The University of Warwick
Department of Politics and International Studies
THE VIGILANT STATE:
THE POLITICS OF INTELLIGENCE AND SECRECY
PO382
Undergraduate Module Handbook, 2014-15 – updated 1 October 2014
Lectures
Wednesday 12.00 LIB1
Seminars
Thursday 11.00 S2.81
Thursday 13.00 H3.02
Thursday 14.00 S0.28
Thursday 15.00 S0.03
Friday 11.00 H2.45
Module tutors:
Richard J. Aldrich & Dina Rezk
[email protected]
[email protected]
Office hours:
Wednesday 13.00-14.00 (Aldrich) C1.04
Thursday13.00-14.30 (Rezk)
1
THE VIGILANT STATE:
THE POLITICS OF INTELLIGENCE
Contents
Module aims and objectives 3
Assessment 4-5
Non-Assessed Essays 5
Assessed Essays 6-7
Lecture schedule 8
Seminar schedule 9
Approach to Reading and Key Material 10
Reading List 12
* The title of this module draws its inspiration from Bernard Porter, The Origins of the Vigilant State:
The London Metropolitan Police Special Branch before the First World War (1991).
2
Module Overview
This module aims to investigate the nature of the 'vigilant state'. It focuses upon the
apparatus developed by modern states to permit the surveillance of both international and
domestic threats to their security. It will examine the major competing theories
concerning the repeated failure of the vigilant state in the face of surprise attack at the
international level, subjecting these to careful comparative analysis and reviewing the
competing theoretical explanations. Consideration will be given to the role of domestic
political monitoring within both democratic and authoritarian states. Attention will also
be given to the problem of reconciling clandestine and/or covert methods, traditionally
associated with operational efficiency, with the degree of transparency and accountability
normally expected of the executive of a democratic state. The final section of the module
will turn to look at the future development of some of these issues against a background
of rapid technical change and globalisation.
In short, this module aims to introduce to the various debates that have characterised the
use of secret service by the state in the international and domestic context. Although the
terms 'espionage', 'intelligence' and 'secret service' are all central to the concerns of this
module they have been deliberately avoided in the above module description given in the
handbook. This is because this module aims to situate all these things in a broader
governmental context, viewing them as aspects of international statecraft or as
constitutional problems or as issues of civil rights. Accordingly, this module is as much
about how policy-makers make use, or fail to make use, of intelligence, and how secret
services might be regulated within a constitutional framework, as about the practice of
secret service itself.
Aims - The module aims to:





develop an understanding of the origins and developments of intelligence services
explore the main theoretical approaches to intelligence and surveillance
offer an understanding of the issues surrounding intelligence failure
analyse key ethical and policy dilemmas and issues raised by CT intelligence
assess the contemporary debates about globalization and the future of intelligence
Objectives- On completion of this module, you should be able to:




demonstrate an appreciation of the historical context of intelligence
critically discuss the characteristics of the accountability frameworks
assess the strengths and weaknesses of the key theoretical debates governing the
intelligence cycle
critically analyse, both orally and in writing, the current issues facing national and
regional approaches to intelligence
3
Learning Methods
There will be a weekly lecture and a weekly seminar running through the academic year.
This is a lecture and seminar-based module, entailing a 45 min lecture by Richard
Aldrich on Wednesdays. This will be followed on Thursday or Friday by a seminar
discussion of the previous week's topic, led by Dina Rezk, with student presentations and
structured student interaction (in the form of group discussion, for example). Presentation
topics will be allocated in week one. Students are expected to complete the essential
reading for each week and to actively contribute to the discussion. Students are further
expected to engage in independent study, employing the reading lists and other sources to
deepen their knowledge of the subject.
MODULE ASSESSMENT
The mode of assessment for this module is via one of three methods outlined in the
undergraduate handbook. Please see this for details. NB essays are 3,000 words.
All students handing in assessed work should ensure that they are aware of the
relevant information in the Undergraduate Handbook.
ESSAY GUIDELINES
- for the assessed 3,000 word essay, you can either choose a title from the Assessed
Essay title list, or alternatively you can negotiate your own title. I recommend the former.
