The ATLAS Tracker Upgrade
Ingrid-Maria Gregor, DESY
Autumn Block Course 2011
DESY Zeuthen
Thanks to: Marzio Nessi, Tony Affolder, Phil Allport, Nigel Hessey, Peter Vankov, Christoph
Rembser, ….
Overview
I.
Introduction
II.
LHC Upgrade
III. Phase 0 Upgrade
The IBL
IV. Phase 2 Upgrade
NIKHEF
V.
Conclusion
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 2
Introduction
The ATLAS Detector
3 Level Trigger system
• L1 – hardware – 100 kHz
2.5 µs latency
• L2 – software – 3-4 kHz
10 ms latency
• EF – software – 100 Hz
1-2 s latency
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 4
The ATLAS Detector
3 Level Trigger system
• L1 – hardware – 100 kHz
2.5 µs latency
• L2 – software – 3-4 kHz
10 ms latency
Muon
• EF – spectrometer
software – 100 Hz
µ 1-2
tracking
s latency
• MDT (Monitored drift
tubes)
• CSC (Cathode Strip
Chambers)
• RPC (Resistive Plate
Chamber) Trigger
• TGC (Thin Gas Chamber)
Trigger
• 4T Toroid Magnet
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 4
The ATLAS Detector
3 Level Trigger system
• L1 – hardware – 100 kHz
2.5 µs latency
• L2 – software – 3-4 kHz
10 ms latency
Muon
• EF – spectrometer
software – 100 Hz
µ 1-2
tracking
s latency
• MDT (Monitored drift
tubes)
• CSC (Cathode Strip
Chambers)
• RPC (Resistive Plate
Chamber) Trigger
• TGC (Thin Gas Chamber)
Trigger
system
•Calorimeter
4T Toroid Magnet
EM and Hadronic energy
• Liquid Ar (LAr) EM barrel
and end-cap
• LAr Hadronic end-cap
• Tile calorimeter (Fe –
scintillator) hadronic barrel
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 4
The ATLAS Detector
3 Level Trigger system
• L1 – hardware – 100 kHz
2.5 µs latency
Detector (ID)
• L2 – software –Inner
3-4 kHz
10 ms latency Tracking
Muon
• EF – spectrometer
software – 100 Hz
2
µ 1-2
tracking
•
Silicon
Pixels
50
x
400
µm
s latency
• Silicon Strips (SCT)
• MDT (Monitored drift
80 µm stereo
tubes)
• Transition Radiation Tracker
• CSC (Cathode Strip
(TRT) up to 36 points/track
Chambers)
• 2T Solenoid Magnet
• RPC (Resistive Plate
Chamber) Trigger
• TGC (Thin Gas Chamber)
Trigger
system
•Calorimeter
4T Toroid Magnet
EM and Hadronic energy
• Liquid Ar (LAr) EM barrel
and end-cap
• LAr Hadronic end-cap
• Tile calorimeter (Fe –
scintillator) hadronic barrel
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 4
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Why
Upgrade?
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addition, the potential is significantly extended for (more difficult) physics
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discoveries
#####
#####
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HL-LHC:
5x10
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Ingrid-Maria Gregor
| Humboldt
Slide 5
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New Rough Schedule for the next 10 years
IBL
2022
LS3
Installation
of the
HL-LHC
hardware
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 6
LHC Machine Upgrade
LHC Upgrade in a Nutshell
L=
!
γfrev
4π
"
nb N b
!
β
#!
Nb
Rφ
$N
"$
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 8
LHC Upgrade in a Nutshell
Total beam current. Limited by:
• Uncontrolled beam loss!!
• E-cloud and other instabilities
• Action: Linac4
L=
!
γfrev
4π
"
nb N b
!
β
#!
Nb
Rφ
$N
"$
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 8
LHC Upgrade in a Nutshell
Total beam current. Limited by:
• Uncontrolled beam loss!!
• E-cloud and other instabilities
• Action: Linac4
L=
!
γfrev
4π
"
nb N b
!
β
#!
Nb
Rφ
$N
"$
Reduce β*, limited by
• magnet technology -> Nb3Ti
• chromatic effects
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 8
LHC Upgrade in a Nutshell
Total beam current. Limited by:
• Uncontrolled beam loss!!
• E-cloud and other instabilities
• Action: Linac4
L=
!
γfrev
4π
"
nb N b
!
β
#!
Brightness, limited
by
• Injector chain
• Max tune-shift
Nb
Rφ
$N
"$
Reduce β*, limited by
• magnet technology -> Nb3Ti
• chromatic effects
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 8
LHC Upgrade in a Nutshell
Total beam current. Limited by:
• Uncontrolled beam loss!!
• E-cloud and other instabilities
• Action: Linac4
L=
!
γfrev
4π
"
nb N b
!
β
Reduce β*, limited by
• magnet technology -> Nb3Ti
• chromatic effects
#!
Brightness, limited
by
• Injector chain
• Max tune-shift
Nb
Rφ
$N
"$
Geometric factor, related to
crossing angle and bunch
length
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 8
LHC Upgrade in a Nutshell
Total beam current. Limited by:
• Uncontrolled beam loss!!
• E-cloud and other instabilities
• Action: Linac4
Maximize number of
bunches
L=
!
γfrev
4π
"
nb N b
!
β
Reduce β*, limited by
• magnet technology -> Nb3Ti
• chromatic effects
#!
Brightness, limited
by
• Injector chain
• Max tune-shift
Nb
Rφ
$N
"$
Geometric factor, related to
crossing angle and bunch
length
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 8
IR Upgrades
detectors, low‐β
quad’s
crab
cavi4es
etc.
~2022
SPS enhancements
2012-2022
Booster energy upgrade
1.4 → 2 GeV, ~2014
Linac4
~2014
F. Zimmermann
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg
2011| Slide 9
What can HL-LHC reach ?
