Practical Research 1
(Qualitative Research)
DAVID CABABARO BUENO, LPT, AB/BSE,MASE, MPM, MBA, Ed.D, DBA
c
Professor 6C
Dean, Graduate School
Director, Research and Publications
Columban College, Inc.
Olongapo City
Lesson 1: NATURE OF INQUIRY AND RESEARCH (8:00-10:00)
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Definitions of Research; Characteristics; Purposes; Importance of Research
Characteristics of Successful Research
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches Quantitative research emphasizes:
Features or Characteristics of Qualitative Studies
Limitations of Qualitative Studies
Some Qualitative Approaches
Importance of Qualitative Research across Fields and Daily Life
Ethical Guidelines in Qualitative Research
Worksheet #1
Introduction
Statement of the Problem
Scope and Delimitation
Significance of the Study
Worksheets

Performance Standard: The learner is able to use appropriate kinds of
qualitative research in decision-making.
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Learning Competencies: The learner:

defines research as a scientific inquiry;

describes characteristics, strengths, weaknesses, and kinds of
qualitative research;
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illustrates the importance of qualitative research across fields;
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describes ethics of research; and
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submits at least 3 tentative research titles for approval by the
teacher.
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Performance Standard: The learner is able to formulate clearly
the statement of research problem for qualitative research.
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Learning Competencies:
The learner:

designs a research useful in daily life;
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writes an acceptable research title;
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describes background of a specific research;
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states research questions or objectives;
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indicates scope and delimitations of study;
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cites benefits and beneficiaries of a specific research;
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defends feasibility of the research topic;
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presents written report of Chapter 1.
Purposes of Studying Research
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To orient students to the nature of educational research: its purposes,
forms and importance.

To provide information which helps students become more intelligent
consumers of educational research: where to locate it, how to
understand it, and critique it.

To provide information on the fundamentals of doing educational
research such as selecting a problem, using available tools, organizing a
project, etc.

To generate new theories, confirm existing ones or disapprove them,
for example, the role of punishment in discipline.
Importance of Research

To determine the accuracy or otherwise and validity of popular beliefs, and practices by
submitting them to systematic scrutiny.
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To enhance, modify or refine our knowledge of phenomenon or various theories.

To generate new concepts and explanations of existing rules and policies, beliefs and
practices.
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To find answers to particular existing questions through investigation.
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To evaluate the findings of other researches/studies or build on where they stopped.
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To bring the legacy left behind by early scholars as well as the contributions of modern
scholars to the limelight.

