Teaching as a design
science: developing reliable
knowledge of learning
technology
Diana Laurillard
London Knowledge Lab
Institute of Education
Teachers as an innovative
professional learning community
•  Reconceptualising teaching as ‘a design science’ •  Teachers building on the designs of others •  Ar8cula8ng their pedagogy •  Adop8ng, adap8ng, tes8ng, improving learning designs •  Co-­‐crea8ng and sharing learning designs à A computa8onal representa8on of pedagogic design Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Should learning design be
supported computationally?
It’s difficult, but it’s worth a try, because… Teachers need much more support than they get to make the most of learning technologies If they can learn together, collaborate, build on the work of others, they can build this knowledge Not in just in staff development courses, not from books, not through exhorta8on, but in the same way as other designers learn… That’s why we built à Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
The Learning Designer A TLRP-TEL project
To help teachers
Articulate their effective teaching ideas for others to adopt
Adopt ‘pedagogical patterns’ of good teaching and open resources
Model pedagogical and logistical benefits/disadvantages
By developing design tools
A ‘pedagogical patterns collector’ for capturing and articulating good
pedagogy
A’ learning design support tool’ for teachers to find, adopt, adapt,
analyse, experiment, trial in practice, redesign, and share designs
http://tinyurl.com/ppcollector3
https://sites.google.com/a/lkl.ac.uk/ldse/Home
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Capturing pedagogy as design plans
Short descrip8on Learning outcome Categorised teaching-­‐
learning ac8vi8es Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Colour-­‐
coded content Black text ar8culates the teacher’s pedagogy Timings A computational representation
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The Pedagogical Patterns Collector
A library of paLerns to inspect, both generic and specific versions Black text captures pedagogy design Colour-­‐coded text iden8fies content parameters Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Adopt/Adapt a teaching pattern
Add link to an OER, e.g. a digital tool for prac8ce Read, Watch, Listen
Investigate
Discuss
Practice
Share
Produce
Export to Word [Moodle] Represent the teacher as present or not Adopt – Adapt – Import resources- Test and
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Check the feedback on the overall distribu8on of learning ac8vity Adjust the type of learning ac8vity. Edit the instruc8ons. re-design
- Export
Comments on the PPC
•  [The pie-­‐chart] is one of the most useful features … it gives a good overview of the balance between different learning experiences •  I rarely consider how the students' Ame is apporAoned … it's good to be made to think about this. •  Seeing how the sessions are shaping up in such a visual medium …. would probably make me think more carefully about providing a mix of acAviAes Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
The Learning Designer A TLRP-TEL project
To help teachers
Articulate their effective teaching ideas for others to adopt
Adopt ‘pedagogical patterns’ of good teaching and open resources
Model pedagogical and logistical benefits/disadvantages
By developing design tools
A Pedagogical Pattern Collector for capturing and articulating good
pedagogy
The Learning Designer for teachers to find, adopt, adapt, analyse,
experiment, trial in practice, redesign, and share designs
http://tinyurl.com/ppcollector3
https://sites.google.com/a/lkl.ac.uk/ldse/Home
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
The Learning Designer overview
Analysis:
Timeline:
Properties:
The start screen:
• •  Charts
of
the
overall
Select
Credit
Importteachinghours
or
Create
•  learning
Studentexperience
activities,
numbers
typeswhat
of outcomes
learning,
• •  –
Define
Learning
they do
of experience of
•  and
inDescription
activity
social
• •  personal,
Define
Designer
timing
reflection
of or
class
•  whole
each
Student
one,
feedback
group
•  sizes,
teacher
workload –
sequencing
for initial design and
for reuse
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
A theory-based framework of the
learner learning
Acquiring
L L Learner
C C concepts
Talk, book, Teacher video, Web concepts Inquiring
Modulate Generate L L Learner
P P practice
Learning through acquisition, instruction
Learning through inquiry
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
