10th MANILA International Conference on Arts, Social Sciences, Humanities and Interdisciplinary Studies (ASSHIS-17) Dec. 17-18, 2017 Manila (Philippines)
Improving Fast Food Chain
Operation through
College of Business and Accountancy and a graduate school
professor.Leadership
Effective Supervisory
Dr. Alejandro Jimenez1
Dr. David Cababaro Bueno2
Prof. Carlito S. Galangue3
Dr. Eric A. Matriano4
Columban College, Inc. –Olongapo City
Abstract—The study aims to assess the leadership practices
of fast food chain supervisors in the City of Olongapo. The
researchers utilized the descriptive-survey design of
method with the use of survey-questionnaire and interview
as main tools in gathering the data needed. The study
involved the total number of ten day shift supervisorrespondents and fifty (50) purposively selected day shift
rank-in-file employees from various fast food chains. The
data gathered were treated statistically using Percentage,
Mean, and t-Test. The supervisors usually practice the
concepts of leadership for the attainment of the goals of
the organization based on the “Path-Goal Theory of
Leadership”. There is significant difference in the
assessment of the two groups of respondents on the
leadership practices of the fast food chain supervisors in
the City of Olongapo. Successful leaders know that
building team spirit is the key to business growth like the
fast food chains in Olongapo City. There truly is power in
numbers, and the whole is indeed greater than the sum of
the parts. Thus, the findings of the study offer excellent
fast food chain operation tips on how to effectively build
teams around various leadership practices of the
supervisors. The rank and file employees should view
supervisory leadership practices as avenue for them to
become effective store supervisors when promoted. Open
communication and continues feed backing techniques
should be properly practiced within the organization.
Keywords –Business operation, supervisors, leadership,
fast food chain, descriptive-survey design, Olongapo City,
Philippines
Manuscript submitted on September 2, 2017 for review.
This work was funded by the Research and Publications
Office of Columban College, Inc., - Olongapo City,
Philippines.
The 1st author, Dr. Alejandro Jimenez, is a graduate school
professor at Columban College, Inc. teaching business
courses; the 2nd author, Dr. David Cababaro Bueno, is the
Dean of the Graduate School, and concurrent Director of
Research and Publications Office of Columban College, Inc.;
the 3rd author, Prof. Carlito S. Galangue, is graduate school
research staff and concurrent Director for Extension Services,
and a professor of business courses at Columban College,
Inc.; and the 4th author, Dr. Eric M. Matriano, is Dean of the
I. INTRODUCTION
An organization has the greatest chance of being
successful when all of the employees work toward
achieving its goals (Greenberg, 2015). Since leadership
involves the exercise of influence by one person over
others, the quality of leadership exhibited by supervisors
is a critical determinant of organizational success (House
& Podsakoff, 2014). Thus, supervisors study leadership
in order to influence the actions of employees toward the
achievement of the goals of the organization.
Leadership studies can be classified as trait,
behavioral, contingency, and transformational. Earliest
theories assumed that the primary source of leadership
effectiveness lay in the personal traits of the leaders
themselves. Yet, traits alone cannot explain leadership
effectiveness (House, Rousseau, & Thomas-Hunt, 2015).
Thus, later research focused on what the leader
actually did when dealing with employees. These
behavioral theories of leadership sought to explain the
relationship between what the leaders did and how the
employees reacted, both emotionally and behaviorally
(Katerberg, & Hom, 2011). Behavior cannot always
account for leadership in different situations. Thus,
contingency theories of leadership studied leadership
style in different environments. Transactional leaders,
such as those identified in contingency theories, clarify
role and task requirements for employees (Klein,
Dansereau & Hall, 2014). Contingency cannot account
for the inspiration and innovation that leaders need to
compete in today's global marketplace. Newer
transformational leadership studies have shown that
leaders, who are charismatic and visionary, can inspire
followers to transcend their own self-interest for the
good of the organization. Leadership is a dynamic
relationship based on mutual influence and common
purpose between leaders and collaborators in which both
are moved to higher levels of motivation and moral
development as they affect real, intended change (Beyer,
1996).
Thus, fast food chain supervisors should have the
knowledge and characteristics needed to provide
leadership to the supervision of staff and other members
of the organization (Markham, 2008).
