Water for Sustainable Development –
Water for the Future We Want
Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, 18 March 2015
UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia
Credit: Nicholas Clive Marcroft
Ban Ki Moon, SG, United Nations
• “As the world charts a more sustainable future, the crucial interplay
among water, food and energy is one of the most formidable
challenges we face. Without water there is no dignity and no
escape from poverty.”
World Water Day 2011, 22 March 2011
• “Water will play a central role in creating the future we want.”
World Water Day 2012, 22 March 2012
• ”Water holds the key to sustainable development. We need it for
health, food security and economic progress.”
World Water Day 2013, 22 March 2013
• “Our societies cannot prosper without clean, plentiful freshwater.
People cannot thrive without adequate sanitation.”
Budapest Water Summit, 08 October 2013
• “Water is at the core of sustainable development.”
World Water Day 2014, 22 March 2014
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
http://www.un.org/en/events/waterday/2014/sgmessage.shtml
http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=46214
Quotes
Water for …
Water is key for:
• Poverty reduction
• Inclusive growth
• Public health
• Food security
• Lives of dignity for all
• Long-lasting harmony
with Earth’s essential
ecosystems
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Cap-Net UNDP, 2015 and 5th Global Prize Winner,
Khushneet Bhatia 10 Years, India, UNEP, 21st International
Children's Painting Competition Photo Gallery.
… Sustainable Development
… The Future We Want
Outline
• Until 2015 MDGs, challenges remain:
• Water and Social / Inter-generational Justice
• Process towards SDGs
• OWG Proposal for SDGs, July 2014
• Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable
management of water and sanitation for all
• Other proposed SDGs and water related issues
• UN SG Report “The Road to Dignity by 2030”,
December 2014
• Status today: Targets and Indicators
Page 5
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UN ESCWA 28th Ministerial Session, 15-19 Sep 2014
1. We, the representatives of the member States of the Economic and
Social Commission for Western Asia, assembled in Tunis at the twentyeighth ministerial session of the Commission, commit to social justice
as a core value of the Arab and Islamic culture and a foundation for
secure, cohesive and prosperous societies.
2. We shall strive to achieve equality and equity in our countries,
eradicating poverty, securing environmental sustainability and building
partnerships for development, as enshrined in international treaties and
declarations.
3. We note with extreme concern the daunting challenges that the Arab
region is facing in all aspects of human development. We affirm the
importance of addressing threats to social cohesion and combating
water scarcity, food and water insecurity, environmental pollution,
climate change and the increasing debt of poor Arab countries, which
further impede efforts towards social justice and sustainable
development.
(...)
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
www.escwa.un.org/about/gov/sessions/router.asp?SessionID=28
Tunis Declaration on
Social Justice in the Arab Region (1/3)
UN ESCWA 28th Ministerial Session, 15-19 Sep 2014
9. We recall the Commission’s resolution 304 (XXVII) of 10 May 2012 on
the role of participation and social justice in achieving sustainable
development, in which it encourages member States to intensify their
efforts to mainstream social justice into sustainable development
strategies and address the concerns of all social groups.
(...)
19. We stress the urgent need for policies to ensure the preservation and
management of increasingly scarce natural resources, in a manner
that respects the environment and guarantees intergenerational
justice.
(...)
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
www.escwa.un.org/about/gov/sessions/router.asp?SessionID=28
Tunis Declaration on
Social Justice in the Arab Region (2/3)
Water and Social / Inter-generational Justice
• Water scarcity, challenge to
• water and environmental management,
• overall sustainable socio-economic development,
nationally and regionally
• Overcoming water scarcity by
• more equitable allocation of water to all parts of society,
• potential to reduce social inequality and
contribute to social justice
• Taking into account future generation’s
• water needs, and
• development opportunities – heart of sustainable development –
contributes to
• improved inter-generational equity,
• inter-generational justice between today and tomorrow
Page 8
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UN ESCWA, 2014. Social Justice in the Policies of Arab States.