- if you negotiate a title with your tutor you must submit a title form to the office by the
Negotiated Title Deadline listed in the PAIS Undergraduate Handbook.
- do not produce fact-hogging 'term papers' on 'topics' as they will get low marks
- pay attention to identifying where the schools of thought are
- include an element of literature review and tell us who argues what
- make sure you produce an essay that answers the question directly
- do not hesitate to take issue with the wording of the question
- get it in 24 hrs before the deadline to allow for computer problems
- DON'T MISS THE DEADLINES
4
ASSESSED ESSAY QUESTIONS ARE ON THE WEBSITE
Non-assessed Essays (Formative)
1,500 WORDS FOR 14 JANUARY - OPTIONAL - NOT COMPULSORY
1.
Is it best to conceptualize intelligence largely in terms of "information" or in terms of
"secrets" or in terms of “conspiracies”?
2.
Can most states now abandon costly secret collection through human and technical
methods, in favour of harnessing abundant open sources such as the internet?
3.
Critically assess Michael Handel’s view that surprise attacks are best explained in
terms of "paradoxes" ? Are these paradoxes impossible to resolve?
4.
Who are the characteristics of a good consumer of intelligence?
5.
Why has there traditionally been so little multi-lateral intelligence sharing? Has this
changed since 9/11?
6
Reading Week
7
"9/11 was primarily a failure of intelligence collection” Discuss
8
Why have conspiratorial accounts of 9/11 proved to be so widely accepted in the
United States?
9
Given that Iraqi WMD was a familiar 'Cold War Type' intelligence problem of
strategic weapons estimates, why did western agencies get this so wrong?
10
Can effective counter-terrorist intelligence be reconciled with the robust protection
of civil liberties?
11
"The paramilitaries in Northern Ireland were largely defeated thought the
remorseless application of intelligence pressure." Discuss.
12
Discuss the changing role of intelligence in US counter-terrorist activity between
2001 and 2011?
13
Was secret policing the defining characteristic of Hitler’s Germany?
5
MODULE TIMETABLE
LECTURES – WEDNESDAYS
A:
1
INTRODUCTION
What is secret intelligence? 1 Oct in LIB.1
B:
2
3
4
5
FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE
In the field: the gritty problems of collection 8 Oct in LIB.1
Estimates and interpretation: the problems of analysis 15 Oct in LIB.1
Intelligence at the top: producer-consumer linkage 22 Oct in LIB.1
Liaison: the delicate diplomacy of intelligence 29 Oct in LIB.1
6
Reading Week: No Lectures 3-7 Nov
C:
7
8
9
10
11
COUNTER-TERRORISM AND SECURITY
9/11 - What kind of failure 12 Nov in LIB.1
Proliferation and WMD - the Iraq Case 19 Nov in LIB.1
Intelligence and the liberal state: counter-terrorism [VIDEO] 26 Nov in LIB.1
Intelligence and counter-terrorism: the market state 3 Dec in LIB.1
Intelligence and Tyranny: the non-democratic State 7 Jan in LIB.1
D:
12
13
14
15
CONTROLLING INTELLIGENCE
The problems of accountability and democratic control 14 Jan in LIB.1
The problems of civil rights and intelligence 21 Jan in LIB.1
Ethics and Espionage 28 Jan in LIB.1
Torture and Assassination 4 Feb in LIB.1
16
Reading Week 9-14 Feb
E.
17
18
19
INTELLIGENCE AND THE NEW WARFARE
Covert Action 18 Feb in LIB.1
Intelligence and Deception 25 Mar in LIB.1
Intelligence for NGOs and Peacekeeping 4 Mar in LIB.1
F:
20
21
THE FUTURE OF INTELLIGENCE
Intelligence in a globalising world 11 March in LIB.1
Revision Q&A session 22 April in LIB.1
6
SEMINARS – THURSDAYS
Your presentation topics will be allocated in week one
A:
INTRODUCTION
1
2
Meet to assign seminars and roles 2 Oct
What is secret intelligence? [Bring your 50 word definition] 9 Oct
B:
FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE
3
4
5
6
7
In the field: the gritty problems of collection 16 Oct
Estimates and interpretation: the problems of analysis 23 Oct
Intelligence at the top: producer-consumer linkage 30 Oct
Reading Week: No Lectures 3-7 Nov
Liaison: the delicate diplomacy of intelligence 13 Nov
C:
COUNTER-TERRORISM AND SECURITY
8
9
10
11
12
9/11 - What kind of failure 20 Nov
Proliferation and WMD - the Iraq Case 27 Jan
Intelligence and the liberal state: counter-terrorism 4 Dec
Intelligence and counter-terrorism: the market state 8 Jan
Intelligence and Tyranny: the non-democratic state 15 Jan
D:
13
14
15
16
17
CONTROLLING INTELLIGENCE
The problems of accountability and democratic control 22 Jan
The problems of civil rights and intelligence 29Jan
Ethics and Espionage 5 Feb
Reading Week 9-13 Feb
Torture and Assassination 19 Feb
E.