Ideally, supervisors are or have been exemplary
supervisors and are well-grounded in the knowledge,
skills, and experiences of effective supervision
(Markham & McKee, 2011). They have developed their
own models of supervision and know its steps,
procedures, and a wide repertoire of techniques. It is
beneficial for them to have the basic skills to better
assure the success in the organization within their
responsibility.
Several factors and elements are considered very
important in the operation of a restaurant and fast food
chain (McFarlin & Sweeney, 2012). In order to operate a
restaurant successfully one must at least have a
restaurant background or do intense research on the
subject. If one has spent his or her working life as an
electrician or doctor, the person is not likely equipped to
operate a restaurant. When a person has ten years of
experience in a field the person has become more
knowledgeable than the majority of the population in
that area and would benefit from opening a business
related to that field (Howell, 1997). People should not
open a business in a field where experience was not
obtained (Howell 1997). Lee, Renig, and Shanklin
(2007) found, based on an independent survey of food
and beverage directors and administrators of assisted
living facilities, of thirty-four attributes required to be an
effective manager the top ten were as follows: One
should act as an effective team leader and team member.
One should manage all aspects of the operation (House
& Mitchell, 2014). Ensure the operation follows state
and federal regulations. Demonstrate effective time
management practices. A manager should possess the
ability to coach team members. Managers need the
ability to communicate verbally and in writing,
effectively manage projects and be involved in self
professional development. Furthermore, Kerrii Anderson
Executive Vice President of Wendy’s International said
the restaurant business is the toughest to operate
successfully, in order to do so; the restaurant must be
operated by finding new ways to cut costs while
developing new products and approaches (Heffes, 2004).
Supervisors are involved in relationships with a
numerous of dynamics (Lovelace, Manz, & Alves,
2007). Prerequisite to skilled supervisors is having the
interpersonal skills necessary to counsel, supervise, and
administer (Mathe & Slevitch, 2013). Relationships
develop and interactions occur between them and their
subordinates, and between supervisors and their
superiors (McCleskey, 2014). They should likewise
establish a productive climate within which their
organization operates (Silverthorne & Wang, 2001).
Their values are reflected in the organization and by the
subordinates (Vecchio, & Boatwright, 2002). If they
value ethical practice, the worth and dignity of each
individual, such are the values of the department,
agency, or business. If their personal interactions are
characterized by trust and respect, those become
hallmarks of the interpersonal climate of the staff
(Turner, 2002). As with the other leadership skills and
practices, supervisors are able to match their own
administrative behaviors to the needs of their employees
under their care.
Thus, this particular undertaking will enable the
researchers to become knowledgeable about leadership
behavior and practices of a today’s fast food chain
supervisors. With the foregoing observations and claims,
the researchers are very eager to venture on the
leadership practices of fast food chain supervisors in
Olongapo City as baseline information for the
improvement of fast food chain operation.
II. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study assesses the supervisory leadership
practices of fast food chain supervisors in the City of
Olongapo. It aims to analyze the (1) supervisory
leadership of fast food chains managers; (2) rank-in-filerespondents’ assessment on the leadership practices of
their supervisors; (3) significant difference in the
assessment of leadership practices of the fast food chain
supervisors; and (4) implications of the findings towards
improving fast food chain operation.
III. METHODOLOGY
This study utilized the descriptive-survey design of
research. Bueno (2016) defined descriptive-survey as a
design, which aims to describe the nature of a situation,
as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the
cause of particular phenomena. The study involved the
total number of ten-day shift supervisors and fifty (50)
conveniently selected day shift rank-and-file store crews
from various fast food chains in Olongapo City for more
convenient distribution and retrieval of the
questionnaire. Thus, convenient sampling technique was
only done in the selection of rank-and-file employees. A
survey-questionnaire-checklist was used. The instrument
was subjected to expert validity. It was tried to some fast
food chain store supervisors and crews at the Subic Bay
Freeport Zones, and graduate and undergraduate school
professors of business and hospitality management
courses, and store operators. The draft of the validated
questionnaire was tested for reliability using Test-Retest
Method. A coefficient values of .89 was obtained using
Pearson Product Moment Correlation. Thus, the
instrument was reliable and consistent. A permit was
secured from the office of the fast food chain managers
and operators. A separate letter was provided to the
participants to personally explain the purpose of the
study, and to give assurance of anonymity and
confidentiality of any information and data gathered. The
data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics
and t-Test for independent samples at .05 level of
confidence.
IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Assessment of Supervisors on their Supervisory
Leadership. The supervisors are very optimistic in
answering that they are always setting personal example
of what they expect from others. Moreover, they also
talk about future trends that will influence how their
work as supervisor gets done which will encourage
cooperative relationships among the people they work
within the organization. They believe and practice
praising people for a job well done. Likewise, they are
trying to challenge themselves to try new and innovative
ways to their work and follow through on promises and
commitment they make in the operation of the store and
in dealing with their subordinates. In addition to these
practices, they always treat others with dignity and
respect, making sure that people is creatively rewarded
for their contributions to the success of the projects, and
publicly recognizes people who exemplify commitment
to shared values, as well as finds ways to celebrate
accomplishments in the success of the operation. This
means that they are clear about their philosophies of
leadership. They speak with genuine conviction about
the higher meaning and purpose of our work, and ensure
that people grow in their jobs by learning new skills and
developing themselves. In addition to aforementioned
practices, the supervisor-respondents themselves usually
seek out challenging opportunities that test their own
skills and abilities, spend time and energy making
certain that the people they work with adhere to the
principles and standards that they have agreed on, and
actively listen to diverse points of view. Good thing to
note also that, they usually make it a point to let people
know about their confidence in their abilities but they are
also open for feedback on how their actions affect other
people’s performance, and in return they usually practice
supporting the decisions that people make on their own.
These are vital in building consensus around a common
set of values for running the organization. The overall
mean of their assessment as to their leadership practices
is 4.16, which means that they usually practice the
aforementioned concepts of leadership for the attainment
of the goals of the organization based on the “Path-Goal
Theory of Leadership”. A key finding is that leaders
educate their subordinates in which knowledge growth
and role development are constructed. Educational
leadership research is consistent with this finding in that
leaders create growth through clear, explicit and
ambitious goals that foster a collective professional
learning community (DuFour, 2004; Leithwood, 1992).
Effective leaders educate their subordinates through
analyzing their surroundings to improve and challenge
their subordinates’ level of achievement. The finding of
educational leadership relates to situational leadership
because the manager is using both a high task/low
relationship and high relationship/low task style. The
manager is using high task/low relationship when stating
company policy as well as high task/high relationship to
involve the employee to support company policy and to
provide opportunities for the employee to mature in their
role. By the manager stating what policies the employee
should follow, illustrated the high task/low relationship
style because the manager is stating tasks of how to
address and treat the customer, and high task/high
relationship because the manager is attempting two-way
communication and trying to sell these policy decisions
to the employee. The next narrative entails high
relationship/ low task because the manager is sharing the
opportunity decision with followers by using the word
“we” numerous times; and by using opportunity instead
of mistake, may build maturity in the manager’s
followers.
Assessment of the Rank-and-File- on the
Leadership of Store Supervisors. The assessment of
the rank-and-file-respondents validate the assessment
made by the supervisors themselves. It is surprising to
note that according to the rank-in-file-respondents, the
supervisors always develop cooperative relationships
among the people they work with. In doing this, they
praise people for a job well done and treat others with
dignity and respect. Another good practice by the
supervisors is asking for feedback on how their actions
affect other people’s performance, and "What can we
learn?" when things do not go as expected. Thus, there is
a support from them when their subordinates are making
decision on their own. The same observations are given
by the rank-in-file-respondents in saying that their
supervisors are publicly recognizing people who
exemplify commitment to shared values. They are doing
these by finding ways to celebrate accomplishments.
Moreover, according to the subordinates, their
supervisors speak with genuine conviction about the
higher meaning and purpose of our work. Thus, this
shows that the supervisors are clear about their
philosophies of leadership. Majority of the concepts of
good leadership are usually practiced by these
supervisors as exposed by the rank-in-file-respondents.
But there also concepts which are sometimes practice
only by the supervisors as mentioned like letting people
know about their confidence in their abilities, and
following through on promises and commitments they
make. Listening actively to diverse points of view is
seldom practice by the supervisor. Thus, the overall
mean for the assessment of the rank-in-file-respondents
on the leadership practices of the supervisors is 3.91,
which means that the store supervisors are usually
practicing these good concepts of leadership for the
attainment of the organizational goals.
Difference of the Assessed Supervisory
Leadership of Store Supervisors. The difference as to
the assessment of the two groups of respondents on the
leadership practices of the fast food chains supervisors in
the City of Olongapo is analyzed. It is noted that the
overall means of the assessment are 4.16 and 3.91 for the
supervisor assessment and rank-in-file assessment
respectively. Based on the computed t-value of 2.32 with
the degree of freedom of 58, the critical value is 2.00.