A theory-based framework of the
learner learning
Teacher concepts L L Learner
C C concepts
Modulate Generate Modulate Generate Task/Feedback
L L Learner
P P practice
Lab, Game, Learning Simula8on environment Actions
Learning through practice with meaningful intrinsic feedback
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
A theory-based framework of the
learner learning
Acquiring
Ideas, questions
L L Learner
C C concepts
Teacher concepts Peer concepts Ideas, questions
Inquiring
Modulate Generate Modulate Generate Modulate Generate Outputs
Learning environment Practising
L L Learner
P P practice
Peer prac8ce Outputs
Instructivism - Social constructivism – Experiential learning – Inquiry
learning - Constructionism – Collaborative learning
(Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Gagné Bruner, Papert, Marton, Bransford…)
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
The Conversational Framework
Teacher concepts Teacher
communication
cycle
L L Learner
C C concepts
Peer
communication
cycle
Modulate Generate Teacher
practice
cycle
Modulate Generate Peer
practice
cycle
Modulate Generate Learning environment Teacher
modelling
cycle
L L Learner
P P practice
Peer
modelling
cycle
Peer prac8ce Instructivism Social constructivism Experiential learning
Constructionism
Collaborative learning
Peer concepts Inquiry learning
Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Gagné, Bruner, Papert, Marton, Bransford…
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
A theory-based framework of the
learner learning
Acquiring
Teacher concepts Inquiring
L L Learner
C C concepts
Discussing
Peer concepts Producing
Modulate Generate Modulate Generate Modulate Generate Learning environment L L Learner
P P practice
Peer prac8ce Practising
Collaborating
Instructivism - Social constructivism – Experiential learning – Inquiry
learning - Constructionism – Collaborative learning
(Dewey, Vygotsky, Piaget, Gagné Bruner, Papert, Marton, Bransford…)
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Learning with technology
Podcasts Acquiring Teacher concepts Modulate Generate Learning environment Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Web Inquiring resources Producing Designs Produc8ons Skills Prac8ce Prac8sing Tools L L Learner
C C concepts
Webinar, Forum Peer concepts Collabora8on tools Peer prac8ce Discussing Modulate Generate L L Learner
P P practice
Collabora8ng Co-creating new pedagogies
•  Import exis8ng learning designs •  Use advice and guidance •  Consider alterna8ve designs •  Adapt the design to own context •  Analyse the designs •  Re-­‐design – test – improve -­‐ share Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Co-creating new pedagogies
Import an exis8ng learning design Adapt an exis8ng learning design Consider advice and guidance on adapta8on Consider alterna8ve learning ac8vi8es Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Analysing the design
Interpreted in terms of the Conversa8onal Framework Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Contras8ng teacher workload for own design and reuse Re-designing
Use drop-­‐down menu to change teaching-­‐
learning ac8vi8es and analyse effect on learning experience and teacher 8me Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Sharing…
Once tested and evaluated with students, export (with metadata) to shared folder, website, community library, open repository… Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Comments on the approach
•  Teachers respond posi8vely to the Learning Designer tools and see this as a way of improving teaching, and poten8ally of saving 8me •  The Learning Designer concepts of sharing designs, reuse, adaptaAon, advice on TEL, analysis of the learning experience, suggesAons of design alternaAves, and categorisaAon of designs, were all welcomed by teachers •  Teachers commented on the added value of the detailed descrip8ons of pedagogy, which enable them to have a more in-­‐depth conversa8on about their prac8ce and what makes a learning design more effec8ve Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
From 20thC to 21stC teacher?
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 20th C 21st C Teachers’
activities
…shift
…increase
…shift
fromfrom
class
in activity
individual
teaching
to improve
design
to moreto
the
personalised
co-design
learning experience
ofteaching
learning
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Modelling learning experience
and teacher workload
How can we estimate the effects of the decisions we
make as we plan a course?
