
E
R
I
O
N
#1. Scope, Newness and
Relevance/ Applicability to
International Community
Standards for Submission
S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D
S
The scope (extent of what one
intends to cover) of the study is wideranging.
The aspects of the paper such as,
but not limited to, methods and
results are seemingly new.
The entire paper is interesting to
read by other nations.
Standards for Submission
S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D
S
The research results have
international character and
applicability.
The quality of academic writing
reflects the nature and nuances of the
discipline.
The quality of academic writing is
graduate level.
Standards for Submission
C
R
I
T
E
R
I
O
N
#2: Results of Plagiarism,
Grammar and Readability
Check
Standards for Submission
S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D
The manuscript obtains the
minimum result: plagiarism
detection – 95%; grammar check –
90%.
Standards for Submission
C
R
I
T
E
R
I
O
N
#3: Quality of References
Standards for Submission
S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D
S
Sources (journals, books, and other
references) are traceable online
unless otherwise a justification is
made.
Journals are internationally
refereed and indexed.
Standards for Submission
S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D
S
Articles on Wikis and gray
literature (non-scientific sources)
must be avoided.
Scientific sources cited were
published preferably in Year 2010
onwards unless otherwise a
justification is given.
Standards for Submission
C
R
I
T
E
R
I
O
N
#4: Completeness of Parts
Standards for Submission
S
T
A
N
D
A
R
D
S
Each part of the manuscript
contains appropriate and sufficient
substance.
The paper demonstrates the
following parts:
Standards for Submission
1. HEADING
P
A
R
T
S





Title
Name of the Author(s)
Email Address
Affiliation
Address
Standards for Submission
2. ABSTRACT
P
A
R
T
S
3. KEYWORDS
4. INTRODUCTION
5. FRAMEWORK OF THE STUDY
6. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Standards for Submission
P
A
R
T
S
7. METHODOLOGY (for non-experimental
researches)
MATERIALS AND METHODS (for experimental
researches)
Standards for Submission
P
A
R
T
S
8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
9. CONCLUSIONS
10. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
11. REFERENCES
FULL MANUSCRIPT
1. HEADING
Title
 Boldface
 12-15
 Title
characters
by result (preferably); the most
important result is made as the title.
1. HEADING
Title
 Catchy,
interesting, relevant to
international audience
 Language
universally understandable
 Set
the first letter of each key word in
uppercase.
 Do
not use title by scope; broad titles
For example,
 Title by Scope: Categorizing
Communication Strategies in the Oral
Expositions of Tourism Management
Students (X)
 Title by Result: Fillers,
Mime and SelfRepetitions as Most Frequently Used
Communication Strategies in Oral
Expositions (√)
1. HEADING
Name
of the Author(s)
Provide
middle initial in the
author’s name (or names of the
authors for team research), if
applicable.
Set
in uppercase
1. HEADING
Email
Address
 Use
an email address that is not
embarrassing.
 Pursuant
to ISO Standards, no author shall
use yahoo mail. An email address
(preferably Google account) should at least
have his/her name or nickname on it to
help other people easily identify him/her.
1. HEADING
Affiliation
Use
the name of the institution
in which the author is
connected and its geographical
location (City and country).
1. HEADING
Affiliation
 For
submissions (thesis, dissertation,
seminar paper, etc.) completed by a
graduate student, the name of the
institution from which he/she graduated
should be used if funding has been
granted, otherwise the author decides
on which institution should be used.
ILLUSTRATION
Research Skills of Graduate School
Professors as Input to Training and
Development
DAVID CABABARO BUENO
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0072-0326
[email protected]
Columban College, Inc.
Olongapo City, Philippines
2. ABSTRACT
 Should
contain 190 (minimum)- 210
(maximum) words
 The
Abstract must contain five parts
written in one paragraph: Introduction to the
topic, chief purpose/objective, method, results,
and conclusion.
3. KEYWORDS

Indicate the discipline of the study, concepts
studied, research design/ process and setting of
the study (country and continent) as keywords.

Set keywords in sentence case.
Example:

Keywords-
Education, teaching strategies, lecture-discussion,
descriptive-survey design, Philippines, Asia
ILLUSTRATION
Abstract- To achieve an effective graduate educational reform, faculty development emerged as a
key factor. It facilitates the professional and instructional growth of lecturers and promotes
improvement in the institution through helping them to become contributors to the school’s
mission. The study was designed to determine the research skills of graduate professors based
on the Expected Performance Standards (EPS) set by one Private Higher Education Institution
(PHEI) as input to training and development. The descriptive-cross-sectional design and
descriptive statistical analysis were used. The teaching outcomes were based on the average
performance from the three assessments conducted by the Dean among the professors during
the academic year 2014-2015. The results exposed that the faculty were outstanding in
achieving the objectives of the graduate program by showing mastery of subject matter, relating
current issues and community needs and participating the activities of professional
organizations. However, they were just satisfactory in demonstrating mastery of research skills
in relation to research output, assisting graduate students in developing research
competencies, and showing professional growth through research activities and publications. It
is undeniably essential to include in the training and development program the need to
continually upgrade their research preparation, dissemination and utilization.
Keywords – Graduate education, research skills, professors, training and development,
descriptive-cross-sectional design, Olongapo City, Philippines
4. INTRODUCTION