INTELLIGENCE AND THE NEW WARFARE
18
19
20
Covert Action 26 Feb
Intelligence and Deception 5 March
Intelligence for NGOs and Peacekeeping 12 March
F:
THE FUTURE OF INTELLIGENCE
21
Intelligence in a globalising world 24 April
7
APPROACH TO READING & KEY MATERIAL
1. Quantity and Quality of Reading
The module text books. You are expected to read widely, but selectively. As a broad
guideline, for most essays, semester-time or exam-time, it is sufficient to look at the two
course text books, two additional books and four articles. There is a lot of reading on this
list because different books address different essay titles under each topic heading, and
also because I wish to ensure an ample supply of literature.
Please note that this is a relatively new module at Warwick, confronting the Library with
the problem of trying to acquire a lot of books that are now out of print. They have done
wonders!!! They do not yet have everything on the bibliography - but they have secured
almost all the material. If it is not yet there I have entered NIL - but new stuff is arriving
all the time, so if the class mark is not added, that does not mean its not there – so check!
This is a fast-moving subject, never more so than the last few years. Accordingly, journal
articles are increasingly important. Warwick has everything we need here so if in doubt
head for the journal articles. Many of the best ones are collected in the various edited
collections/readers.
Copies of most core readings are available either in the Library Short Loan Collection (SLC),
Learning Grid or online. If a core reading is not available in this manner, you should consult
the Subject Librarian and your module tutor.
2. Case Studies
You may approach your essays in a variety of different ways. You may wish to write a
broad generic essay (and this is a broad generic module) or you may wish to choose to
answer a question by focusing upon one or a number of case studies. HOWEVER, YOU
MUST BE CLEAR THAT CASE STUDIES IN THIS MODULE ARE INTENDED TO
THROW LIGHT UPON GENERAL IDEAS AND PRINCIPLES, NOT VICE VERSA.
3. Module text book * CM Andrew, R.J. Aldrich & W.K. Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence: A Reader
(London: Routledge, December 2008). 540pp. 978-0-415-42024-2
UB 250.S3
The Andrew/Aldrich/Wark reader is closely attuned to this module for obvious
reasons. It also has reading lists and seminar questions.
8
Six other books/readers that overview well are available - >
Peter Gill and Mark Phythian, Intelligence in an Insecure World (Cambridge: Polity
20012 2nd edition) UB 250.I6
M. Herman, Intelligence Power in Peace and War (Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1996) & UB 250.H3
L. Johnson & J. Wirtz (eds.), Intelligence and National Security: The Secret World of
Spies OUP UB 250.I6
M.M. Lowenthal, Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy (Third Edition -Washington
DC: CQ Press, 2006) UB 271.U6
D. Omand, Securing the State (Hurst/Columbia University Press, 2010) UA 647.043
A. Shulsky, Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence (NY: Brasseys,
2nd edition 1993)
UB 250.S4
5. Key Journals are INTELLIGENCE AND NATIONAL SECURITY abbreviated INS.
THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENCE AND COUNTERINTELLIGENCE
abbreviated IJICI
6. Key Handbooks: The major edited collections of essays for this subject are:
a. Loch Johnson (ed.) Strategic Intelligence - 5 Volumes UB 250.S6385
b. Loch Johnson (ed.) Handbook of Intelligence Studies JC 842.H2
c. Loch Johnson (ed.) Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence UB 250.O9
d. R. Dover, M. Goodman and C. Hillebrand, Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies,
7. Coursework Support
Please contact us if you have any difficulties with the course or the course work. We are
available to see you during our office hours. You can also contact us by e-mail at
[email protected] or [email protected]
8. Module Evaluation
Feedback and evaluation are crucial to the success of any module. We want students to
have their say on Politics modules. If there are problems with book availability please
raise it with the tutors for the module immediately.