These values lead to the rejection of the null hypothesis.
Thus, there is a significant difference in the assessment
of the two groups of respondents on the leadership
practices of the fast food chain supervisors in the City of
Olongapo. This can be traced due to higher overall mean
assessment of the first group of respondents. Managers
in the quick-service restaurant context utilized teamwork
to control stress. Consistent to this finding, teamwork
research conveyed that leaders who reciprocate shared
values, helpfulness, responsibility, and a positive
attitude, essentially contribute and develop a cooperative
and synergistic teamwork environment (Crichton, 2005;
Griffin, Patterson, & West, 2001; Jones & George,
1998). Leaders that communicate teamwork through
high involvement, and create a common goal have been
found to motivate a job satisfaction increase from
subordinates in which teamwork is highly reliable
(Baker, Day, & Salas, 2006; Griffin, Patterson, & West,
2001; Jones & George, 1998). Consistent with these
findings, the theme of Teamwork illustrated primarily
high relationship/high task and high relationship/low
task styles. First, with high relationship/high task, the
manager trained their employees on how to transition
from using a screen to fill orders, using two-way
communication to promote teamwork and sell the
follower on communicating with the manager to control
the situation of stress. Secondly, the high
relationship/low task style was communicated by the
manager because by the manager participating in the
stressful situation and handling it, the employee should
be handling the stress too. In other words, the manager is
setting an example of high relationship by being right
alongside the employee, not just telling the employee a
task and then not being involved. Future research should
seek to understand how these situational leadership
styles influenced the follower to mature in their role and
how effective the leader was in using these styles.
Implications to Fast Food Chain Operation.
Successful leaders know that building team spirit is key
to business growth like the fast food chains in Olongapo
City. There truly is power in numbers, and the whole is
indeed greater than the sum of the parts. Thus, the
findings of the study offer excellent fast food chain
operation tips on how to effectively build teams around
various leadership practices of the supervisors. Fast food
chain owners know that running a company is not a oneman show. It takes a team of committed and capable
employees to get the job done. But good teams do not
just happen. They are the results of an intentional effort
and practices on the part of the company’s supervisors
and owners to create a work environment in which every
person feels like his/her contribution is a vital and valued
part of the organization’s success.
Establish clearly defined roles. Successful teams
share a common characteristic – every person knows the
role they are expected to play as well as the roles of the
other team members. As the business supervisor, it is
his/her job to make sure that every employee clearly
understands the role he/she plays in the organization.
They can accomplish this by ensuring that every
employee has received an accurate job description that is
reviewed annually, perhaps during the employee’s
annual review. Tools such as organizational charts and
staff meetings provide a way for employees to see how
they fit into the big picture and to discuss role-related
conflicts.
Maintain open channels of communication.
Communication is the building block of an effective
business team. With that in mind, it is critically
important for you to create and maintain open channels
of communication with your employees. This means not
only maintaining a clear channel of communication
between supervisor and the rank-in-file employees, but
also helping the employees maintain clear channels of
communication with each other. There is no substitute
for constantly reminding the employees that the
supervisor door is always open and that he/she is always
willing to listen to their concerns.
Develop a way to resolve conflicts. Inevitably, the
team will experience conflicts. Ignoring those conflicts
will only cause them to grow until they become a major
problem. So instead of ignoring them, develop conflictresolution skills with the employees and create a
mechanism for them to address grievances if they cannot
resolve their conflicts on their own.
Model a positive attitude. Teams tend to adopt the
attitude and practices of their leader. If the leader is
positive and upbeat, then team members will tend to be
positive and upbeat as well. But if the leader
demonstrates a negative or critical attitude, the team will
suffer because of the attitude of the team members. By
modeling a positive attitude and practices for the
employees, the supervisors are setting the standard and
creating an expectation of the qualities he/she wants to
see reflected in his/her team.
Celebrate achievements as a team. Since every
employee plays an important part in the success or
failure of store operation, it only makes sense to
celebrate achievements as a team. Depending on the size
of the achievement, celebration can be a simple one. The
important thing is that every team member has the
opportunity to celebrate a job well done.