The INTRODUCTION should contain:
 First
Section
Global
situational analysis of the
problem supported by the literature
from different continents
4. INTRODUCTION
 Second
Section
 Regional
situational analysis supported by
literature from the region of the study.
Researchers from Middle East, North Africa,
the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) such as Brunei Darussalam,
Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia,
Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand
and Vietnam must include literature from
these countries to capture the perspective
in the study.
4. INTRODUCTION
 Third
Section
 Local
 Fourth
 Gap
situational analysis of the problem
Section
in the literature from the literature
reviews that the study intends to find
 Differentness of the study from other
previous studies
 Compelling reasons of the writer for
choosing the problem
4. INTRODUCTION

Use several sources with several authors
embedded in a sentence.

Utilize research review papers and scientific
sources preferably from subscription journals
because they are more authoritative and
credible such as Pubmed, Science Direct,
Springer, Proquest, EbscoHost, among others.

Note: Basic research and other types of research may follow a different
format.
5. FRAMEWORK

(Optional for experimental researches)

It should contain basic explication of the
meaning of the variables of the study.

Present the framework in either schematic
or textual form merging the theories
discussed in which the study was
anchored.
5. FRAMEWORK
 Remove
 No
diagram unless very essential.
framework is required (for
experimental study).
6. OBJECTIVES

State the OBJECTIVES of the study in
paragraph form.

Use objectives that show what the
researcher shall do with the data and not
words to indicate what the researcher
intends to do as a research process.
6. OBJECTIVES
 Write
the objectives in paragraph form
setting one from the others by a number
in close parenthesis.
 Do
not use problem statements/
questions.
ILLUSTRATION
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study was conducted to determine the training needs of
graduate faculty based from the expected performance
standards set the graduate school in relation to professional
performance, instructional procedures and techniques, and
evaluation and grading. Moreover, it aimed to propose a specific
training and development program to address the research skills
of the faculty imbedded on the mentioned performance
standards.
7. METHODOLOGY
 For

Pure Sciences:
MATERIALS AND METHODS
 Research
Design
 Research Site
 Participants
 Instrumentation
 Construction,
try-out, reliability and validity
7. METHODOLOGY
•
Research Ethics Protocol
 Informed
consent
 Clearance
from the Ethics Review Board
 Gratuitous
permit from a government agency for
floral and faunal studies
 Permit
from the head of the indigenous peoples of
the research sites
 Representative
of animal welfare society for clinical
studies involving animals
 Data
Collection
 Statistical Techniques (No formulae needed )
7. METHODOLOGY
For

Social Sciences:
METHODOLOGY
 Research Design
 Research Site
Participants
 Instrumentation
Construction, Try-out, Reliability and
Validity
7. METHODOLOGY
For
Social Sciences:
 Research
Ethics Protocol
Informed consent
Clearance from the Ethics Review Board
 Data
Collection
 Statistical
Techniques
ILLUSTRATION
METHODOLOGY

Research Design

The descriptive-cross-sectional design of research was used in
the study to obtain information concerning the analysis of the
research training needs of the graduate faculty. It one of the
common study designs to assess the research skills of the
faculty using survey-questionnaire at a given academic year
(Alexander, L.K., Lopes, B.; Masterson, K.R. & Yeatts, K.B.,
2016).
ILLUSTRATION

Participants

The respondents of the study were the faculty members of the
graduate school in one private higher education institution in the
Philippines with at least an average of three teaching loads from
first to third trimester during the academic year 2014-2015.
There were 16 faculty members subjected to the trimestral
assessment and evaluation conducted by the Office of the
Graduate School. All of them finished doctorate degrees in
various specializations such as educational administration,
business management, and public administration. Majority of
them have been in the graduate school teaching for more than
10 years now.
ILLUSTRATION