9
A: INTRODUCTION
1 What is intelligence? How is it defined?
What does “intelligence” mean in different countries?
For this seminar you will be asked to each prepare a definition of intelligence that is no
more than 50 words long and bring it with you to the seminar. You might find it useful
however to reflect on the questions below.
Possible seminar paper questions 1.1 To what extent does the nature and value of 'intelligence' differ from 'information'?
1.2 How far do you accept Michael Warner's definition that "Intelligence is secret, state
activity to understand or influence foreign entities" ?
1.3 How far do you accept Michael Herman's contention that it is useful to talk about
secret intelligence as a form of 'state power', akin to economic or military power?
1.4 Why is political science literature on intelligence so often about America - and is this
a problem?
1.5 If we can we meaningfully talk about national strategic culture, can we also talk
about national intelligence culture?
Books - Core Reading
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Chs.1&2 UB 250.S6
B. Berkowitz and A. Goodman, Strategic Intelligence for American National Security UB.250.B3
P. Gill, S. Marrin & M. Pythian, Intelligence Theory: Key Questions and Debates Chs 2, 3, 4, 5.
UB 250.I6
M. Herman, Intelligence Power, chs 1-3, 7, 21, UB 250.H3
L.K. Johnson & J. J. Wirtz, Intelligence and National Security: The Secret World of Spies UB
250.I6
L. Krizan, Intelligence Essentials for Everyone [a good short primer] UB 271.U6
Mark Lowenthal, Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy chapter 1. UB 271.U6
M. Warner, The Rise and fall of Intelligence (Georgetown UP 2013)
Books - Supplementary Reading
A. Dulles, The Craft of Intelligence [old but a good primer] UB 270.DB
J.R. Ferris, Intelligence and Strategy UB 250.F47
Peter Gill and Mark Pythian, Intelligence in and Insecure World, chapters 1 & 2. UB 270.G535
R. Godson, Intelligence Requirements, vols 1-4, UB 250.I6
Michael Herman, Intelligence Services in the Information Age UB 250.H47 chapter 1.
10
L. Johnson, Strategic Intelligence, Volume I. Understanding the Hidden Side of Government esp.
chapters 1-3 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
R.V. Jones, Reflections on Intelligence UB 251.G7
J. Keegan, Intelligence in War, pp. 7-26, 321-52 UB 250.K4
S. Kent, Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy chapter 1 UB 250.K3
W. Laqueur, World of Secrets: The Uses and Limits of Intelligence pp.4-70 UB 271.U6
R.P. Pfaltzgraff et al (eds.), Intelligence Policy and National Security ch. 3. UB 250.I6
Abram N. Shulsky and Gary J. Schmitt, Silent Warfare: chapter 1. UB 250.S4
G. F. Treverton, Seth G. Jones, Steven Boraz, Phillip Lipscy, Toward a Theory of Intelligence
Workshop Report, RAND available at --http://www.rand.org/pubs/conf_proceedings/CF219/
B. Westerfield, Inside the CIA's Private World UB 271.U6
Articles - Core Reading
Christopher Andrew, 'Intelligence, International Relations and "Under-theorisation"' in L.V. Scott
& P.D. Jackson, (eds.), Understanding Intelligence in the Twenty-First Century: Journeys in
Shadows, pp.29-41. [this book is also Intelligence and National Security, 20/1 (2004)] UB
250.U53
P. Davies, 'Ideas of Intelligence: Divergent Concepts and National Institutions', Harvard
International Review 24/3 (2002): 62-66
P. Gill, ‘Theories of Intelligence’, in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of National
Security Intelligence.
L.K. Johnson, 'Preface to a Theory of Strategic Intelligence', International Journal of Intelligence
and Counterintelligence 16/4 (Winter 2003-2004): 638-663.