Scarcity - Equity - Justice
MDG 7 Environmental Sustainabilty
Access to Water and Sanitation –
Inequalities Between Countries
• Average access to water and sanitation
relatively high
• Water services: 83%, and
• Sanitation services: 80%
• Significant variations between Arab countries
• Some LDCs with less than 55% access to improved
water sources and sanitation facilities:
•
•
•
•
Page 9
Mauretania,
Somalia,
The Sudan, and
Yemen.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
MDG 7 Environmental Sustainabilty
Access to Water and Sanitation –
Inequalities Between Urban and Rural
Water 0
20
40
60
80
100
Sanitation 0
20
40
60
80
100
Regional
Regional
Djibouti
Iraq
Mauretania
Morocco
Morocco
Somalia
Urban
Yemen
Rural
Somalia
The Sudan
Yemen
• Direct negative impacts esp. on women and children;
increasing gender-related social injustice in rural
communities
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Urban
Rural
Social Justice Today Impacts on
Inter-generational Justice
Social justice in the water sector today is linked to
inter-generational justice:
• Challenges that exist today are impacting on
development opportunities of communities tomorrow
• If not addressed today, development gap may develop
further in the future
• Esp. relevant for those living today in marginalized
communities with access limitations or restrictions
to water and sanitation
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Inter-generational Justice:
General Aspects
Challenge to find adequate governance and utilization
mechanisms for water resources that either
• Receive no contemporary recharge (i.e. replenishment,
so-called “non-renewable aquifers”), or
• Are abstracted at a rate substantially higher than the natural
replenishment (e.g. overdraft of renewable aquifers)
State required as regulator and guarantor of justice, i.e. fair
distribution between citizens today and future generations:
• “Contrat de nappe“, groundwater contracts between users
of common pool resource, Morocco
• Changes in food security / wheat production policies and
incentives, Saudi Arabia
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Non-renewable Groundwater
Agricultural Water Use
e.g. Wadi Al-Sirhan, Saudi Arabia
1991
2000
2012
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Non-renewable Groundwater
WaterWatch, 2006.
Accumulated Groundwater Abstractions
1975 - 2004 per Region for Saudi Arabia
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Non-renewable Groundwater
GeoEconomica, 2011. Saudi Arabia’s Food
Diplomacy: Searching for Fertile Ground.
Wheat Production, Consumption, and
Trade, 1983-2019, Saudi Arabia
Page 15
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Water, ... Energy, Food and Inter-generational Justice
Woertz, E., 2013. Oil for Food.
Yesterday ! - Today - Tomorrow ?
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Petroleum, Natural Gas, Mining
Saving and Investing
Natural Resource Rents
• Saving and investing natural resource rents can
substantially increase wealth of resource-rich economies
• Economic profits generated from natural resources can
become important financial resources for sustainable
socio-economic development
• Mining sector - although physically unsustainable:
• Sustain economic activities beyond its limited lifetime,
• Transforming wealth generated from resource units into
sustainable forms of economic capital and activities,
including manufacturing, agriculture and services
Page 17
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Non-Renewable (Ground-)Water Reserves
Similar Approaches Possible for Water?
• Non-renewable water reserves face often at least two main
differences to other natural resources:
• Much less valued, and
• Diffused, i.e. distributed among large number of beneficiaries
• If not physically preserved, rights of future generations to
access and utilize same reserves are literally being violated
by current use patterns - wasteful or not
• Depletion of (water) reserves means opportunities are
foregone: Opportunity costs arising – costs that are required
to provide an alternative (water source) for uses of future
generations
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Non-Renewable (Ground-)Water Reserves
Similar Approaches Possible for Water?
• Ideally benefits from non-renewable water reserves are
“invested” into “products” that eventually pay out, i.e.
pay back for future generations
• Such “products” could be linked to
• High-tech industries,
• Education,
• Pension schemes, etc.
• Managing non-renewable natural resources in a manner
that guarantees benefits for future generations means:
• Limiting extraction so as to maintain some reserves for future
use, or
• Converting resources into wealth to be invested in long-term and
more sustainable economic activities, including industry
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Non-Renewable Reserves – Groundwater, Natural Gas, Petroleum
Sovereign Wealth Funds –
A Solution also for Water?