Goal:
Leveled peak luminosity:
Virtual peak luminosity:
Integrated luminosity:
L = 5 1034 cm-2 sec-1
L = 10 1034 cm-2 sec-1
200 fb-1 to 300 fb-1 per year
Total integrated luminosity: ca. 3000 fb-1
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 10
Current Assumption on Schedule
(Possible) LHC Time-Line
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 11
Tentative Schedule and ATLAS Plans
Phase 0 (2013):
Pixel: Insertable BLayer (IBL)
Pixel: opto-electronics
repair
Muon/forward: Beampipe -> Beryllium
Infrastructure
consolidation
2013
2018
Phase 1 (2018):
> 2020
Phase 2 (>2020):
NewPix System (under consideration)
Muon: additional SCS layers
TDAQ: moderate upgrades, improved
level-2 triggers
minor consolidations: TRT HV PS, LAr LV
PS, ....
ID: new tracker or only Strip ….
LAr: barrel electronics and new
forward elements
Tile Calorimeter: new electronics
Muons: new forward layers
TDAQ: major upgrades
Will concentrate on Phase 0 and Phase 2 -> Phase 1 Tracker Upgrade is still to premature ….
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 12
Assumptions
on
Global
Requirement
Assumptions on Global Requirements
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 13
Phil Allport: ATLAS Upgrade
Phase 0 Upgrade
(2013/2014 Shutdown LS1)
NewSQP
Pixel
project
New Service Quater Panel
Be ready to take the final decision
if to extract and repair or not the
pixel detector on the surface during
2012 (first half)
NewSQP Pixel
Plans
(work
ongoing):
project
Plans (work ongoing):
Rebuild in 2011-12 the readout services necessary
on -!the
Quarter
bedetector
ready(Service
to take
the Panels)
final decision
Bring
theextract
optical links
in arepair
more accessible
region
if to
and
or not the
Recent:
fixeson
to allow
an efficientduring
readout
pixelintroduce
detector
the surface
at ultimate Luminosity (double some readout
2012 (first half)
channels,….)
!"#
-!Rebuild in 2011-12 the readout service
necessary on the detector (Service Qua
Panels)
-!Bring the optical links in a more acces
region
-!Recent: introduce fixes to allow an effi
readout at ultimate Luminosity (double
readout channels,!.)
Plans (work ongoing):
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 15
The Insertable B-Layer (IBL)
CERN-LHCC-2010-01
Excellent vertex detector performance is crucial
improvement heavy flavor tagging, primary and secondary
vertex reconstruction/separation
Additional innermost layer will boost tracking performance
adds additional redundancy of the detector in case of
radiation damage
Replacement is technically very challenging
ATLAS strategy: insert a completely new layer at small"#$%&!#%'$()%#*!+",!-!+(.%#/$0
radius
needs decrease of pipe radius
New IBL schedule since “Chamonix 2011”:
All modules installed on staves by end 2012
Twice the needed number of sensors by mid 2012
Full number of sensors in preproduction till Oct 2011
Present Beam Pipe & B-Layer
4#%.%(/!0%2'5$5%!6!"-123%#
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 16
IBL: A Technological Challenge
Additional layer inserted increases material budget
sensor and support material needs to be minimized
the detector has to be powered, read-out and cooled
New stave design in carbon foam structure
low material budget, while building excellent heat path to cooling pipe
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 17
IBL: Performance Improvements
Simulation shows significant improvements
vertex resolution, secondary vertex finding
light jet rejection at constant b-tagging efficiency
IBL studies needed update of track reconstruction
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 18
!"#"$%&'(")(*$+,-./'01/"('2"$"'0"(0"34
Three Different
Sensor Approaches
5"6$7%$1
+ *)&1'/&%)%$'(")(*$(8')+.)+)
Hybrid Pixel Chip Assembly
+ 9'2.0-'(&.:'"3;"8'<',*)("$#%0.#"'3"(.;)
Planar Sensor
3D
Silicon
+ 2.0-'5=+>?',-./'@7(.);'%)*0-"$'(")(*$'2.0-'5=+>9'%('$"A"$"),"B
CVD (Diamond)
C/$.&is an + 9D'(")(*$('2.0-'5=+>9'%)3'5=+>?',-./(
Both electrode types are
current design
+ /&%)%$')+.)+)'@.$$%3.%0"3B
processed inside the
Poly crystalline and
n-in-n planar sensor + 9D'5EF'@.$$%3.%0"3B
detector bulk instead of
single crystal
silicon diode
G"(0'#%$.%0.*)(4 being implanted on the
Low leakage current,
wafer's surface.
+')*0'0.&0"3'%)3'0.&0"3'%0'HI'3";$""('0*'0-"'6"%:'3.$",0.*)
different designs
low noise, low
Max. drift and depletion
capacitance
under study (n-in-n; +'6.%('#*&0%;"'#%$.%0.*)(
+')*0'.$$%3.%0"3'%)3'.$$%3.%0"3
distance set by electrode
Radiation hard material
n-in-p ....)
spacing
Operation at room
radiation hardness
Reduced collection time
temperature possible
and depletion voltage
proven up to 2.4 .
Drawback: 50% signal
Low charge sharing
1016 p/cm2
compared to silicon for
problem: HV might
same X0 ,but better S/N !
!