Instrument

An instrument on the performance standards was patterned and tailored from the surveyquestionnaire of the Philippine Association of Colleges and Universities-Commission on
Accreditation (PACUCOA) used during the preliminary visit to the various graduate programs of
the College. The specific requirements on professional performance, instructional procedures
and techniques, and evaluation and grading were used as the criteria. The same instrument
was used for the purposes of determining the training needs of the faculty. To assess the
performance standards for graduate faculty, there are 10 items under professional performance
(endeavors to achieve the objectives of the graduate school and of the program); 10 items
related to instructional procedures and techniques (provides a functional and well-planned
syllabus which specifies the target competencies, research and class activities required for
course); and seven items for evaluation and grading (uses valid techniques to evaluate student
performance). The instrument used the 5 point Likert scale with the corresponding descriptive
ratings and analysis for the possible areas for training and development program: (1)
Descriptive Rating (DR): (5) 5.00-4.20= Outstanding Competence (OC); (4) 4.19-3.40= Very
Satisfactory Competence (VSC); (3) 3.39-2.60= Satisfactory Competence (SC); (2) 2.59-1.80=
Fair Competence (FC); (1) 1.79-1.00= No Competence (NC); (2) Analysis: (5) 5.00-4.20= Not
Needed (NN); (4) 4.19-3.40= Sometimes Needed (SN); (3) 3.39-2.60= Needed (N); (2) 2.591.80= Much Needed (MN); (1) 1.79-1.00= Very Much Needed (VMN).
ILLUSTRATION

Instrument (cont.)

These criteria were subjected to face and construct validity by the previous
administrators of the graduate school and graduate education experts and professors
after taking into consideration the expected performance standards for graduate faculty
by an external accrediting agency. The juries used the same descriptive ratings and
analysis clearly indicated in the instrument. The result of the average computed mean
of the juries was 4.62 interpreted as “Outstanding Competence”. After the validation of
the instrument, reliability test was conducted to determine the consistency of the
scores using the instrument measuring the same set of skills with similar type of study
was established. In this study, the Test-Retest Method was used to examine the
reliability of the questionnaire. The validated instrument underwent pilot testing to a
select group of graduate faculty in one private university. After two weeks, the same
questionnaire was administered to the same group. Pearson-Product Moment
Correlation was used to correlate data gathered. The computed coefficient of
correlation was 0.89 (Very High). The result was interpreted based on the following: 1.0
(Perfect); 0.81 - 0.99 (Very High); 0.61 - 0.80 (High); 0.41 - 0.60 (Moderate); 0.21 0.40 (Low); and 0.01 - 0.20 (Negligible correlation). Thus, the computed correlation
value indicated that the instrument was reliable.
ILLUSTRATION

Data Gathering Procedure

After subjecting the questionnaire to validity and reliability tests, a letter of
request to the Office of the President endorsed by the Vice President for
Academics and Students Services (VP-AASS) was properly secured in the
conduct of survey and assessments of the graduate faculty. Data were
gathered towards the end of every trimester (first to third trimester) during the
academic year 2014-2015 among the graduate faculty. The Dean conducted
face-to-face and personal assessment using the instrument. Each faculty was
formally introduced to the purposes of the study and assured of the strict
confidentiality of the data gathered. The data gathered were collated, treated
and analyzed in accordance to the objective of the study. A spreadsheet
software was used for more efficient, effective and accurate treatment of data.
The level of competence of the faculty relative to the specific indicators of the
performance standards was the basis for the analysis towards training and
development program. Thus, the gap between what is expected as to the level
of competence and the trainings needed to improve such professional
performance was determined.
8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Sometimes termed DISCUSSION only for
theoretical papers

Answers to objectives

Highlight salient findings of the study
supported by global, regional and local
8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Use keywords from objectives as side-head
of the Results and Discussion.

Intercontinental literature support of the
data (in-text citation)

Summary tables and significant results
8. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Long tables with brimming data should be
avoided especially when the text can stand
to discuss and/or explain the data.

Validation of the theory used (integrated)

Provide a critique on the methods and
theories used in the last paragraph.
9. CONCLUSIONS

In paragraph form, not broken down

Highlight new discovery (if any) that you
obtained only after completing the study,
something (not found in the literature) which
contributes to new knowledge.

This section supports or negates previous
conclusions, validates theory used and/or
generates new theory.
ILLUSTRATION
CONCLUSION

In order to capacitate graduate school faculty to become globally competitive,
research capability training and development become the first priority in the
strategic planning and development initiative of the school administrators. The
integrated activities in the strategic plan will surely hone the faculty
competencies and efficacies in research as evidenced by their own research
publication, assisting students in developing competencies at the graduate
level research, and eventually showing interest dealing with professional
growth through post-doctoral studies, research writing and publications; and
sharing their knowledge or expertise with external stakeholders. Regular
attendance to in-service training programs will likewise develop stronger
awareness relative trends and issues in graduate education. It is undeniably
important that administrative and financial support to faculty to continually
upgrade their research skills and preparation, publication, dissemination and
utilization are needed.
10. RECOMMENDATIONS

Write recommendations only for
national, regional and global
significance and application.
11. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

(Optional)

Limited to funders of the research with
grants award number code and data

Acknowledge service agencies that funded
the study (required).