• Revenues from petroleum and natural gas
incorporated in Sovereign Wealth Funds;
handling national investments into future
development options and wealth protection
schemes
• Revenues from subsidized abstraction of
non-renewable groundwater reserves
rarely included in Sovereign Wealth Funds;
contribute primarily to personal wealth of
few elites
Page 20
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Debt-Increasing Investments in Large Scale Infrastructure
Other Challenges for
Inter-generational Justice
• Investments into large scale water infrastructure:
Storage, production (desalination) or transfer
• Not (re-)financed through direct state budget investments,
• Countries without strong economic or resource base and
little financial strength,
• Accumulation of long term debt,
• Future generations may carry burden of paying off debt
accumulated by their ancestors
• Substantial debt-increasing water infrastructure still rare
• Different from other sectors, i.e. nuclear energy or other
high cost - high tech industries
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World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Water and Inter-generational Justice
What needs to be done …
Inter-generational equity and justice
• Should address
• Preservation of environment for future generations
• Economic and social options for succeeding generations
(match or exceed those of their ancestors)
• Need to focus at least on five areas
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Page 22
Fair inter-temporal distribution of natural resource wealth,
Just taxation and just accumulation of national debt,
Physical stocks of capital,
Social and education systems, and
Improved income brackets and social mobility for
future generations.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
John Lennon, 22 June 1980
UN ESCWA, 2014. Social Justice in the Policies of Arab States.
Living on borrowed time
Without a thought for tomorrow
Water for …
… Sustainable Development
… The Future We Want
Water Connects and Enables
• Water is a driver for
development and enables:
• Health
• Nature
• Urbanization
• Industry
• Energy
• Food
• Equality
Page 24
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Cap-Ne UNDP and UN-Water, 2015.
• Water is essential,
finite and vulnerable
Water for …
Water for Energy Energy for Water
• Energy Use for
Groundwater Pumping
2010, and
• Saq-Ram Aquifer System
(West), Exploitable Area
Page 25
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
ESCWA, forthcoming. Water Development Report 6.
Sneak Preview …
Water for Sustainable Development - Water for The Future We Want
Process Towards SDGs:
Requiring a Logical Structure
Indicators:
measurable,
combinable
Targets:
realistic,
ambitious (not too),
but not ambiguous
Goals:
universal,
integrative,
transformative
Page 26
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Water for Sustainable Development - Water for the Future We Want
Global
Process
Process Towards SDGs
Page 27
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water
UN-Water’s Technical Advice (TA):
• January 2014:
TA paper adopted, 20th UNWater meeting in New York
• February 2014:
TA paper presented, in
connection with PGA
discussion on water,
sanitation and sustainable
energy, New York
• July 2014:
Open Working Group (OWG)
adopts its final report
Page 28
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Harlin, J., 2014. UN-Water Technical Advice on Post-2015
Global Goal for Water: Securing Sustainable Water for All.
World Water Week, Stockholm.
Process Towards SDGs
Water for SD: As Proposed by UN Water
A. Achieve universal access to safe drinking
water, sanitation and hygiene
B. Improve by (x%) the sustainable use and
development of water resources in all
countries
C. All countries strengthen equitable, participatory
and accountable water governance
D. Reduce untreated wastewater by (x%),
nutrient pollution by (y%) and increase
wastewater reuse by (z%)
E. Reduce mortality by (x%) and economic loss
by (y%) from natural and human-induced
water-related disasters
Page 29
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Harlin, J., 2014. UN-Water Technical Advice on Post-2015
Global Goal for Water: Securing Sustainable Water for All.
World Water Week, Stockholm.
UN-Water Technical Advice (TA)
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
• 17 SDGs (Goals), 169 Targets
• One explicit SDG 6 on water and sanitation
with 8 Targets,
• Chapeau and at least 8 other SDGs with
10 Targets directly or indirectly linked to
water-related issues
Page 30
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Chapeau
Chapeau
Paragraph 7.
Rio+20 outcome reaffirmed the need to be guided by the
purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, with
full respect for international law and its principles. It reaffirmed the
importance of freedom, peace and security, respect for all human
rights, including the right to development and the right to
an adequate standard of living, including the right to food
and water, the rule of law, good governance, gender equality,
women’s empowerment and the overall commitment to just and
democratic societies for development.
