```End of chapter exercises
Problem 1:
[SC 2003/11] Explain the difference between alternating current (AC) and direct current
(DC).
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Direct current (DC), which is electricity flowing in a constant direction. DC is the kind of
electricity made by a battery, with definite positive and negative terminals. However, we
have seen that the electricity produced by some generators alternates and is therefore
known as alternating current (AC). So the main difference is that in AC the movement of
electric charge periodically reverses direction while in DC the flow of electric charge is only
in one direction.
Problem 2:
Explain how an AC generator works. You may use sketches to support your answer.
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The conductor in the shape of a coil is connected to a slip ring. The conductor is then
manually rotated in the magnetic field generating an alternating emf. The slip rings are
connected to the load via brushes. In an AC generator the two ends of the coil are each
attached to a slip ring that makes contact with brushes as the coil turns. The direction of the
current changes with every half turn of the coil. As one side of the loop moves to the other
pole of the magnetic field, the current in the loop changes direction. The two slip rings of the
AC generator allow the coil to turn without breaking the connections to the load circuit. This
type of current which changes direction is known as alternating current.
Problem 3:
What are the advantages of using an AC motor rather than a DC motor.
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While DC motors need brushes to make electrical contact with moving coils of wire, AC
motors do not. The problems involved with making and breaking electrical contact with a
moving coil are sparking and heat, especially if the motor is turning at high speed. If the
atmosphere surrounding the machine contains flammable or explosive vapours, the
practical problems of spark-producing brush contacts are even greater.
Problem 4:
Explain how a DC motor works.
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Instead of rotating the loops through a magnetic field to create electricity, as is done in a
generator, a current is sent through the wires, creating electromagnets. The outer magnets
will then repel the electromagnets and rotate the shaft as an electric motor. If the current is
DC, split-ring commutators are required to create a DC motor.
Problem 5:
At what frequency is AC generated by Eskom in South Africa?
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In South Africa the frequency is 50 Hz
Problem 6:
(IEB 2001/11 HG1) - Work, Energy and Power in Electric Circuits
Mr. Smith read through the agreement with Eskom (the electricity provider). He found out
that alternating current is supplied to his house at a frequency of 50 Hz. He then consulted
a book on electric current, and discovered that alternating current moves to and fro in the
conductor. So he refused to pay his Eskom bill on the grounds that every electron that
entered his house would leave his house again, so therefore Eskom had supplied him with
nothing!
Was Mr. Smith correct? Or has he misunderstood something about what he is paying for?
Practise more questions like this
Mr Smith is not correct. He has misunderstood what power is and what Eskom is charging
him for.
AC voltage and current can be described as:
iv=Imaxsin(2πft+ϕ)=Vmaxsin(2πft)
This means that for ϕ=0, i.e. if resistances have no complex component or if a student uses
a standard resistor, the voltage and current waveforms are in-sync.
Power can be calculated as P=VI. If there is no phase shift, i.e. if resistances have no
complex component or if a student uses a standard resistor then power is always positive
since:

when the voltage is negative (−), the current is negative (−), resulting in positive (+)
power.

when the voltage is positive (+), the current is positive (+), resulting in positive (+)
power.
Problem 7:
You are building a laser that takes alternating current and it requires a very high peak
voltage of 180 kV. By your calculations the entire laser setup can be treated at a single
resistor with an equivalent resistance of 795 ohms. What is the rms value for the voltage
and the current and what is the average power that your laser is dissipating?
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At peak voltage the peak current will be:
VI=IR=VR=180×103795=226,42 A
Prms=VrmsIrms=180×1032√226,4150942√=20,38×106 W
20,38 × 106 W
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