!
need to exceed
ratio (no dark current)
1000V
Review in July 2011 to decide which technology to be used for IBL
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 19
!"#"$%&'(")(*$+,-./'01/"('2"$"'0"(0"34
Three Different
Sensor Approaches
5"6$7%$1
+ *)&1'/&%)%$'(")(*$(8')+.)+)
Hybrid Pixel Chip Assembly
+ 9'2.0-'(&.:'"3;"8'<',*)("$#%0.#"'3"(.;)
Planar Sensor
3D
Silicon
+ 2.0-'5=+>?',-./'@7(.);'%)*0-"$'(")(*$'2.0-'5=+>9'%('$"A"$"),"B
CVD (Diamond)
C/$.&is an + 9D'(")(*$('2.0-'5=+>9'%)3'5=+>?',-./(
Both electrode types are
current design
+ /&%)%$')+.)+)'@.$$%3.%0"3B
processed inside the
Poly crystalline and
n-in-n planar sensor + 9D'5EF'@.$$%3.%0"3B
detector bulk instead of
single crystal
diode
implanted –
onBe
theready for aLow
Tosilicon
bring to
the
lowest risk thebeing
IBL production
100%
planarcurrent,
solution,
G"(0'#%$.%0.*)(4
leakage
wafer's
+')*0'0.&0"3'%)3'0.&0"3'%0'HI'3";$""('0*'0-"'6"%:'3.$",0.*)
In different
case of low
production
yield
of 3Dsurface.
sensor
designs
low noise, low
Max. drift and depletion
capacitance
under study (n-in-n; +'6.%('#*&0%;"'#%$.%0.*)(
+')*0'.$$%3.%0"3'%)3'.$$%3.%0"3
distance
set by
electrode3D sensors contract is next
Planar sensors (100%) are now
ordered.
Remaining
Radiation hard material
n-in-p ....)
spacing
(total 3+3 batches)!
Operation at room
radiation
hardness
Reduced
collection
time
Bump
bonding
of 100% planar
and 25%
3D
temperature possible
and depletion voltage
proven up to 2.4 .
Low
2
Verify
February
2012 where
wecharge
stand, sharing
before start loadingDrawback:
on stave – 50%
Movesignal
then
1016inp/cm
compared to silicon for
to a 100% planar scenario if necessary
problem: HV might
same X0 ,but better S/N !
!
!
need to exceed
ratio (no dark current)
1000V
Review in July 2011 to decide which technology to be used for IBL
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 19
New FE-I4!"#"$%&'(")(*$+,-./'01/"('2"$"'0"(0"34
Chip
5"6$7%$1
+ *)&1'/&%)%$'(")(*$(8')+.)+)
Reason for a new front-end
+ chip
9'2.0-'(&.:'"3;"8'<',*)("$#%0.#"'3"(.;)
+ 2.0-'5=+>?',-./'@7(.);'%)*0-"$'(")(*$'2.0-'5=+>9'%('$"A"$"),"B
Increased radiation hardness
(> 250 MRad)
C/$.&
+ 9D'(")(*$('2.0-'5=+>9'%)3'5=+>?',-./(
New architecture to reduce
(L=2x1034):
+ inefficiencies
/&%)%$')+.)+)'@.$$%3.%0"3B
+ hits
9D'5EF'@.$$%3.%0"3B
faster shaping; don’t move
from pixel until LVL1
trigger.
G"(0'#%$.%0.*)(4
~2 cm
+')*0'0.&0"3'%)3'0.&0"3'%0'HI'3";$""('0*'0-"'6"%:'3.$",0.*)
Smaller pixel size 50 x 250
µm2 (achieved by 0.13 µm
FE-I4 R/O Chip
CMOS with 8 metals) +'6.%('#*&0%;"'#%$.%0.*)(
27 k Pixels
+')*0'.$$%3.%0"3'%)3'.$$%3.%0"3
87 M transistors
Larger fraction of footprint devoted to pixel array (~90%)
~2 cm
Run 1 wafers received and used for various tests
Tests
Very high yield (6 wafers fully tested, yield ~70%).
Irradiated with protons
!
!
6, 75 and 200 Mrad. All chips working after irradiation. Analog performance little affected
(Noise, Threshold).
Analog performance is very good:
Low number of bugs and changes for final version, submission of final version planned
soon (20-25 September, 44 days process time)
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 20
!
Modules & Staves
FE-I4 & Modules
Modules: ! " FE-I4A ! FE-I4B: changes highlights!
•" Analog: many bias modifications (14/37)
First flex modules
made and characterized.
•" SEU: Selected best latches after test at CERN PS
Digital flex modules
(FE-I4
with
glued silicon
dummy
•" End-of-chip
logic:
12 modifications
from
DAQ requirements.
•" Prompt
radiation
detector: increase
tolerance
to single
sensors). Aim
is gaining
experience
with stave
loading
particle events, response to real high dose rate preserved.
by using mechanical component near to real. Wirebond
•" Power Circuits and Current Reference: 7 changes.
to FE and real
flex allow testing R/O and Power.
•" Added Blocks: ADC, Analog MUX, Vref block, CAP
Stave
measure.
•" Verification: additional analog, timing verification at block
prototypes:and top chip level.
Real sensor single chip module
! " Modules:!
“Stave -1”
: digital flex modules – test loading and
•" First flex modules made and characterized.
system test –•" load
during Sept/Oct; test with off-detector
Digital flex modules (FE-I4 with glued silicon dummy
system Nov 2011-Jan
2012
sensors). Aim
is gaining experience with stave loading by
using mechanical component near to real. Wirebond to FE
fullyand
functional
modules
thinPower.
FEI-4A:
real flex allow
testing with
R/O and
“Stave 0” :
" Stave
loading!tests
withprototypes:!
full IBL modules: produce 40 planar
“Stave
-1” : digital
flex 2-3
modules
– test–loading
and system
and up to 20•" 3D
modules
in next
months
sufficient
test – load during Sept/Oct; test with off-detector system
for 2 “stave-0” Nov
Double
chip2012
“digital module”
2011-Jan
•" “Stave 0” : fully functional modules with thin FEI-4A:
loading tests with full IBL modules: produce 40 planar and
up to 20 3D modules in next 2-3 months – sufficient for 2
“stave-0”.