Page 31
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable
management of water and sanitation for all
6.1 by 2030, achieve universal and equitable access to safe
and affordable drinking water for all
Goal 6
6.2 by 2030, achieve access to adequate and equitable
sanitation and hygiene for all, and end open defecation,
paying special attention to the needs of women and girls and
those in vulnerable situations
6.3 by 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution,
eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous
chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of
untreated wastewater, and
increasing recycling and
safe reuse by x% globally
Page 32
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable
management of water and sanitation for all
6.4 by 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency
across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and
supply of freshwater to address water scarcity, and
substantially reduce the number of people suffering from
water scarcity
Goal 6
6.5 by 2030 implement integrated water resources
management at all levels, including through
transboundary cooperation as appropriate
6.6 by 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems,
including mountains, forests,
wetlands, rivers, aquifers and
lakes
Page 33
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable
management of water and sanitation for all
Goal 6
6.a by 2030, expand international cooperation and
capacity-building support to developing countries in
water and sanitation related activities and programmes,
including water harvesting, desalination, water
efficiency, wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse
technologies
6.b support and strengthen the participation of
local communities for improving water and
sanitation management
Page 34
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
Goal 1
1.5 by 2030 build the resilience of the poor and those in
vulnerable situations, and reduce their exposure and
vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and
other economic, social and environmental shocks and
disasters
Page 35
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages
3.3 by 2030 end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria,
and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis,
water-borne diseases, and other communicable diseases
Goal 3
3.9 by 2030 substantially reduce the number of deaths and
illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water, and
soil pollution and contamination
Page 36
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and
sustainable industrialization and foster innovation
Goal 9
9.4 By 2030, upgrade infrastructure and retrofit industries to
make them sustainable, with increased resource-use
efficiency and greater adoption of clean and
environmentally sound technologies and industrial
processes, with all countries taking action in accordance
with their respective capabilities
Page 37
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 11. Make cities and human settlements
inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Goal 11
11.5 by 2030 significantly reduce the number of deaths and the
number of affected people and decrease by y% the
economic losses relative to GDP caused by disasters,
including water-related disasters, with the focus on
protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations
Page 38
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 12. Ensure sustainable consumption and
production patterns
Goal 12
12.4 by 2020 achieve environmentally sound management of
chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle
in accordance with agreed international frameworks
and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil
to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and
the environment
12.c Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage
wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, (…),
including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those
harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their
environmental impacts, (…)
Page 39
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and
marine resources for sustainable development
Goal 14
14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and
coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse
impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and
take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy
and productive oceans
Page 40
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within Currently Proposed SDGs
Proposed goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable
use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests,
combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation
and halt biodiversity loss
Goal 15
15.1 by 2020 ensure conservation , restoration and sustainable
use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and
their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains
and drylands, in line with obligations under international
agreements
15.8 by 2020 introduce measures to prevent the introduction and
significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species
on land and water ecosystems, and control or eradicate
the priority species
Page 41
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
OWG, 2014. Proposal of The Open Working Group for
Sustainable Development Goals, 19 Jul 2014,
http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/owg.html.
OWG Proposal for SDGs
Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report
Synthesis
Report
Six Essential
Elements for
Delivering the
SDGs
Page 42
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UN SG, 2014. The Road to Dignity by 2030. Synthesis Report
of the Secretary-General on the Post-2015 Agenda, 04 Dec
2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015.
“The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG
Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda
Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report
Synthesis
Report
3. Framing the New Agenda - 3.1. Setting the stage
Page 43
58. (…) the proposal by the Open Working Group of such a
far-reaching set of goals and targets is to be welcomed as a
remarkable step forward in the international community’s quest for
effective solutions to an increasingly complex global agenda.
59. As Secretary-General of the United Nations, I therefore
welcome the outcome produced by the Open Working Group.
(…) I take positive note of the decision of the General
Assembly that the proposal of the Group be the main basis
for the post-2015 intergovernmental process.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UN SG, 2014. The Road to Dignity by 2030. Synthesis Report
of the Secretary-General on the Post-2015 Agenda, 04 Dec
2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015.
“The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG
Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda
Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report
Synthesis
Report
3. Framing the New Agenda - 3.1. Setting the stage
Page 44
63. Member States have agreed that the
agenda laid out by the Open Working Group is the
main basis for the Post-2015 intergovernmental process.
We now have the opportunity to frame the goals and targets in a
way that reflects the ambition of a universal and transformative
agenda.
I note, in particular, the possibility to maintain the 17 goals and
rearrange them in a focused and concise manner that enables
the necessary global awareness and implementation at the
country level.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UN SG, 2014. The Road to Dignity by 2030. Synthesis Report
of the Secretary-General on the Post-2015 Agenda, 04 Dec
2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015.