V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Majority of the supervisor-respondents are female,
single, and college graduates. The mean age of the group
is 28, and have been in the service as supervisor for six
years now. The overall mean of the supervisors’
assessment as to their leadership practices is 4.16. This
means that they usually practice the concepts of
leadership for the attainment of the goals of the
organization based on the “Path-Goal Theory of
Leadership”. The mean assessment of the rank-in-filerespondents on the leadership practices of the
supervisors is 3.91, which means that the store
supervisors are usually practicing these good concepts of
leadership for the attainment of the organizational goals.
There is a significant difference in the assessment of the
two groups of respondents on the leadership practices of
the fast food chain supervisors in the City of Olongapo.
Successful leaders know that building team spirit is key
to business growth like the fast food chains in Olongapo
City. Their truly is power in numbers, and the whole is
indeed greater than the sum of the parts. Thus, the
findings of the study offers excellent fast food chain
operation tips on how to effectively build teams around
various leadership practices of the supervisors.
The supervisors of the various fast food chains
should pursue upgrading themselves by attending
graduate studies and supervisory leadership trainings.
The supervisors should further enhance their leadership
practices guided by the “Path-Goal Theory” of
leadership for effective fast food chain operation. The
rank-in-file should view supervisory leadership practices
as avenue for them to become effective store supervisors
when promoted. Open communication and continues
feed backing techniques should be properly practiced
within the organization
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors acknowledge the cooperation of the store
supervisors and crews during the data gathering
process; the assistance of the research staff; the MBA
students in monitoring the gathering of data; and
Columban College, Inc. for funding the study.
REFERENCES
Baker, D. P., Day, R., & Salas, E. (2006). Teamwork as
an essential component of high‐reliability
organizations. Health services research, 41(4p2),
1576-1598.
Beyer, Janis M. (1996). Cultural Leadership in
Organizations. Organization Science Journal, 3(2),
23-30.
Crichton, M. (2005). Attitudes to teamwork, leadership,
and stress in oil industry drilling teams. Safety
Science, 43, 679-696.
Crichton, M. (2005). Attitudes to teamwork, leadership,
and stress in oil industry drilling teams. Safety
Science, 43, 679-696.
DuFour, R. (2004). What is a professional learning
community? Educational Leadership, 1-6.
Greenberg, J. (2015). A taxonomy of organizational
justice theories. Academy of Management Review,
12, 9– 22.
Griffin, M. A., Patterson, M. G., & West, M. A. (2001).
Job satisfaction and teamwork: The role of
supervisor support. Journal of Organizational
Behavior, 22, 537-550.
Griffin, M. A., Patterson, M. G., & West, M. A. (2001).
Job satisfaction and teamwork: The role of
supervisor support. Journal of Organizational
Behavior, 22, 537-550
Heffes, E. (2004, December). Restaurants hungry for
growth and profits. Financial Executive, 24-28.
House, R. J., & Mitchell, T. R. (2014). Path-goal theory
of leadership. Journal of Contemporary Business, 3,
81–97.
House, R. J., & Podsakoff, P. M. (2014). Leadership
effectiveness: Past perspectives and future directions
for research. In J. Greenberg (Ed.),
House, R. J., Rousseau, D. M., & Thomas-Hunt, M.
(2015). The meso paradigm: A framework for the
integration of micro and macro organizational
behavior. In L. L. Cummings, & B. M. Staw (Eds.),
Research in organizational behavior, Vol. 17 (pp.
71–114).
Howell, J. H.(1997) A conversation with Gary Nelson.
Wenatchee Business Journal, 11, (12),10.
Jones, G. R., & George, J. M. (1998). The experience
and evolution of trust: Implications for cooperation
and teamwork. Academy of Management Review,
23(3), 531-546.
Katerberg, R., & Hom, P. W. (2011). Effects of withingroup and between-groups variation in leadership.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 66, 218–233.
Klein, K. J., Dansereau, F., & Hall, R. J. (2014). Levels
issues in theory development, data collection, and
analysis. Academy of Management Review, 19,
195– 229.
Lee, K. I., Renig, V. M., Shanklin, C. W., (2007).
Competencies and attributes required for
foodservice directors in assisted living facilities. The
Journal of Foodservice Management and
Education, 3, 1 – 13.
Leithwood, K.A. (1992). The move toward
transformational
leadership.
Educational
Leadership, 49(5), 8-12.
Lovelace, K.J., Manz, C.C., & Alves, J.C. (2007). Work
stress and leadership development: The role of selfleadership, shared leadership, physical fitness and
flow in managing demands and increasing job
control. Human Resource Management Review,
17,374-387.