G. Darbo – INFN / Genova
ATLAS IBL
Double chip “digital module”
LHCC, 20 September 2011
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 21
10
IBL Schedule Key Dates
IBL Schedule
Activities!
Starting!
Ending!
FEI4-B!
Sept 11: Submission!
Nov to Dec 11 for wafer tests!
Bump bonding!
Oct 11: pre-production!
Aug/Sept: Completion!
Module assembly!
March 12:1st modules ready for
loading!
Dec 12 depending of sensor!
(2 mo contingency incl.)!
Module loading!
May 12: ! 4 staves to be ready
by June 12!
Jan 13: Completion!
(2 mo contingency incl.)!
!
Stave loading!
Nov 12: starting with the 1st
available staves!
June/July 13: Completion!
Final tests and
commissioning!
Sept 12 (beam pipe delivery to
ATLAS)!
Sept 13: IBL Installation!
(3 mo contingency incl.)!
!
Schedule is currently driven by FEI4 Version B delivery
! " Schedule is currently driven by FEI4 Version B delivery !
Technically
they are prepared
ofplanar
planarmodules
modules
and
25%
production
of
! " Technically
we preparefor
for100%
100% production
production of
and
25%
production
of 3D
3D modules
modules!
•" Prioritize planar modules for first modules to “learn” FEI4 Version B chip and module assembly
•" Production schedule at IZM with increased number of modules compatible with IBL schedule
(higher throughput
than planned)
schedule
at IZM with
increased number of modules compatible with IBL schedule
Prioritize planar modules for first modules to “learn” FEI4 Version B chip and module assembly
Production
•" Work atthan
IZM extended
by ~ 2 months for additional modules (125%), but overall faster throughput
(higher throughput
planned)
gains back in schedule (Schedule v4.6_Mar2011 ! bump bonding completion: 27.08.2012)
Work at! " IZM
by ~expected
2 months
additional
Firstextended
modules are
by for
March
2012! modules (125%), but overall faster through
put gains -> in schedule
Darbo – INFN / Genova
First G.modules
are expected by March 2012!
ATLAS IBL
LHCC, 20 September 2011
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 22
12
Phase 2 Upgrade
(2022 Shutdown LS3)
Upgrading the ATLAS Experiment
To keep ATLAS and CMS running beyond ~10 years requires tracker replacement
Current trackers designed to survive up to 10MRad in strip detectors ( ≤ 700 fb-1)
For the luminosity-upgrade the new trackers will have to cope with:
much higher integrated doses (need to plan
for 3000 fb-1)
much higher occupancy levels (up to 200
collisions per beam crossing)
3600
3000
2400
1800
1200
Installation inside an existing 4π coverage
experiment
600
0
2033
2032
2031
2030
2029
2028
2027
2026
2025
2024
2023
2022
2021
2020
2019
2018
2017
2016
2015
2014
2013
2012
2011
2010
Budgets are likely to be such that replacement trackers, while
needing higher performance to cope with the extreme
environment, cannot cost more than the ones they replace
To complete a new tracker by ~2020, require Technical Design Report 2014/15
(Note the ATLAS Tracker TDR: April 1997; CMS Tracker TDR: April 1998)
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 24
!"#$$%&%'()*+,-,.$(/%
Possible Technologies (Active Element)
!"#$%&'(
)*+%,-(
.#/0(
12"*(./30(
.450(
67,"'#"(
.'"89#/:30(
.430(
;"#<'&7&=%"-9>"'+&2(#*?*@%7%$A(
1&2"3(4%
567%
896:%
8:6:;<9<=%
2)34&%5'#62'#783%39'#:;<<=7'#>?&@)A'#B#
>*$.*-3%4"#$"?$,+&?,-(4"[email protected]%
A++(4%B$;(-%
760%
896C%
8=;<9<0%
62'#783%39'#B#C4D5)+4#39D3#&%-,D%),/[email protected]%
EF?(4%
B$;(-/%
<060%E%
<G60%
806=%
8:;<9<0%
B-"+"4%>-"4.(%"4("%E%-,D%),/[email protected]%
2"4.(&/)"-(%H4,#F)?$,+%)"H"I$-$?3%
J?4$H/%
59%(6.6%
8:99%
8<;<9<0%
J?4$H/%>-"4.(%"4("%E%-,D%),/[email protected]%
2"4.(&/)"-(%H4,#F)?$,+%)"H"I$-$?3%
Notes: Notes:
(*1) Utopia
H, Utopia
and including
+30%
contingency
(*1)
H, and
including
+30% contingency
(*2) Fluences assumption with 3000 fb-1 and with safety-1factor 2
(*2) Fluences assumption with 3000 fb and with safety factor 2
!"#$%%&'#("#()*+,'#-.//0/.01%
0%
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 25
UTOPIA Layout
Current ATLAS!
Same number of silicon layers in pixel/SCT region
TRT replaced by two layers of long-strip silicon: This has the same effective resolution as
ITk-SC face-to-face meeting
2011
Hessey, Nikhef
the TRT (but not the pattern3 Feb
recognition
abilityNigel
and
no PID)
!
!
SCT --> Short strips
!
I will concentrate on the
Silicon Strip Detector R&D
One less layer (turned to pixels)
Pixels region
Increase number of layers for better track seeding and fake rejection
Reduce pixel size to increase granularity
Granularity guided by "keep occupancy < 1 %" Not achieved everywhere!
Si-to-Si total length <= 6 m for insertion in ATLAS in one piece
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 26
2
!
Main Concerns for the Detectors
Detector aging (Si detectors,
Scintillators, LAr electronics, FCAL, ….)
High level of pile-up : design for max
mu=200
New radiation environment (up to 1017
n/cm2)
High occupancy (TRT out, more difficult
trigger and tracking conditions)
Technology aging in many parts of the detector and infrastructure (electronics,
controls, safety systems, … )
Radiation contamination (difficult access, waste material, …)
Possible new optics conditions from the LHC (aperture limitations, ….)