“The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG
Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda
Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report
3.3. Six essential elements for delivering on the SDGs
Synthesis
Report
People: to ensure healthy lives, knowledge, and the inclusion
of women and children
Page 45
70. The agenda must address (…) reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases (…); and promote healthy behaviours,
including those related to water, sanitation and hygiene.
Prosperity: to grow a strong, inclusive, and transformative
economy
73. Innovation and investments in sustainable and resilient
infrastructure, settlement, industrialization,
small and medium enterprises, energy and
technology can both generate employment,
and remedy negative environmental
trends.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UN SG, 2014. The Road to Dignity by 2030. Synthesis Report
of the Secretary-General on the Post-2015 Agenda, 04 Dec
2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015.
“The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG
Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda
Water Aspects Within UN SG Synthesis Report
Synthesis
Report
Planet: to protect our ecosystems for all societies and our
children
Page 46
75. To respect our planetary boundaries we need to equitably
address climate change, halt biodiversity loss, and address
desertification and unsustainable land use. (…) We must
promote sustainable agriculture, fisheries and food systems;
foster sustainable management of water resources, and of
waste and chemicals;
foster renewable and more efficient energy; decouple economic
growth from environmental degradation, advance sustainable
industrialisation and resilient infrastructure;
ensure sustainable consumption and
production; and achieve sustainable
management of marine and terrestrial
ecosystems and land use.
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UN SG, 2014. The Road to Dignity by 2030. Synthesis Report
of the Secretary-General on the Post-2015 Agenda, 04 Dec
2014, http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015.
“The Road to Dignity by 2030”, UN SG
Synthesis Report on Post-2015 Agenda
Page 47
ICSU, ISSC, 2015. Review of the Sustainable Development
Goals: The Science Perspective. Paris: International Council
for Science (ICSU).
Science
Perspective
The Science Perspective
Review of Targets for the SDGs
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
The Science Perspective
Regrouping:
(I) water, sanitation and health;
(II) reducing pollutant and untreated
waste water discharge into rivers
and water bodies; and
(III) reducing water scarcity by
protecting water sources, increasing
the efficiency of water use, and
better governance.
X
X
Page 48
ICSU, ISSC, 2015. Review of the Sustainable Development
Goals: The Science Perspective. Paris: International Council
for Science (ICSU).
Review of Targets for the SDGs
The Science Perspective
Science
Perspective
The science community supports
this goal but recommends that
steps be taken to strengthen its
credibility through the more
effective use of science and
state-of-the-art data and
information systems and
innovative policy programs.
Page 49
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
ICSU, ISSC, 2015. Review of the Sustainable Development
Goals: The Science Perspective. Paris: International Council
for Science (ICSU).
Review of Targets for the SDGs
Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water
From Goals and Targets to Indicators:
UN-Water Proposal
Indicators 6.3
Target 6.3: by 2030, improve water quality by reducing pollution,
eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous
chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated
wastewater, and increasing recycling and safe reuse by x%
globally
Proposed core-indicators:
6.3.1 Percentage of waste water safely treated
Composite indicator based on treatment ladders for domestic and industrial waste water. Partial monitoring framework in place (AQUASAT, IBNET, GLAAS): A waste water
monitoring protocol is proposed to aggregate best national available data. In the absence of
verified national data modelled estimates can be generated using JMP data combined with
treatment performance in different population density and income settings.
Page 50
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UN-Water, 2015.
Definition & Measurability:
Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water
From Goals and Targets to Indicators:
UN-Water Proposal
Indicators 6.4
Target 6.4: by 2030, substantially increase water-use efficiency
across all sectors and ensure sustainable withdrawals and supply
of freshwater to address water scarcity, and substantially reduce
the number of people suffering from water scarcity
Proposed core-indicators:
6.4.2 Water Productivity
Water productivity tracks change in water-use efficiency over time for major sectors,
including energy, domestic, industrial, and agricultural. Value defined for each sector is
divided by water withdrawn or consumed. The indicator can be aggregated to reflect overall
change in productivity across sectors or disaggregated to the sector level. The indicator can
be calculated using existing datasets including National Accounts Main Aggregates (UNSD),
Aquastat (FAO), World Energy Outlook (International Energy Agency), World Bank
demographic datasets, and WaterStat Database (Water Footprint Network). Further
development of the monitoring framework
is needed to integrate these datasets and
to fill existing data gaps.
Page 51
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UN-Water, 2015.