D. Kahn, 'An Historical Theory of Intelligence', INS 16/3 (2001): 79-92. Good on the issue of
intelligence and international stability.
D. Omand, 'Reflections on Secret Intelligence' in Peter Hennessy (ed.), The New Protective State
pp.97-122. Also at - http://www.cscs.ucl.ac.uk/club/e-library/secret-int/
L. Scott and P.D Jackson, 'Journeys in Shadows', Ch 1. in LV Scott and PD Jackson (eds.)
Understanding Intelligence in the 21st Century [this book is also Intelligence and National
Security, Vol. 20, No. 1 (Summer 2004)] UB 250.U53
Jennifer Sims, 'The Theory and Philosophy of Intelligence, The Theory and Philosophy of
Intelligence', in R. Dover, M. Goodman and C. Hillebrand, Routledge Companion to Intelligence
Studies, Ch.4.
Michael Warner, 'Fragile and Provocative: Notes on Secrecy and Intelligence', INS 27/2 (2012):
223-240.
Michael Warner, 'Theories of Intelligence: The State of Play', in R. Dover, M. Goodman and C.
Hillebrand, Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies, Ch.2. (London; Routledge, 2014)
Articles - Supplementary Reading
James De Derian, 'Anti-Diplomacy, Intelligence Theory and International Relations', INS 8/3
(July 1993): 29-51.
S. Farson, 'Schools of thought: National perceptions of intelligence', Conflict Quarterly 9/2
(1989) pp.52-104. Good on the issue of different national cultures of intellgence.
J. Ferris, 'The Historiography of American Intelligence Studies', Diplomatic History 19, 1 (Winter
1995).
M.R.D. Foot, ‘What Use Are Secret Services?’ in In the Name of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of
Walter Pforzheimer, (eds.) Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 277-282
M. Handel, 'The Politics of Intelligence', INS 2, 4 (October 1987): 5-46.
11
L.K. Johnson, 'Bricks and Mortar for a Theory of Intelligence', Comparative Strategy 22, 1
(2003)
Loch K. Johnson, 'Preface to a Theory of Strategic Intelligence,' IJICI 16/4 (2003): 638-663.
A. Rathmell, 'Towards Postmodern Intelligence', INS 17, 3 (2002) pp.87–104.
J. Sims, 'What Is Intelligence? Information for Decision Makers' in Roy S. Godson et al., eds.,
U.S. Intelligence at the Crossroads: Agendas for Reform,
T.F. Troy, ’The 'Correct' Definition of Intelligence’ IJICI 5/4 (Winter 1991-1992): 433-454.
See also: Intelligence and National Security, 26/6 (2011) Special Issue: Intelligence in the
Cold War: What Difference Did It Make?
Specifically for the questions on culture, US dominance, alternative
national approaches and ethnocentrism Books
Philip H. J. Davies (Editor), Kristian C. Gustafson (Editor) Intelligence Elsewhere: Spies and Espionage
Outside the Anglosphere, Georgetown 2013
S. Farson, P. Gill, M. Phythian & S. Shpiro (eds.), PSI Handbook of Global Security and
Intelligence: National Approaches: Volume 1 - The Americas and Asia, & Volume 2 - Europe, the
Middle East and South Africa (Westport, CT: Praeger Security International, 2008). NIL
Michael Kackman, Citizen Spy: Television, Espionage, and Cold War Culture PN 1992.8.S67
Michael Schoenhals, Spying for the People: Mao's Secret Agents, 1949-1967, Cambridge UP 2012
A.Soldatov and I. Borogan, The New Nobility: The Restoration of Russia's Security State and the
Enduring Legacy of the KGB, JN6529.I6 S67 and <e>book
Xuezhi Guo, China's Security State (Cambridge UP 2012)
Articles
Intelligence and National Security, 26/4 (2012) Special Issue: Intelligence and Strategic
Culture: Essays on American and British Praxis since the Second World War
R.J. Aldrich & J. Kasuku, ‘Escaping From American Intelligence: Culture, Ethnocentrism and the
Anglosphere’, International Affairs, 89/5 (2012).