To seek validation or improvement for religious doctrines and practices, social interactions,
economic improvement, politics, ideology etc., etc. to enhance quality of ordinary and
spiritual life of man.
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To collect and analyze data which will enable us provide information and advice to policy
(or decision) makers.
Characteristics of Successful
Research/er
Wide–Reading
Thorough
Understanding
Independent
Opinion
Originality
Effectiveness
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to
Research
Orientation
Assumption
about the
world
Research
purpose
Quantitative
A single reality,
i.e., can be
measured by an
instrument.
Establish
relationships
between measured
variables
Qualitative
Multiple realities
Understanding a social
situation from
participants’
perspectives
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to
Research
Orientation
Research
methods and
processes
Quantitative
Qualitative
- procedures are
established before
study begins;
- a hypothesis is
formulated before
research can begin;
- deductive in
nature.
- flexible, changing
strategies;
- design emerges as
data are collected;
- a hypothesis is not
needed to begin
research;
-inductive in nature.
Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to
Research
Orientation
Researcher’s
role
Generalizability
Quantitative
Qualitative
The researcher is
The researcher
ideally an objective
participates and
observer who neither becomes immersed in
participates in nor
the research/social
influences what is
setting.
being studied.
Universal contextfree generalizations
Detailed contextbased generalizations
Differences of the two methods of
research
Sources of
Differences
Qualitative Research Method
 When in-depth understanding of a
When to use
specific issue is required
it?
 To understand behavior, perception
and priorities of affected
community
 To explain information provided
through quantitative data
 To emphasize a holistic approach
(processes and outcomes)
 When the assessor only know
roughly in advance what he/she is
looking for
 Recommended during earlier
phases of assessments
Quantitative Research Method
 To get a broad comprehensive
understanding of the situation
 To get socio-demographic
characteristics of the population
 To compare relations and
correlations between different issues
 When accurate and precise data is
required
 To produce evidence about the type
and size of problems
 When the assessor knows clearly in
advance what he/she is looking for
 Recommended during latter phases
of assessment
Objectives and  To explore, understand
main features
phenomena
 Provides in depth
understanding of specific issues
 Detailed and complete
information, contextualization,
interpretation and description
 Perspectives, opinions and
explanations of affected
populations toward events,
beliefs or practices
 To seek precise
measurement, quantify,
confirm hypotheses
 Provides a general
overview
 Provides demographic
characteristics
 Objective and reliable
 Apt for generalization
 Objectively verifiable
 Prediction, causal
explanation
Data format
 Data can be observed  Data which can be
but not measured
counted or
 Mainly textual (words,
measured. Involves
pictures, audio,
amount,
video), but also
measurement or
categorical
anything of quantity
 Mainly numerical
and categorical
values
 Answers questions
 Answers a
Answers
arising during the
controlled
the
discussion
sequence of
questions
-How?
questions with
-Why?
predetermined
-What do I need to
possible answers
look for in more detail?
-What?
-How many?
 Questions are
 Questions are
generally open ended closed
 Looks at the whole
 Looks at
Perspective
context from within
specific
 Searches for patterns
aspects from
 Lends itself to
the outside
community
participation. Seeks
depth of perspective
though ongoing
analysis (e.g. Waves of
data)
 Individual
interviews
 Key informant
interviews
Methods  Semi-structured
interviews
 Focus group
discussions
 Observation
 Quick counting
estimates
 Sampling
surveys
 Population
movement
tracking
 Registration
 Structured
interviews
Sampling
 Non random
(purposive)
Study design  Flexible, the
and
assessor is the
instruments primary
instrument for
data collection
and analysis.
 Random
 Fixed,
standards
control the
assessor’s
bias.
Questionnaire  Checklist
 Predetermined
tool types
with open
questionnaire
questions
with sequence
and flexible and structure
sequence
Analysis  Use inductive reasoning
 Uses
 Involves a systematic and iterative
deductive
process of searching, categorizing
methods
and integrating data
 Descriptive
 Describes the meaning of research
statistics
findings from the perspective of
 Inferential
the research participants
statistics
 Involves developing generalizations
from a limited number of specific
observations or experiences
 Analysis is descriptive
Features or Characteristics of Qualitative
Studies