Markham, S. E. (1988). Pay-for-performance dilemma
revisited: Empirical example of the importance of
group effects. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73,
172– 180.
Markham, S. E., & McKee, G. H. (2011). Declining
organizational size and increasing unemployment
rates: Predicting employee absenteeism from withinand between-plant perspectives. Academy of
Management Journal, 34, 952– 965.
Mathe, K., & Slevitch, L. (2013). An exploratory
examination of supervisor undermining, employee
involvement climate, and the effects on customer
perceptions of service quality in quick-service
restaurants. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism
Research, 37(1), 29-50.
McCleskey, J.A. (2014). Situational, transformational,
and transactional leadership and leadership
development. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly,
5(4), 117-130.
McFarlin, D. B., & Sweeney, P. D. (1992). Distributive
and procedural justice as predictors of satisfaction
with personal and organizational outcomes.
Academy of Management Journal, 35, 626–637.
Silverthorne, C., & Wang, T.H. (2001). Situational
leadership style as a predictor of success and
productivity
among
Taiwanese
business
organizations. The Journal of Psychology, 135(4),
399-412.
Turner, E. (2002). Attracting the best to corrections.
Corrections Today, 45(3), 12-26
Vecchio, R.P. (1987). Situational leadership theory: An
examination of a prescriptive theory. Journal of
Applied Psychology, 72(3), 444-451.
Vecchio, R.P., & Boatwright, K.J. (2002). Preferences of
idealized styles of supervision. The Leadership
Quarterly, 13, 327-342.
Prof. Dr. David Cababaro Bueno is a
holder of Doctor of Education, Master of
Arts in Science Education, Master in
Public Management, Master in Business
Administration, and Bachelor of Arts
degrees. He is a candidate for graduation
leading to the degree of Doctor in Business
Administration and currently taking Doctor
in Public Management.
He is one of the awardees for the Sectoral Engagement
grant to conduct research on “Human Resources Skills
Comprehensive Development Plan for Region 3 under
Commission on Higher Education’s Faculty Development
Program for K-12 Transition. He authored and co-authored
books in Research and Thesis Writing, Statistics for Research,
Practical Quantitative Research, Practical Qualitative Research,
Biological Science for College Students, Physical Science for
College Students, Human Resource Management, Organization
and Management, Curriculum Development, Environmental
Science, Research Writing Made Easy for Business and
Hospitality Students, Elements of Biological Science, Food
Safety and Sanitation, Fundamentals of Physical Science, and
Introduction to Human Biology. He is currently the Dean of
the Graduate School and concurrent Director of Research and
Publications at Columban College, Inc. Dr. Bueno is an active
member of various national and international professional
organizations, research technical committee and reviewer of
various international conferences, statistician, seminarworkshop speaker and multi-awarded research presenter in the
ASEAN community.
Prof. Eric A. Matriano, Ed. D., Ph. D. is a
graduate of Doctor of Education at
Columban College, Inc. in 2002 and
Doctor of Philosophy major in Business
Management at MLQU in 2014. He
finished Bachelor of Arts in General
Science in 1994 and took Master of Arts in
Education major in Science Education and
Master of Business Administration.
He is one of the awardees for the Top Management Program at
the Asian Institute of Management under Commission on
Higher Education’s Faculty Development Scholarship Program
for K-12 Transition. He is book co-author of Chemistry
Manual and Work-Text, Environmental Science: An InquiryBased Approach and Research Writing Made Easy for
Business and Hospitality Students. He is currently the Dean
and Research Coordinator of the College of Business and
Accountancy at Columban College, Inc. Dr. Matriano is also a
graduate school professor, research committee reviewer,
statistician, seminar-workshop speaker and multi-awarded
research presenter.
Prof. Carlito S. Galangue is a
graduate of Commerce major in
Accountancy, Master in Management
and Doctor in Business Administration.
He is currently the Director of
community Extension Services Office
at Columban College, Inc., a research
staff and a graduate school professor
handling business courses.
Prof. Alejando Jimenez finished PhD
in Business Administration at Angeles
University Foundation. He is bank
manager,
supervisor,
and
an
entrepreneur. He is a graduate school
professor at Columban College
Graduate School handling business
courses.

David Cababaro Bueno 10th MANILA International Conference on ASSHIS-17 Dec 17-18 2017