J. Anderson, "The Chekist Takeover of the Russian State", IJICI 19/2 (2006): 237 - 288.
Adda Bozeman, ‘Political Intelligence in Non-Western Societies: Suggestions for Comparative
Research’ in Roy Godson (ed.) Comparing Foreign Intelligence: The U.S., the USSR, the U.K. &
the Third World (Washington: Pergamon-Brassey’s International Defence Publishers, 1988).
R. Callum, 'The Case for Cultural Diversity in the Intelligence Community', International Journal
of Intelligence and Counter-Intelligence, 14/1 (2001).
S.H. Campbell, 'A Survey of the U.S. Market for Intelligence Education', International Journal of
Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 24/2 (2011), pp.307 — 337.
I. Duvesteyn, Intelligence and Strategic Culture: Some Observations, INS 26/4 (2011): 321-30.
And also see the other essay in this special issue.
Colin S. Gray, “National Style in Strategy: The American Example,” International Security, 6/2
(Fall 1981), pp.21-22.
Alastair Iain Johnston, ‘Thinking about Strategic Culture,’ International Security, 19 (Spring
1995), pp.36–43;
12
Colin S. Gray, 'Strategic culture as context: the first generation of theory strikes back', Review of
International Studies (1999), pp.49–69;
Alastair Iain Johnston, 'Strategic Cultures Revisited: Reply to Colin Gray; Review of
International Studies, 25/3 (Jul., 1999), pp.519-523.
Robert L. Paarlberg, “Knowledge as Power: Science, Military Dominance, and U.S. Security”,
International Security, 29/1, (Summer 2004), pp.122-151.
Mark Phythian, 'Cultures of National Intelligence', in R. Dover, M. Goodman and C. Hillebrand,
Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies, Ch.3.
M.A, Turner, ‘A Distinctive US Intelligence Culture’, IJICI 17/1 (2004) 42–61.
See also Loch Johnson (ed.) Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence UB
250.O9 Part X - Intelligence in Other Lands ; Especially chapters 46, 47, 48 and 49.
B:
2
FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE
In the field: the gritty problems of collection
Seminar paper questions
2.1 Compare and contrast the problems/advantages presented by the collection of the
following types of intelligence: open source (Opint), human (Humint), signals (Sigint),
imagery (Imint).
2.2 What are the major challenges in the realm of foreign intelligence gathering for
developed West European state in 20011/12? Illustrate with two or three examples.
2.3 Open sources often constitute the majority of the sources of information used by
government. So why is 'Opint' usually under-rated and badly resourced?
2.4 What is David Omand’s “prot-int” and is it the shape of the future? [see Omand’s
IPPR paper on the module website]
Books - Core Reading
M. Aid, Secret Sentry, especially last section UB 271.U6
M. Aid Intel Wars HV 6432.4.A48
R.J. Aldrich, GCHQ, especially last section UB 251.A4
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Chs. 3, 4 & 5 UB 250.S6
W.E. Burrows, Deep Black: The Secrets of Space Espionage UG 475.B87
H.A. Crumpton, The Art of Intelligence: Lessons from a Life in the CIA's Clandestine Service
JK 468.I6 C78
O. Gordievsky, Next Stop Execution [a good example of humint] UB 271.R9G6
M. Herman, Intelligence Power, chs 4-7 UB 250.H3
A.N. Shulsky, Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intell. ch1, 2, 3, UB 250.S4
B. Westerfield, Inside the CIA's Private World, chs. 1-11, especially 1, 2, 10, & 11 UB 271.U6
13
Books - Supplementary Reading
W.E. Burrows, By Any Means Necessary: America’s Secret Air War... E 183.8.S65 B89
D.D. Clarridge, A Spy for All Seasons: My Life in the CIA [see the detailed account of humint
agent recruitment] UB 271.U6
G. Corera, The Art of Betrayal: Life and Death in the British Secret Service UB 251.G7
A. Dulles, The Craft of Intelligence UB 270.DB
Hamilton Bean, No More Secrets: Open Source Information and the Reshaping of U.S.