Definition & Measurability:
Water for Sustainable Development: As Proposed by UN Water
From Goals and Targets to Indicators:
UN-Water Proposal
Indicators 6.6
Target 6.6: by 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems,
including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes
Proposed core-indicators:
6.6.1 Change in wetlands extent over time (% change over time)
Definition & Measurability:
Monitoring and Reporting Framework in-place: Ramsar Convention through its regular State
of the World’s Wetlands and their Services reports and is also a sub-indicator for Aichi
Biodiversity Target 14 (with reporting mechanism in place for that). The proposed indicator is
intelligible, sensitive to drivers and protection and restoration measures, comparable over
time, and universally applicable.
Page 52
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
UN-Water, 2015.
The Change in Wetland Extent uses an existing methodology for data collection and
analysis to calculate a global average of change in wetland extent and can be disaggregated
geographically and by wetland type. The Ramsar broad definition of "wetland" is used which
includes rivers and lakes (enabling three of the biome types mentioned in the target to be
assessed - wetlands, rivers, lakes - plus other wetland types). Universal coverage.
Water for Sustainable Development - Water for the Future We Want
Global
Process
Outlook
Page 53
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
Water for Sustainable Development - Water for the Future We Want
Outlook
• March 2015
Sustainable Development Goals and Targets
• April 2015
Framework for Monitoring and Review of Implementation
• May 2015
2nd Arab Sustainable Development Forum, Bahrain
Next
Steps
• May 2015
Means of Implementation and Revitalised Global Partnership
Page 54
• July 2015
Finalization of the Outcome Document
• September 2015
UN General Assembly
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman, 18 March 2015
What is the Future We Want?
What is the Future You Want?
Water for Sustainable Development –
Water for the Future We Want
Ralf Klingbeil, Regional Advisor Environment and Water
World Water Day 2015, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, 18 March 2015
UN Economic And Social Commission For Western Asia
Water from Different Sources
• Conventional renewable water resources
from surface and groundwater are
often not anymore sufficient
to sustain livelihoods and lifestyles,
• Countries depend to varying degree on
different sources of water:
•
•
•
•
Page 59
Internally renewable water resources,
Externally renewable water resources,
Non-renewable water reserves, and
Non-conventional water
• Desalination,
• Treated wastewater reuse,
• …
Conference on Social Water Studies in the MENA Region: State of the Art and Perspectives, German Jordanian University, Madaba, Jordan, 28-29 Sep 2014
www.escwa.un.org/about/gov/sessions/router.asp?SessionID=28
Conventional and Non-conventional
Water Resources
The World Bank, 2007
World Bank, 2007. Making the Most of Scarcity.
Percentage of Conventional Water
Resources Available, by Source
Page 60
Conference on Social Water Studies in the MENA Region: State of the Art and Perspectives, German Jordanian University, Madaba, Jordan, 28-29 Sep 2014
Inter-generational Justice Starts Today
Water as a Human Right
• Debates focused on social aspects
related to people’s access to
• good quality water supply and
• sanitation at household level
• Recognized in
• United Nations General Assembly and
• Human Rights Council
declarations of water as a human right that is essential
for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights.
• Improving coverage of water and sanitation for poor
• directly reduces financial burden and improves health conditions
• contributes to poverty alleviation
• reduces social inequality and contributes to social justice
Page 61
Conference on Social Water Studies in the MENA Region: State of the Art and Perspectives, German Jordanian University, Madaba, Jordan, 28-29 Sep 2014
Non-Renewable (Ground-)Water Reserves
we are here, but
where are we going
next?
Page 62
Conference on Social Water Studies in the MENA Region: State of the Art and Perspectives, German Jordanian University, Madaba, Jordan, 28-29 Sep 2014
After: Foster, S. et al., 2003. Utilization of Non-Renewable
Groundwater. GW-Mate.
Basic Challenges for
Sustainable Management
Non-Renewable (Ground-)Water Reserves
• Clear improvement of human well-being and
livelihood
• An “exit strategy” as the aquifer is depleted
• Incorporation of inter-generational equity into
its development
• Balance between short-term benefits and
long-term costs
Page 63
Conference on Social Water Studies in the MENA Region: State of the Art and Perspectives, German Jordanian University, Madaba, Jordan, 28-29 Sep 2014
After: Foster, S. et al., 2003. Utilization of Non-Renewable
Groundwater. GW-Mate.
Basic Principles for
Sustainable Management
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