Field Focused/Natural Context.
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Self as Instrument /Personal Contact.
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Interpretive Character.
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Use of Expressive Language.
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Depth of Perspective/Attention to Particulars.
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Inductive Analysis.
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Dynamic Systems.
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Unique Case Orientation.
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Context Sensitivity.
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Empathic Neutrality.
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Persuasiveness.
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Focus on emic perspectives.
Limitations of Qualitative Studies
 Subjectivity
 Labor
is inherent
intensive
 Misunderstanding
 Time
of Novices
Intensive
 Limited
Generalizability
Worksheet
#1
Construct
at least 3 tentative research
titles for approval…
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Selecting and Defining a Research Topic
Theory
Personal
experience
Replication
Library immersion
Talk to experts in the field
Research Title
Research Title
Revitalizing Institutional Policy Grounded on Work-Life
Balance of Employees in a Catholic Higher Education
Institution in the Philippines
DAVID CABABARO BUENO
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0072-0326
[email protected]
Columban College, Inc.
Olongapo City, Philippines
INTRODUCTION
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First Section- Global situational analysis of the problem supported by the
literature from different continents.
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Second Section- Regional situational analysis supported by literature from
the region of the study. Researchers from the Association of Southeast
Asian Nations (ASEAN) such as Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia,
Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam must include
literature from these countries to capture the ASEAN perspective in the
study.
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Third Section –Local situational analysis (Studies conducted in the
Philippines.
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Fourth Section -Gap in the literature that the study intends to address.
Differentness of the study from other previous studies. Compelling reasons
of the writer for choosing the problem.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM/ SCOPE/
SIGNIFICANCE…
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State the general and specific statement of the problem.
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Use objectives that show what the researcher shall do with the data and
not words to indicate what the researcher intends to do as a research
process.
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Number the statement of the problem/s.
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The scope and delimitation are well stated/ discussed.
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The significance & beneficiaries of the study are fully identified &
discussed.
Worksheet
#2: INTRODUCTION
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Review the guidelines and principles in writing the introduction and prepare an initial draft of
your introduction. You can have three to four paragraphs to introduce you research topic.
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Introduction
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 Worksheet
#3: GENERAL AND SPECIFIC PROBLEMS
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Go back to your approved research title and formulate the general and
specific problems. Let your teacher check your work.
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General Problem
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Specific Problems (You can have at least four to five specific problems)
1.
2.
3.
4
Worksheet
#4: SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
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Go back to your general and specific problems and think of the
possible research design you will be using in your investigation
and discuss in this portion.
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Scope and Delimitation
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Worksheet
STUDY
#5: SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
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Review the guidelines and principles in writing the significance
of the study. Identify the beneficiaries of your research/
investigation and discuss. You can have three to five for this.
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Lesson 2: LEARNING FROM OTHERS AND REVIEWING THE LITERATURE and
WAYS TO SYSTEMATICALLY COLLECT DATA (10:15 – 12:00)
 Selecting,
Citing and Synthesizing Related Theory, Literature and
Studies
 Sources
 Ethical
of Information
Standards in Writing Related Literature
 Framework
 Definition
of the Study
of Terms
 Worksheets
The literature review serves several
important functions:

Convinces your reader that your research will make a significant and substantial
contribution to the literature
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Demonstrates your knowledge of the research problem.

Demonstrates your understanding of the theoretical and research issues related to
your research question.
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Ensures that you are not "reinventing the wheel".

Gives credits to those who have laid the groundwork for your research.

Indicates your ability to integrate and synthesize the existing literature.
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Provides new theoretical insights or develops a new model as the conceptual
framework for your research.

Shows your ability to critically evaluate relevant literature information.
Sources of Information for the Literature
Review
The
Library
Online
Computer Searches:
Database Access to Literature
and studies/ journal publications
How to Write on the Related Literature
 Computerize
 Be
as much as possible
systematic and thorough
 Get
the proper psychological orientation
 Emphasis
 Review
relatedness
the literature, do not reproduce it !!!
Ethical Standards in Writing Related
Literature

Report literature review with the highest level of accuracy
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Give an unbiased description of observations and produce an
objective discussion, never presenting false or misleading
statements
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Never manipulate results of previous studies
Ethical Standards in Writing Related
Literature

Carry out literature searches for original publications describing closely
related work
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Cite every publication that in some way contributed to the research

Avoid ‘citation stuffing’. While citing, an author should only refer to
truly relevant papers for the conducted investigation, avoiding
improper inclusion of their own articles
Ethical Standards in Writing Related
Literature

Compose a manuscript using your own words, ideas and materials

The use of the author’s own published work, without proper
acknowledgment, can be considered self‐plagiarism

Protection of the author’s legitimate interests should always be
regarded through the establishment of adequate material transfer
agreements, restraining its field of use. If originally supplied by a
person external to the publication and investigation, proper
authorization should be obtained and citation made
Ethical Standards in Writing Related
Literature

Assure, prior to a manuscript submission that all the consulted authors
are properly cited in the list of references