…
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 27
Radiation Background Simulation
At inner pixel radii - target survival to 2×1016 neq/cm2
For strips 3000fb-1
×2 implies survival
required up to
~2×1015 neq/cm2
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 28
!"#$"%$&'()"*#(+,'-&*-
Radiation Hard Sensors
!"#!$
n+-strip
substrate (n-in-p)
! in
%&p-type
'()*+,-+%-,').,/-(01()*2)/-3%'+%',4
Collects"electrons
like current n-in-n pixels
.&//,0%-(,/,0%*&'-(/$1,(02**,'%('3$'3'(4$5,/$+78
! 6"-%,*(-$7'"/8(*,#20,#(09"*7,(%*"44$'7
• Faster signal,
reduced charge trapping
" :/;"<-(#,4/,%,-(=*&>(%9,(-,7>,'%,#(-$#,
Always depletes
from the segmented side
! ?&&#(-$7'"/(,@,'(2'#,*3#,4/,%,#
• Good signal even under-depleted
" +$'7/,3-$#,#(4*&0,--(
Single-sided !process
ABCD(09,"4,*(%9"'('3$'3'
902*:-;+%<
=+2(-;+%<
%&
,'(,*2.>()?,-
,' 1056-
,3
]'3#,4/,%,#
! E&*,(=&2'#*$,-("'#("@"$/"F/,(0"4"0$%<(((
• ~50% cheaper
than n-in-n
,&
!5
;&*/#3;$#,
• More foundries and available capacity world-wide
" G"-$,*(9"'#/$'7H%,-%$'7(#2,(%&(/"01(&=(
Easier handling/testing
due to lack of patterned back4"%%,*',#(F"013-$#,($>4/"'%
side implant
:5$"/
!
.&//"F&*"%$&'(&=(:IJ:+(;$%9(((((
)">">"%-2(K9&%&'$0-(L)KMN(%&(#,@,/&4(((((((((
Collaboration of ATLAS with
Hamamatsu Photonics
OPQB5OPQB(0>R #,@$0,-(LS($'09(;"=,*-N
2
Axial
(HPK) to develop 9.75x9.75 cm devices (6 inch wafers)
"
T(-,7>,'%-(LR("5$"/8(R(-%,*,&N8(URVC(-%*$4(,"098((((((((
4 segmentsQTPB(!>(4$%098(AWRC(!>(%9$01
(2 axial, 2 stereo), 1280 strip each, 74.5
" ~320
6XU(YUCCZ("'#(6XR(YUCCZ
>"%,*$"/(-%2#$,#
µm pitch,
µm thick
" E$'$"%2*,(-,'-&*-(LU5U(0>RN(=&*($**"#$"%$&'(-%2#$,-
FZ1 <100> and FZ2 <100> material studied
+,,(^P(]''&8(,%P("/P8(^20/P(['-%P(E,%9P(:8(_&/P(SWS(LRCUUN(+RT3+WC(=&*(#,%"$/-
+%,*,&
E$'$"%2*,-
Stereo
Miniature sensors (1x1 cm2) for irradiation studies
Miniatures
:P(:==&/#,*(" I[KK(RCUU8(O%93UT%9(\2',(RCUU8(.9$0"7&8([J
See N. Unno, et. al., Nucl. Inst. Meth. A, Vol. 636 (2011) S24-S30 for details
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 29
T
@ABBC?75-*=-<?D>*EFGBAG87D<
Full-size Sensor Evaluation
0!!
6(#*T;]
6((*T;]
6(0*T;]
)(1*T;]
6(&*T;]
6(2*T;]
)'2*=ce
)#'=ce
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)#(*=ce
)#0*=ce
)#%*=ce
)#1*=ce
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#51B1:53'>??5*8
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$!!
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!
!
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,./0123).-
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!
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45675809*3.9781:5
!"'!
%&'( )*+,(-
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'*345*6789*:;*
7<*=->7-?
!"!&
)(#*+,-./#!#"0
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,./0123).-
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=--*b"*cD9Sa*-8"*GB"a*YANB"*X<?8"*W-89"*La*+DB"*%(%*O#!''P*
See J. Bohm, et. al., Nucl. Inst. Meth. A, Vol. 636 (2011) S104='!$C=''!*^D>*,-8G7B?
S110
for details
)((C=-I'
)((C=-I#
)((C=-I(
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A*85?28?063'161;081*;5
$"!
'0*83)6+-
!"#!$
#!!
,./012
(!!
$65;0<0;1809*
Specification
=512>[email protected]*8
Measurement
H-G3GI-*:A>>-<8
Leakage Current
J#!!*KL*G8*%!!*+
<200 µA at 600 V
#!!!
200– (1!<L
370nA
@ABB*M-.B-87D<*+DB8GIFull Depletion Voltage
J0!!*+
<500
V
'2!*!
190 – #$0+
245V
:DA.B7<I*:G.GN78G<NO'345P
Coupling
Capacitance (1kHz)
Q#!*[email protected]
>20
pF/cm
#$*!
24 – ([email protected]
30pF
TDBU?7B7ND<
;-?7?8G<NPolysilicon Resistance
'"0VRC!"0W"
1.5+/-0.5MΩ
'"(*C'"%W"
1.3 -1.6MΩ
:A>>-<8*89>DAI9*,7-B-N8>7N
Current through dielectric
J*'!*<L
IX,7-B
diel < 10 nA
J*0<L
< 5nA
YD*-Z.B7N78*B7S78
No explicit limit
J*#<L
< 2nA
X<8->?8>7.*:G.GN78G<N-*
O'!!345P
Interstrip
Capacitance (100kHz)
J'"'[email protected]*O(*.>D[-P
<1.1pF/cm (3 probe)
!"1*!
