Chapter 5 States of Consciousness
Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. When a person is in a state of clear, organized alertness and perceives times, places, and events as real,
meaningful, and familiar, he or she is said to be
a. in waking consciousness.
b. experiencing a state similar to non-REM.
c. experiencing sensory overload.
d. in an altered state of consciousness.
2. Making the sleep-waking cycles shorter is not recommended because sleep
a. cycles cannot be altered by external factors.
b. is an innate biological rhythm.
c. is set by a number of unchanging external markers.
d. must match a three to one ratio of time awake and time asleep.
3. Regarding sleep, which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
a. Sleep is caused by the accumulation of chemicals in the blood.
b. Whether one is awake or asleep depends on the balance between separate sleep and
waking systems.
c. The brain tends to “shut down” during sleep, with brain activity decreasing dramatically.
d. All of these statements are true.
4. Which waves are characteristic of Stage 1 or light sleep?
a. beta waves
b. large regular waves with some sleep spindles
c. small irregular waves with some alpha waves
d. delta waves
5. A hypnic jerk usually occurs during
a. light sleep.
b. deep sleep.
c. episodes of hypersomnia.
d. episodes of sleep apnea.
6. Short bursts of brain activity in Stage 2 sleep are called
a. delta waves.
b. recurrent beta waves.
c. sleep spindles.
d. cortical waves.
7. Sleep spindles usually first appear in Stage __________ sleep.
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
8. Regarding REM sleep, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. REM sleep has a fast, irregular EEG pattern similar to Stage 1 sleep.
b. When measured by an EEG, the brain during REM sleep looks as if the person is awake.
c. Physical exertion tends to increase REM sleep.
d. Newborn babies spend eight or nine hours a day in REM sleep, which is 50 percent of
their total sleep time.
9. Concerning REM sleep, which of the following statements is TRUE?
a. People who are born blind do not experience REM sleep.
b. Dreams during REM sleep tend to be longer, clearer, more detailed, more bizarre, and
more “dream-like” than thoughts and images than occur in NREM sleep.
c. Roughly 85 percent of the time, people who are awakened during REM sleep report
having no dreams.
d. REM sleep is shown in reptiles, such as snakes and iguanas.
Chapter 5 States of Consciousness
____ 10. Concerning REM sleep, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Roughly 85 percent of the time, people awakened during REM sleep report having vivid
b. After studying for a long period, you will remember more if you go to sleep than if you
pull an all-nighter.
c. REM sleep is a combination of sleep spindles and very deep delta waves.
d. People who are born blind experience REM sleep.
____ 11. At least twice a week, Deanna has recurring “bad dreams” during REM sleep that are so real and terrifying
that they significantly disturb her sleep. Deanna has which sleep disturbance?
a. sleep terror disorder
b. narcolepsy
c. somnambulism
d. nightmare disorder
____ 12. Sleep drunkenness is associated with
a. alcohol use.
b. drug-dependency insomnia.
c. excessive daytime sleepiness.
d. being slow to wake up and displaying irritability or aggressiveness.
____ 13. Which sleep disturbance involves a state of panic during NREM sleep that occurs repeatedly over a period of
several months?
a. nightmare disorder
b. narcolepsy
c. sleep terror disorder
d. hypersomnia
____ 14. Regarding insomnia, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. About 60 million Americans have frequent or chronic insomnia.
b. Insomnia can harm people’s work, health, and relationships.
c. If sleep problems last for more than one week, then a diagnosis of chronic insomnia can be
d. If you have insomnia, it is usually best to get up and do something useful or satisfying
until you feel that you are struggling to stay awake.
____ 15. Which type of insomnia is caused by worry, stress, or excitement; is characterized by excess mental activity
and heightened arousal leading to frustration; and is best dealt with by getting up and doing something useful
or satisfying?
a. cyclic insomnia
b. temporary insomnia
c. chronic insomnia
d. drug-dependency insomnia
____ 16. Getting up and doing something useful works best in combating __________ insomnia.
a. temporary
b. chronic
c. cyclic
d. drug-dependency
____ 17. Your friend tells you that his doctor has just prescribed a sedative to combat persistent insomnia. He asks for
your opinion about taking the sedative. You should advise him to
a. take non-prescription sleeping pills instead.
b. be aware of the danger of drug-dependency insomnia.
c. expect occasional paradoxical sleep if he takes the sedative for an extended period.
d. tell him to expect to act out some very bizarre dreams since sedatives can cause REM
behavior disorder.