Give proper credit to all sources of information, assistance, and other
relationships that were relevant for the research. It is the authors’
responsibility to appropriately cite and acknowledge individuals that
provided assistance, through the supply of materials or providing useful
discussion; funding sources; institutional or corporate support; and
other
Lesson 2: LEARNING FROM OTHERS AND REVIEWING THE
LITERATURE and WAYS TO SYSTEMATICALLY COLLECT DATA
…(10:15 – 12:00)
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Research Designs; Participants in the study; Qualitative Sampling and Selection
Data Sources; Interviews; Questionnaires; Focus Groups; Observational Evaluation
Textual/Content Analysis (artifacts, documents, records)
Personal Experience (journaling and other methods)
Field Notes
Ethical Consideration
Data Analysis
Transcribing Qualitative Data
Using Qualitative Software
Research Evaluation: Trustworthiness of the Study
Validity and Reliability” Concepts in Qualitative Research
Worksheet
Lesson 3: PRESENTING ANSWERS FROM DATA COLLECTED and
DRAWING CONCLUSIONS (1:00-3:00)
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Data Processing, Organizing and Analysis

Preparing to Analyze

Organizing the Data

Data Analysis

Data Interpretation
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Worksheet
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Summary of the Problem

Findings

Conclusions

Recommendations

Worksheet
 Performance
Standard: The learner is able to describe
adequately quantitative research designs, sample, instrument used,
data collection, and correct procedures and data analysis.
 Learning
Competencies:
The learner:

constructs appropriate instruments for data collection;
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describes sampling procedure and sample;
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plans data collection and analysis procedures;
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decides appropriate sample for research;
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describes correct procedures in data analysis; and
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submits written form of Chapters 3, 4 and 5 of the research.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The research design is appropriate.

The research locale is fully discussed/ described. No
need to present a LOCATION MAP.

Participants

Instrumentation. Construction, Try-out, Reliability and
Validity. The instrument is valid and reliable.
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Research Ethics Protocol/ Informed consent

The data gathering procedure is scientifically discussed.
Worksheet
 Based
# 9: RESEARCH DESIGN
on the principles discussed relative to the
research design, discuss in detail the appropriate
design to answer the specific questions in your
study.
Worksheet
Based
# 10: PARTICIPANTS
on the concepts discussed relative
to the selection of the participants,
discuss in detail your sampling design in
this section.
Worksheet
#11: DATA COLLECTION
INSTRUMENT
To
answer the specific problems posited in
chapter 1 of your study, discuss the data
gathering instrument(s) you will be using in
this section.
Worksheet
#12: ETHICAL
CONSIDERATION
Discuss
in detail the ethical considerations
and processes you have considered. Keep in
mind the various principles discussed for this
section. Ask your teacher to check your
work!
Worksheet
#13: DATA COLLECTION
PROCEDURE
Discuss
in detail the process you will be
using or doing to gather relevant data for
your study. Keep in mind the various
principles discussed for this section.
PRESENTING ANSWERS FROM DATA
COLLECTED
 Use
keywords from objectives as side-head of the
Results and Discussion.
 Intercontinental
text citation)
literature support of the data (in-
 Validation
of the theory used (integrated) vis-à-vis
the themes/ characteristics
 Provide
a critique on the methods and theories used
in the last paragraph.
Some authors classify qualitative
analysis in this way:
Descriptive
analysis
- - researcher gives an account of
a place or process, helping to visualize the situation as a means
of understanding it.
Interpretive
analysis
- - the researcher explains or
creates generalizations to help develop new concepts or
elaborate on existing ones with a goal to provide insights.
Some authors classify qualitative
analysis in this way:
Verification
analysis
- the researcher verifies
assumptions, theories, and generalizations.
Evaluative
analysis
- the researcher provides
judgments about policies, practices, and attempts to answer
questions such as “How was a process implemented?”, “What
was the process like?”, “How has it worked, for whom, and are
there exceptions?”
Worksheet
#14: PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS
AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
 After
gathering and statistically treating the
relevant data for your study, refer to the
guidelines and principles regarding the
presentation. Refer to the sequence of your
specific problem and present the data/ themes
accordingly.
Worksheet
#15: CONCLUSION
AND RECOMMENDATION
 After
the presentation, analysis and
interpretation of the findings, you are now ready
to formulate conclusions and offer
recommendations.
Lesson 4: REPORTING AND SHARING FINDINGS/ WRITING
PROPER ( 3:15 – 5:00)
 Planning
a Research Report
 Principles
of Writing
 Evaluating
 Format
the Research Report
for the Research Report
 References
 Appendices
 Curriculum
 Worksheet
Vitae
Performance
Standard:
The learner is able to write
and prepare clear and complete research report and ready for oral
presentation.
Learning