0.7 – !"&[email protected]
0.8pF
X<8->?8>7.*;-?7?8G<NInterstrip Resistance
Q*'!Z*;
\'0*W"
> 10x R[7G?~15
MΩ
Q'2*]"
>19 GΩ
=8>7.*:A>>-<8****
Strip
Current
bias
LBB*?.-N7^7NG87D<?*GB>-G,U*S-8__
All specifications already met!!
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 30
L"*L^^DB,->*! `XTT*#!''a*289C'$89*bA<-*#!''a*:97NGIDa*XH
0
Charge Collection Results
Annealed 80 min at 60 C
Annealed 80 min at 60 C
10:1 Signal-to-Noise
10:1 Signal-to-Noise
70 MeV Protons
240 MeV Pions
Miniature devices irradiated to strip barrel fluences with
neutrons, pions, protons
Unannealed
Charge collection measured with 90Sr β-source
Consistent results between different groups/equipment
S/N greater than 10:1 for strip sensor types with expected
noise performance
10:1 Signal-to-Noise
~600-800 e- short strips, ~800-1000 e- long strips
Neutrons
See H. Sadrozinski, et.al., Nucl. Inst. Meth. A, doi:
10.1016/j.nima.2011.04.0646 for details
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 31
Current SCT ATLAS Module Designs
ATLAS Tracker Based on
Barrel and Disc Supports
Effectively two styles of double-sided modules (2×6cm long)
each sensor ~6cm wide (768 strips of 80µm pitch per side)
Sensor
Sensor
Barrel Modules
(Hybrid bridge above sensors)
Hybrid cards
carrying read- out
chips and multilayer
interconnect
circuit
Sensor
Sensor
Forward Modules
(Hybrid at module end)
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 32
Current Silicon Microstrip (SCT) Material
Old ATLAS Barrel Module
12 ASIC of 300µm thickness for
double-sided module read-out
(ie just 6 read-out chips per side)
New ATLAS sLHC-Tracker Module
will have 80 ASICs in two hybrid
fingers for just one-sided read-out
“The barrel modules of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker”.
Nucl.Instrum.Meth.A568:642-671,2006.
Hybrid area per module roughly ×2 at
HL-LHC - much higher R/O granularity
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 33
New Design (Phase 2)
Stave: Hybrids glued to Sensors glued to
Hybrid
to sensors
glued
Busglued
Tape
glued
toto bus
tape glued to cooling
Cooling Substrate
Glue
Glue
!"#$
%&'()&#*!*
'",-./01&2&34567&8.69:(.&;)<.6/(
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 34
!+
Stave+Petal Programme
"
!"#$%&'%"#()'*+,*#--%
Petal
Designed to reduce radiation length
Hybrid
Minimize material by shortening cooling path
'%"#(
:'*3;7'4"(6")'4,-'").43.(367"0'7;(8
Glue module directly to a stave core with embedded pipes
DEF*@1
! <373&3='"&.(')3.0"/2"*86)('737;"-66037;">.(8"
Requirements
of large scale assembly considered from the
! !"#$%&'(#"$%()*$+,"-%,'%.%/,.0$%+'*$%1),2%$&3$(($(%4)4$/
'%"#(
" :'*3;7'4"(6")'4,-'").43.(367"0'7;(8
DEF*@1
beginning?'@,3)'&'7(*"69"0.);'"*-.0'".**'&/02"-67*34')'4"9)6&""
! <373&3='"&.(')3.0"/2"*86)('737;"-66037;">.(8"
Simplify
build
as
as possible
!much
!"#$%&'(#"$%()*$+,"-%,'%.%/,.0$%+'*$%1),2%$&3$(($(%4)4$/
(8'"/';37737;A
Glue
All !components
independently testable prior
to
5)&4")6-%3#)"(%./%&#+2%./%4'//)3"$
" ?'@,3)'&'7(*"69"0.);'"*-.0'".**'&/02"-67*34')'4"9)6&""
Stave
construction
B00"-6&>67'7(*"374'>'74'7(02"('*(./0'">)36)"""""""""""""""""""""
(8'"/';37737;A
Module
Glue
!"#$%
Design
aims
to
be
low
cost
!
5)&4")6-%3#)"(%./%&#+2%./%4'//)3"$
(6"-67*(),-(367
G+1=(%
"
B00"-6&>67'7(*"374'>'74'7(02"('*(./0'">)36)"""""""""""""""""""""
Minimize
specialist
components
:'*3;7".3&*"(6"/'"06C"-6*(A
!"#$%
(6"-67*(),-(367
No substrate or connectors
G+1=(%
! 7)8)&)9$%/4$+).")/,%+'&4'8$8,/
!"#!$
"
"
'%"#(
"
!"#$%&'%"#()'*+,*#--%
'%"#(
!"#!$
" :'*3;7".3&*"(6"/'"06C"-6*(A
! 7)8)&)9$%/4$+).")/,%+'&4'8$8,/
+,*"-./0'
!"#$%
H+)I=FI"*#"%)+*)A+>>%A"+*I
H+)I=FI"*#"%)+*)A+>>%A"+*I
!"#$%"&'(')*
+,*"-./0'
!"#$%
5.)/67"867'2-6&/"6)"96.&
!"#$%"&'(')*
5.)/67"93/')"
5.)/67"93/')"
9.-37;
9.-37;
5.)/67"867'2-6&/"6)"96.&
12/)34*
5660.7("(,/'"*(),-(,)'
12/)34* 5660.7("(,/'"*(),-(,)'
?'.46,("D5*
?'.46,("D5*
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 35
./).00+(1%*)! 23'')45667)8"9:6;"9)<=>%)45667)[email protected]#,+7)3B
./).00+(1%*)! 23'')45667)8"9:6;"9)<=>%)45667)[email protected]#,+7)3B
C
C
Stave Module Building
Ongoing Work
ATLAS
Cambridge
!