Sources of data mined, e.g. WHO, UNESCO

Do not acknowledge God, family, friends,
colleagues
12. REFERENCES

All references used in the manuscript should
be traceable online.

Authors are cautioned from using gray
literature (any work that is NOT scientifically
peer reviewed and published in
internationally indexed research journals).

Prefer references which have earned
citations already.
12. LITERATURE CITED

URL should be shortened; go to goo.gl and
paste your long URL in the search box to
obtain the short URL then replace your
long URL.

Include Digital Object Identifier (DOI),
copy the DOI and DO NOT copy the URL
anymore.
12. LITERATURE CITED

NOTE: Do not label this section
“Bibliography”. A bibliography contains
references that you may have read but
have not specifically cited in the text.
 Bibliography
sections are found in books
and other literary writing, but not
scientific journal-style papers.
12. LITERATURE CITED
 Long
URL
Speer, J. H. (2010). Fundamentals of tree-ring
research. University of Arizona Press. Retrieved
on May 1, 2014 from
http://books.google.com.ph/books?
id=XtxEbCzbKUUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=trees
+2010&hl=en&sa=X &ei=ha8U8vKIsn3igKH9oHADA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q
=trees%20 2010&f=false
12. LITERATURE CITED
 Shortened
URL through goo.gl
Speer, J. H. (2010). Fundamentals of tree-ring
research. University of Arizona Press. Retrieved
on May 1, 2014 from http://goo.gl/Od2qtR
12. LITERATURE CITED
o
Authored book (two authors)
Taraban, R. & Kerr, M. (2004). Analytic and pragmatic
factors in college students’ metacognitive reading
strategies. Reading Psychology Retrieved on February
12, 2013 from
http://www.cognitivesolutionslc.com/metacogread.pdf
12. LITERATURE CITED
o
Authored book (more than two authors)
Taraban, H., Cotter, R., Confir, T. & Jefferson, F. (2004).
Analytic and pragmatic factors in college students’
metacognitive reading strategies. Reading Psychology
Retrieved on February 12, 2013 from
http://www.cognitivesolutionslc.com/
metacogread.pdff
12. LITERATURE CITED

Article in an online scientific journal

Include the issue number in parenthesis (not
underlined) immediately following the volume
number and preceding the page numbers.
Bogaards, P. (2013) Deux langues, quatre
dictionnaires. Lexicographica, 12(6),162-173.
Retrieved on March 12, 2012 from
http://www.wuenjournal.com/ regular.pdf
Differences
Between a Thesis/
Dissertation and a
Journal Article
Questions?
REFERENCES
Bueno, D.C. (2007). Elements of Research and Thesis Writing. Syneraide Publishing,
Quezon City, Phil.
Bueno, D.C. (2016). Educational Research Writing. Great Books Trading, Manila,
Philippines
Bueno, D.C. (2016). Research Writing for Business and Hospitality Students. Great Books
Trading, Manila, Philippines.
Bueno, D.C. (2016). Practical Quantitative Research Writing. Books at ibpa, Manila,
Philippines.
Bueno, D.C. (2016). Practical Qualitative Research Writing. Great Books Trading, Manila,
Philippines.
Bueno, D.C. (2016). Statistics for Research. Great Books Trading, Manila, Philippines.
JPAIR Multidisciplinary Research Journal Publication System
Bibliography
Altrichter, Herbert; Feldman, Allan; Posch, Peter; & Somekh, Bridget. (2008).
Teachers investigate their work: An introduction to action research across the
professions (2nd Ed.). London: Routledge.
Craig, Dorothy Valcarcel. (2009). Action research essentials. San Francisco, CA:
Jossey-Bass.
Johnson, Andrew P. (2008). A short guide to action research. Boston: Pearson
Education, Inc.
Lassonde, Cynthia A.; & Israel, Susan E. (2008). Teachers taking action: A
comprehensive guide to teacher research. Newman, DE: International
Reading Association.
Mertler, Craig A. (2009). Action research: Teachers as researchers in the
classroom. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Sagor, Richard. (2005). The action research guidebook. Thousand Oaks, CA:
Corwin Press.
“Come to me, all you
who are weary and
burdened, and I will
give you rest.”-Matthew
11:28
Dr. David Cababaro Bueno
Dean, Graduate School
Director, Research and Publications Office

AB-General Science

BSE-General Science

Master of Arts in Science Education



Doctor of Education
Master in Public Management

Master in Business Administration

Doctor in Business Administration

Doctor in Public Management (ip)


LET
Author of 21 Books and Modules
Author of 89 Research Journal Articles/ Abstracts
[email protected]
[email protected]
fb : Doc Dave
Thank You
po !!!

DR. DAVID CABABARO BUENO_ TRENDS in RESEARCH WRITING for INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATIONS BATAAN