Chapter 5 States of Consciousness
____ 18. Lindsay is having trouble going to sleep. Which food would be recommended for her to eat or drink if she
wanted to increase her intake of tryptophan?
a. a baked potato
b. a hamburger
c. orange juice
d. a glass of red wine
____ 19. Regarding sleepwalkers, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. The sleepwalker’s eyes are usually closed.
b. The sleepwalker usually has a blank face and shuffles his or her feet.
c. Awakening a sleepwalker does no harm, but it is not necessary.
d. Sleepwalkers have been known to play a musical instrument, drive a car, or cook while
____ 20. Regarding sleepwalkers, which of the following statements is/are TRUE?
a. Sleepwalking occurs most often in association with narcolepsy.
b. Sleepwalking is the outward expression of dream content.
c. Sleepwalking occurs during NREM stages 3 and 4 sleep.
d. All of these statements are true.
____ 21. EEGs have shown that sleepwalking occurs during
a. NREM stage 1 or stage 2.
b. NREM stage 3 or stage 4.
c. sleep spindles.
d. REM sleep.
____ 22. Kyanna sometimes stops breathing for more than 20 seconds while sleeping. This can happen hundreds of
times per night. She has
a. a sleep terror disorder.
b. narcolepsy.
c. sleep apnea.
d. a nightmare disorder.
____ 23. Ashley seems to fall asleep in the middle of a conversation. She has even suffered one of these sleep attacks
while standing. She is likely to suffer from the sleep disturbance referred to as
a. hypersomnia.
b. insomnia.
c. narcolepsy.
d. somnambulism.
____ 24. Which sleep researcher awakened volunteers each time they entered REM sleep and discovered the effect
known as REM rebound?.
a. Stephen LaBerge
b. Ernest Hartmann
c. William Dement
d. Robert McCarley
____ 25. The sleep researcher William Dement awakened volunteers each time they entered REM sleep. Which of the
following wa NOT one of Dement’s findings?
a. By the fifth night, many of the volunteers had to be awakened 20 to 30 times to prevent
REM sleep.
b. During their waking hours, the volunteers, who were deprived of REM sleep, complained
of memory lapses, poor concentration, and anxiety.
c. When volunteers were finally allowed to sleep undisturbed, they exhibited extra amounts
of dream sleep.
d. After being REM sleep deprived, the volunteers exhibited more instances of sleep terrors
and/or somnambulism.
Chapter 5 States of Consciousness
____ 26. The experiments on sleep and dream deprivation showed that when there was a deprivation of a sleep or
dream stage, a rebound effect would occur
a. only for REM sleep.
b. only for NREM sleep.
c. for any NREM or REM sleep stage.
d. for none of the sleep or dream stages.
____ 27. Rhonda remembers that she had a dream last night about walking on a beach and picking up shells, while the
sun was bright and warm. These remembered parts of the dream are known as the __________content.
b. REM
c. manifest
d. latent
____ 28. According to Hobson and McCarley, dreams are more primitive and more bizarre than daytime thoughts
a. dreaming provides an outlet for repressed thoughts and unfulfilled wishes.
b. the frontal areas of the cortex, which control higher mental abilities, are mostly shut down
during REM sleep.
c. the id part of the personality is expressed more strongly during sleep.
d. of lucid dreaming.
____ 29. According to Ernest Hilgard, hypnosis may cause
a. severe psychosis.
b. a loss of control of one's behavior.
c. withdrawal symptoms for a repressed emotion.
d. dissociation state or a "split in awareness."
____ 30. A detached part of the hypnotized person’s awareness that silently observes events is known as the
a. actualized self.
b. phantom observer.
c. hidden observer.
d. alter ego.
____ 31. Regarding how a person would act under hypnosis, which of the following statements is TRUE?
a. Most people will do anything they are asked to do under hypnosis, including violent acts
against others.
b. Most people will not act out hypnotic suggestions that they consider immoral or repulsive.
c. Most people are unaware of what is going on and, therefore, lack control of their behavior.
d. Most people can be hypnotized against their wills or without conscious knowledge that it
is happening.
____ 32. The amnesia test, postural sway, finger lock, arm rigidity, and eye catalepsy are components of a test for
a. hypnotic susceptibility.
b. alcoholism intoxication.
c. amphetamine psychosis.
d. the meditation relaxation response.
____ 33. Which of the following is most likely to occur as a consequence of hypnosis?
a. increases in strength to superhuman levels
b. genuine regression to earlier age levels
c. altered sensory experiences
d. increased accuracy of memory that is accepted in courts in all U.S. states
____ 34. Which of the following is LEAST often used by stage hypnotists?
a. actual induction of hypnosis
b. waking suggestibility
c. selection of responsive subjects
d. tricks and deception
Chapter 5 States of Consciousness
____ 35. Diane is sitting cross-legged and concentrating only on her breathing. She is practicing
a. concentrative meditation.
b. mindfulness meditation.
c. imagery rehearsal.
d. lucid dreaming.