!
!
DESY
!
!
!
Freiburg
!
!B !EC
!
Glasgow
!
!
! EC !B
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Electrical
Testing
Electrical
Wire Bonding
Electrical
Assemblies
Mechanical
Wire Bondings
Mechanical
Assemblies
Electrical
Testing
Electrical
Wirebondings
Electrical Chip
Gluings
Mechanical
Wirebonding
Mechanical
Chip Gluings
Seven sites making progress with hybrid and module assembly/bonding/testing
Hybrids
Modules
!
!
LBL
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Liverpool
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Santa Cruz
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
! indicates proficiency ! indicates in process of becoming proficient
Plan on 1-2 months for sites to make electrical modules
A. Affolder
! ITK-SC
meeting,
28 July
2011
Ingrid-Maria
Gregor
| Humboldt
Graduiertenkolleg
2011| Slide
36
2
Hybrid Mass Production
First pass at industrialization of hybrids:
Panelization (8 per panel):
Flex selectively laminated to FR4
FR4 acts as temporary substrate during assembly, wire
bonding and testing
Designed for machine placement and solder re-flow of passive
components
Mass attachment/wire bonding of custom ASICs
Flex uses conservative design rules (~20000 hybrids to be
installed):
⤷ High yield, large volume, low price
 100µm track and gap, blind vias (375µm lands within
150µm drill) and 50µm dielectrics
Panel dimensions: 300mm x 200mm
Hybrid dimensions: 24mm x 107.6mm
Hybrids+ASICs tested in panel
With final ASIC set (ABCn-130nm, HCC, power), all hybrids in the
panel tested with one data I/O and one power connection
Fully characterized hybrid cut out of panel
ready for module assembly
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 37
Stave Module Tests
Serial Powering
Input noise: 590e-
Column 0
Hybrid 62
Column 1
Column 2
Hybrid 61
Column 3
Serial Power Chain
AC Coupled Clock/
Command
DC-DC converters
Column 0
Input noise: 599eColumn 1
Input noise: 588eColumn 2
Stave modules are tested in PCB frames
Cheap, flexible test bed for different power/shielding/
grounding configurations
Input noise: 599e598e
Parallel powering, serial powering, and DC-DC
converters have all been evaluated
With proper grounding/shielding, all these
configurations give expected noise performance
Column 3
Parallel
Serial
DC-DC
Hybrid 62
590 e596 e-
590 e599 e-
595 e603 e-
Hybrid 61
585 e591 e-
588 e599 e-
585 e591 e-
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 38
Strip Module Irradiation
AL Foil
Irradiated at CERN-PS irradiation facility
24 GeV proton beam scanned over inclined modules
Module biased, powered, and clocked during irradiation
Total dose of 1.9x1015 neq cm-2 achieved
Max predicted fluence for barrel modules is 1.2x1015
neq cm-2
AL Foil
Sensor and module behave as expected
Noise increase consistent with shot noise expectations
Rather difficult study as full devices tend to get “hot”
Pre-irradiation
Post-irradiation
Noise
Column
0
Column
1
Pre‐Irrad
610
e‐
589
e‐
Post‐Irrad
675
e‐
650
e‐
Difference
65
e‐
61
e‐
Expected
670
e‐
640
e‐
Motorized, Cooled
Irradiation Stage
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 39
Stavelets
power and power control
data and hybrid communication
Serial Power Protection PCBs or DC-DC Converters
BCC PCBs
EOS Card
Bus Cable
Shortened stave built as electrical test-bed
Shielding, grounding, serial and DC-DC powering, …
First stavelet serial powered
Power Protection Board (PPB) has automated
overvoltage protection and slow-controlled (DCS) hybrid
bypassing
DC-DC stavelet under construction
Uses Basic Control Chip (BCC) for data I/O
Generates 80MHz data clock from 40MHz BC clock
160Mbit/s multiplexed data per hybrid
Slow-controlled bypass
DC-DC converter
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 40
Serial Powered Stavelet Electrical Results
Stavelet Noise using Serial Power
Uses on-hybrid shunt control circuit
Roughly ~20 e- higher
Bypassing hybrids does not affect noise
performance
All technologies necessary for serial
powering of stave have been prototyped
and shown to work (and compatible with
130 nm CMOS)
Constant current source, SP protection
and regulation, multi-drop LVDS
Currently optimizing location of
components, size of SP chains
Column of chips
Stavelet noise approaching single module
tests
Modules
AC-coupled mLVDS
Serial Power Protection
(discrete components)
Minimal impact on material budget
Estimated to be ~0.03% averaged over
the stave
Custom Current Source
Serial Power Protection
(130 nm prototype)
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 41
Thermo-mechanical Demonstrator
Full-size demonstrator made with realistic mechanical modules, stave
cores, bus cables and locking mechanism. It is cooled to -35 C° with a
CO2 blow system. During cooling from room temperature to operating
temperature, deflections less than 100 µm were measured.
0W
83 158
Thermal resistance (hybridΔT/total power):
Top: 0.0425 ± 0.0024 °C/W
Bottom: 0.0474 ± 0.0030 °C/W
All: 0.0449 ± 0.0037 °C/W
Simulation: 0.043 °C/W
CO2 Cooling
Great agreements between measurement
and simulation!!
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 42
Requirements for Disc
Strips pointing to IP (phi resolution)
Full coverage from r=336mm - 951 mm
z position 1376mm - 2791 mm -> 5 discs
~2m
Stereo angle +/- 20mrad
NIKHEF
Low material !!
Petal seems currently the optimal design
8.60 cm
8.07 cm
~65cm
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 43
What is a petal
Hybrid = capton board with FE chips (ABCNext,
connection via wire bonds)
!"#$%#&'($)*+,#-&
6
different
sensor
layouts!