Competencies: The learner:
lists accurately the references used in the study;
prepares all the materials and documents to be appended;
 prepares curriculum vitae for inclusion in the final report;
 presents full written research report.
 prepares for oral presentation to be schedules by the
research adviser and teacher.

Planning a Research Report

A research report has a relatively simple format. In general, it
should achieve three objectives :
 It
should acquaint readers with the problem that has been
researched;

It should present the data fully and adequately.; and

It should interpret the data for the reader and demonstrate exactly
how the data resolved the problem that has been researched.
Principles of Writing
Neatness
Precision
and Clarity
Evaluating the Research Report
Step 1: The Problem

Is the problem clearly and concisely stated?

Is the problem adequately narrowed down into a research effort?

Is the problem significant enough to warrant a formal research
effort?

Is the relationship of the identified problem to previous research
clear?
Step 2: Literature Review

Is the literature review logically organized?

Does the review provide a critique of the relevant studies?

Are gaps in knowledge about the research problem identified?

Are important relevant references omitted?
Step 3: Theoretical Framework

Is the theoretical framework easily linked with the
problem?

If a conceptual framework is used, are the concepts
adequately defined, are the relationships among these
concepts clearly identified?
Step 3: Research Design

Is the research design adequately described?

Does the research design control for threats to internal and
external validity of the study?

Are the data collection instruments described adequately?

Is the ethical consideration clearly discussed?

Is the data gathering adequately described?
Step 4: Sampling

Is the sample size adequate?

Is the sample representative of the defined population?

Is the method of selection of the sample appropriate?

Are the sample criteria for inclusion into the study identified?

Is there any sampling bias in the chosen method?
Step 5: Data Collection Methods

Are the data collection methods appropriate for the study?

Are the data collection instruments described adequately?

Are the reliability and validity of the measurement tools
adequate?
Step 6: Data Analysis

Is the result section clearly and logically organized?

Is the type of analysis appropriate for each
variable/ theme?
Step 7: Interpretation and Discussion of the Findings
Are the interpretations based on the data obtained?
 Does the investigator clearly distinguish between actual findings and
interpretations?
 Are the findings discussed in relation to previous research and to the
conceptual / theoretical framework?
 Are unwarranted generalization made beyond the study sample?
 Are the limitations of the results identified?
 Are recommendations for future research identified?
 Are the conclusions justified?

Format for the Research Report
Title
Page
Approval Sheet
Acknowledgement
Abstract
Introduction
Objectives
Review of Literature
Research paradigm
Format for the Research Report
Methodology
Result
and Discussions
Conclusions
Recommendations
References
Appendices
About the Authors
REFERENCES
At least five from each continent
Use recent sources (at least from year 2010 onwards, unless
a justification is given
Arrange in alphabetical order
Include all the names of authors which are cited in the body
of the paper
Double space in between referenced literature items; single
space in between lines of each literature cited.
REFERENCES
All references used in the manuscript should be
traceable online.
Prefer references which have earned citations already.
The URL of the online article as reference must be
copied and pasted in the end part of the reference with
the words “retrieved on (date) from (copy the URL)”.
Without the URL, the reference is understood as print only
and hence has inherent problem of poor traceability.
If You are Interested in Doing More
with Research…
If You are Interested in Doing More
with Research…

Practical Research 1 DepEd Mass Training October 25 2017