We select the set of teaching and learning activities
we intend to use
These have consequences for the pedagogical
benefits, and the comparative costs in terms of
teachers’ workload
The next slide shows how the intervening assumptions
join up the decisions and consequences
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Select Teaching-­‐Learning Ac8vi8es (TLAs): wiki, simula8on, e-­‐pordolio Define the type of learning each TLA offers Decide group size for each TLA Distribute learning hours across the selected TLAs Acquisi8on Distribu8on of Inquiry learner Discussion 8me across types of Prac8ce learning experienced Produc8on Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Decide Teacher Time needed to prepare and present each TLA Input total credit hours, size of cohort Teacher 8me for: Design and prepara8on Class and online presenta8on Marking and learner support Comparison of pedagogical benefits, and
costs in terms of teachers’ workload
Conventional
Student
numbers
Teacher hrs
per student
More ac8ve learning Blended
Acquisi8on Acquisi8on Inquiry Inquiry Discussion Discussion Prac8ce Prac8ce Produc8on Produc8on Yr 1 Yr 2 Typical Yr 1 Yr 2 Typical 15 15 30 15 15 30 3.5 1.8 1.2 5.2 2.3 0.4 Lower per capita costs in a typical year for large numbers But who funds the up-front design and development costs?
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Modelling the costs for
increasing student cohort size
3.5 3 Teacher
days per
student
2.5 2 Conven8onal 1.5 Open Mode 1 0.5 0 30 60 90 120 150 Cohort size
What does this mean for the business model for MOOCs?
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
What issues must the Learning
Designer also address?
•  Complexity • 
• 
• 
“It’s very overwhelming … there’s a lot going on and to Poten8ally a ntot ool ow
f hat management control think about. I’m sure all the terms mean. I mean I don’t nderstand between produc8on “My ounly worry is tthe hat diifference t [the Learning Designer] turns aind nto Interpretability o
f a
nalysis prac8ce. Let’s hrave a look […] Yes – OaK get it. It Ybes I see a an insAtuAonal equisite rather than n –o IpAon. ecomes the difference. tool, Probably wte han need bit moore help here w
ith measurement rave ather a uaseful rganisaAonal tool “I t
hink i
t's c
ute t
o h
p
ie c
harts, i
t's n
eat [
...] I
w
ould g
o The n
eed f
or a
t
opic-­‐oriented f
ocus explana8ons a
nd e
xamples. B
ut o
nce y
ou g
et i
nto t
he t
ool it that aallows some cmriAcal self reflecAon m
on p8racAce. I know back nd s
quidge y s
tuff, r
eorganise y me b
ecause I
“My p
roblem w
ith tlhe tool biut s that the pedagogy is there, neutral of isn’t she o dgifficult” that t
oal i
s t
he aLer, s
oMware, o
nce o
ut c
an would know that it awpproach ould be tao gtood thing to hlearning ave a mix of the t
opic w
hile t
he eaching a
nd become so steducAve to forms gather informaAon for that's departments, all o
f t
hese hings (
i.e. o
f l
earning). B
ut because requires a
t
opic a
pproach a
nd t
his t
ool d
oesn’t h
elp w
ith is policy m
akers, e
tc, a
nd t
he i
nformaAon t
hat i
s p
roduced I this think it's a good thing. If I didn't believe that this was a a
pproach” probably ONLY useful individual eachers, not tehat ducaAon good thing, then you wfor ould show mte a pie chart was ministers, etc” 90% of one thing I would s8ll think it's ok” Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Teachers as innovative cocreators of technology-based
pedagogies
Features of teaching as ‘a design science’: •  Teachers adop8ng, adap8ng, tes8ng, improving, sharing learning designs •  Teaching as collabora8ve learning, supported by online collabora8ve design tools and repositories •  A theory-­‐based computa8onal representa8on of pedagogic design and teacher workload that migrates across subjects Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Further details…
Teaching as a Design
Science: Building
pedagogical patterns for
learning and
technology(Routledge,
2012)
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
The LDSE project team
Oxford
Liz Masterman (CoPI)
Marion Manton (CoPI)
Joanna Wild (RF)
Birkbeck/LKL
IOE/LKL
George Magooulas (CoPI)
Patricia Charlton
Dionisis Dimakopoulos
Brock Craft (RF)
Diana Laurillard (PI)
Dejan Ljubojevic (RF)
LondonMet
Tom Boyle (CoPI)
RVC
LSE
Steve Ryan (CoPI)
Ed Whitley
Roser Pujadas (PhD Student)
Sept 2012 cc: by-nc-sa
Kim Whittlestone (CoPI)
Stephen May
Carrie Roder (PhD Student)
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Teaching as a design science: developing reliable knowledge of learning technology