____ 36. Psychologists have used small isolation tanks in which a participant floats in shallow body- temperature water
containing hundreds of pounds of Epsom salts to explore the possible benefits of
a. sensory restriction.
b. hydroponic therapy.
c. mindfulness meditation.
d. weightlessness.
____ 37. A small, shallow flotation tank in which subjects float in body-temperature water in darkness and silence is
known as a
a. lucid dreaming tank.
b. depersonalization tank.
c. sensory isolation chamber.
d. conditioning chamber.
____ 38. Addictive drugs do all of the following EXCEPT
a. cause the neurotransmitter acetylcholine to be released, resulting in intensified feelings of
fear and paranoia.
b. fool brain-reward pathways creating a compulsion to repeat the drug experience.
c. stimulate a brain region called the nucleus accumbens.
d. physically change the brain’s reward circuitry, making it harder for the addict to overcome
his or her addiction.
____ 39. Adolescents are especially susceptible to addiction because
a. children and adolescents release more neurotransmitters than adults.
b. the corpus callosum in the brains of adolescents are not fully developed.
c. the brain systems that restrain risk-taking are not as mature as those that reward pleasureseeking.
d. of the hormones that are released at puberty that interact with the drugs to produce a more
intensified and pleasurable effect.
____ 40. The presence of a drug tolerance and withdrawal symptoms is indicative of
a. polydrug abuse.
b. a physical dependence.
c. an emotional dependence.
d. a psychological dependence.
____ 41. Regarding addictive drugs, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. None of the addictive drugs have legitimate or healthful uses.
b. Some addictive drugs have been used for centuries in various cultures, in a search of
c. Drugs most likely to lead to physical dependence are alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates,
cocaine, codeine, heroin, methadone, morphine, and nicotine.
d. Any psychoactive drug can result in a psychological dependence.
____ 42. Jermaine has been binging on a stimulant drug for several days and is suffering from paranoid delusions and a
loss of contact with reality. In the past when he has binged on this drug, he has become violent toward himself
and others. Jermaine is most likely suffering from
a. disorganized schizophrenia.
b. amphetamine psychosis.
c. alcohol poisoning.
d. generalized anxiety.
Chapter 5 States of Consciousness
____ 43. Smoked forms of methamphetamine are commonly called
a. goof balls.
b. ice.
c. crack.
d. scoop.
____ 44. At a “rave” party, Marilyn used ecstasy. The physical effects of this drug include
a. low blood pressure.
b. increased appetite.
c. elevated body temperature.
d. all of these symptoms.
____ 45. Regarding paced drinking, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. To pace your drinking, you should keep your blood alcohol level at a level of 0.20 or
b. When people are tempted to drink too much, their main reason for stopping is that “other
people were quitting and deciding they’d had enough.”
c. To pace your drinking, limit drinking primarily to the first hour of a social event or party.
d. To pace your drinking, eat while drinking or drink on a full stomach, and make every
other drink (or more) a nonalcoholic beverage.
____ 46. In the treatment of alcoholism, detoxification refers to
a. the intensive counseling involved in the initial stages.
b. sobering the person up and cutting off his supply.
c. injection of chemicals into the blood to neutralize the effects of the alcohol.
d. the use of sedatives to counter the effects of the alcohol.
____ 47. Regarding marijuana, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. When surveyed at age 29, nonusers of marijuana are healthier, earn more, and are more
satisfied with their lives than people who smoke marijuana regularly.
b. Marijuana is classified as a mild hallucinogen.
c. Marijuana use has been found to be associated with mental health problems.
d. Marijuana has not been found to create a physical dependence.
____ 48. When a dreamer makes a dream more logical by adding details to the dream after awakening, the dream
process being used is
a. displacement.
b. secondary elaboration.
c. condensation.
d. symbolization.
____ 49. Which dream theorist believed that most dreams are special messages about what’s missing in our lives, what
we avoid doing, or feelings that need to be “re-owned”?
a. Ernest Hartmann
b. Stephen LaBerge
c. Otto Loewi
d. Fritz Perls
____ 50. Jared has awakened spontaneously from a dream. He takes a few minutes to try to memorize the dream. Next,
he engages in 10 to 15 minutes of reading that requires his full wakefulness. Then, while lying in bed and
returning to sleep, he says to himself, “Next time I’m dreaming, I want to remember I’m dreaming.” Finally,
he visualizes himself lying in bed asleep while in the dream he just rehearsed. At the same time, he pictures
himself realizing that he is dreaming. Jared is trying to learn how to use
a. the paradoxical intention.
b. secondary elaboration.
c. lucid dreaming.
d. the basic suggestion effect.

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