Module = silicon sensor with readout hybrid End of Petal
(connection via wire bonds)
! ,&%%&-'(./0+1(*%&'1%2(
Petal = petal core structure + cooling ++31(4#$$1%('+#51(
electrical
*&6*17+
services (power, data, TTC) + modules:
()*+
2 Carbon Facings + Honeycomb sandwich
,
core (6mm)
()
Carbon Fibre tubes on sides
Bus tape
!"#$%#&
#0&+.1/#2-#(%&#3&()*#.+#+%24/#./#5.1"#,"#$%&6&#4&#)*+2#+%24#(%&#%786.0+#4.(%#(%&.6#9%.3+#)(#(&/()(.:&#32+.(.2/+"#
2/#(%&#%786.0+#)6&#*29)(&0#+;9%#(%)(#)**#(%&#9%.3+#+3)/#(%&#+)<&#+&/+26#*&/1(%#./#(%&#)9(.:&#)6&)"#=/#*29)(./1#(%&#
2
4&#%):&#(%&#92/+(6)./#(%)(#)#624#2-#9%.3+#+%2;*0#+()7#2/#(23#2-#.(+#24/#+(6.3+#)/0#9)//2(#<2:&#2/(2#(%&#/&>(#+(6.3#
Independent CO cooling pipe
! 8("#$4&6(,#*069'(:(;&612*&<4('#6=-0*3(*&$1
Independent e- services + Bus cable
!
Control card on side
!
2x9 modules
!
!
!
!
75
mm
",(+/41'(&6('0=1'
! ,&%%&-'(./0+1(*%&'1%2(
>6=1716=16+(??(@("A8(*&&%069(7071
+31(4#$$1%('+#51(
BA"A,&#<(#$&/6=(??(7071
*&6*17+
>6=1716=16+([email protected]('1$50*1'(:(C/'(*#4%1
"&6+$&%(*#$=(&6('0=1
D&[email protected]&++&<(*%&'1&/+'(:('+$/*+/$1(7&'E(B06'
204
mm
!"#!$%&'()*+%$,-.+/%0+1-*(2%3%4*-)5%6,5%7889%
"#$%&'()#*#'+#
650
mm
Hybrid
posi?ons
and
dimensions
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 44
!
Strip pitch etc
UTOPIA layout
In the current design we have 6 different sensor type,
leading to 8-11 different hybrid designs
Possible petal design
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 45
Alternative Solution: Super-Module
Modular concept: cooling, local structure, service bus, power
interface are decoupled from the modules
Overlapping coverage in Z
Rework – Possible up to the commissioning after integration
Design includes carbon-carbon hybrid bridge
Hybrid could be also glued as for stave modules to reduce
material
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 46
ATLAS Strip Module Irradiation
AL Foil
Irradiated at CERN-PS irradiation facility
24 GeV proton beam scanned over inclined modules
Module biased, powered, and clocked during irradiation
Total dose of 1.9x1015 neq cm-2 achieved
Max predicted fluence for barrel modules is
1.2x1015 neq cm-2
Sensor and module behave as expected
AL Foil
Pre-irradiation
Post-irradiation
Noise increase consistent with shot noise expectations
Noise
Column
0
Column
1
Pre‐Irrad
610
e‐
589
e‐
Post‐Irrad
675
e‐
650
e‐
Difference
65
e‐
61
e‐
670
e‐
640
e‐
Expected
Motorized, Cooled
Irradiation Stage
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 47
Possible Phase-II Pixel Mechanics
Independent thermal enclosure
for replacement pixel package
SLAC
IBL remains separately insertable
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 48
Independently Installable Pixel Design
LBNL
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 49
Material Reduction
LBNL
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 50
Ultimate Interconnection: Vertical Integration
Ideal solution for reducing material and easing assembly in detector system is to
integrate electronics and sensors into a single item
… if affordable
This has been a “dream” for many years
More complex detectors, low mass
Liberate us from bump/wire bonding
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 51
Ultimate Interconnection: Vertical Integration
Ideal solution for reducing material and easing assembly in detector system is to
integrate electronics and sensors into a single item
… if affordable
This has been a “dream” for many years
More complex detectors, low mass
Liberate us from bump/wire bonding
Many different aspects of these new
technologies such as SLID (solid liquid
inter-diffusion), TSV (through silicon
vias),
ICV (inter-chip vias) as well as
more highly integrated concepts.
Commercial technologies becoming
available for custom design:
IBM, NEC, Elpida, OKI, Tohoku, DALSA,
Tezzaron, Ziptronix, Chartered, TSMC,
RPI, IMEC……..
But are they all, or even, are any
technologies radiation hard?
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 51
Conclusions
The current schedule for the LHC foresees running well into the next decade to
accumulate up to 3000 fb-1
In the first LHC shutdown (2013) an additional pixel layer will be installed.
The current ATLAS Inner Detector are designed to withstand ~700 fb-1 -> must be
replaced with an all-silicon tracker for HL-LHC operation (planned to be assembled by
2020)
Such a High Luminosity LHC requires granularity and radiation hardness in the tracking
detectors that are, again, a factor of 10 greater than before.
Plans to go beyond this are already in hand (HE-LHC, ILC/CLIC, muon collider, as well
as many intensity frontier machines) but major choices must depend on what we find in
the coming years.
Full-size prototype planar strip detectors have already been fabricated at Hamamatsu
Photonics (HPK) which meet the final specifications
Working baseline and alternative module prototypes have been made and shown to work
after irradiation larger than the final expected fluence
Full-size stave/super-module prototypes are planned to be finished this year with the
next generation of the 130 nm ASICs for the strip tracker under design
Ingrid-Maria Gregor | Humboldt Graduiertenkolleg 2011| Slide 52