Intelligence (Praeger Security International) 2011
P. Gill and M Pythian, Intelligence in and Insecure World chapter 4. UB 250.I6
L. Johnson, Strategic Intelligence, Volume II. The Intelligence Cycle: From Spies to
Policymakers esp chapters 1-6 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
Ishmael Jones: The Human Factor: Inside the CIA's Dysfunctional Intelligence Culture JC 842.J6
J. Keegan, The Second World War ch on intelligence D 743.K3
D.T. Lindgren, Trust But Verify: Imagery Analysis in the Cold War [good on Imint] UG
763.L56
M. Lowenthal, Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy chapter 5. UB 271.U6
Anthony Olcott, Open Source Intelligence in a Networked World (Continuum Intelligence
Studies) Continuum 2012
J. Prados, The Soviet Estimate: US Intelligence Analysis and the Soviet Military Threat UB
271.U6
J. Richelson, The Wizards of Langley, UB 251.U5 R53
J. Schecter and P. Deriabin, The Spy Who Saved the World UB 271.S2
R. Steele, On Intelligence [value of Opint - Open Sources] JK 468.I6 S74
R. Wallace & HK Melton, Spycraft UB 271.U6
Articles - Core Reading
M. Aid, ‘The Time of Troubles: The US National Security Agency in the Twenty-First Century’
INS 15, 3 (1999) [very good on pros and cons of sigint] (also reproduced as chapter 7 in Johnson
and Wirtz, Intelligence and National Security: The Secret World of Spies UB 250.I6
Matthew Aid, 'All Glory Is Fleeting: Sigint and the Fight against International Terrorism', INS
18/4 (Winter 2003): 72-120.
M.M. Aid, ‘The Troubled Inheritance: The National Security Agency and the Obama
Administration’, in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence
UB 250.O9
R. Butterworth, 'Collection' in R Godson ed Intelligence Requirements for the 1990s: Collection,
Analysis, Counterintelligence and Covert Action UB 250.I6
JL. Gaddis, 'Intelligence, Espionage and Cold War History', Diplomatic History (1989) and also
in his The United States and the End of the Cold War
B. Gerber, 'Managing Humint: The need for a new Approach', in Jennifer Sims & Burton Gerber
(eds.) Transforming US Intelligence UB 250.T7
Stevyn Gibson, 'Open Source Intelligence', in R. Dover, M. Goodman and C. Hillebrand,
Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies, Ch.12.
F.P. Hitz, ‘The Human Collection of Intelligence’ in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of
National Security Intelligence UB 250.O9
A.S. Hulnick, ‘The Dilemma of Open Sources Intelligence: Is OSINT Really Intelligence?’ in
Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence UB 250.O9
G. Jones, 'It’s a Cultural Thing: Thoughts on a Troubled CIA', Orbis 50/1 (2006): 25-41.
J. Richards, 'Signals Intelligence', in R. Dover, M. Goodman and C. Hillebrand, Routledge
Companion to Intelligence Studies, Ch.8.
J. Rovner, ‘Intelligence in the Twitter Age’, IJICI, 26/2 (2013) 260–271.
14
Len Scott, ‘Human Intelligence', in R. Dover, M. Goodman and C. Hillebrand, Routledge
Companion to Intelligence Studies, Ch.9.
R.D. Steele, The Importance of Open Source Intelligence to the Military', ch.9 in Johnson and
Wirtz, Intelligence and National Security: The Secret World of Spies UB 250.I6
Articles - Supplementary
J.M. Diamond, 'Re-examining Problems and Prospects in U.S. Imagery Intelligence', ch.5 in
Johnson and Wirtz, Intelligence and National Security: The Secret World of Spies, UB 250.I6
D. D. Fitzgerald, 'Risk Management and National Reconnaissance from the Cold War up to the
Global War on Terrorism,' National Reconnaissance - A Journal of the Discipline and Practice 1
(2005) pp.9-18.
S Gibson, ‘Open Source Intelligence: An Intelligence Lifeline’ RUSI journal 149/1 (2004) 16-23.
M. M. Lowenthal, 'OSINT: The State of the Art, the Artless State,' Studies in Intelligence 45/3
(2001) pp.62-66.
Stephen Mercado, 'A Venerable Source in a New Era: Sailing the Sea of OSINT in the
Information Age', Studies in Intelligence 48/3 (2004): 45-55.
W.C. Prillaman & M.P. Dempsey, 'Mything the Point: What's Wrong with the Conventional
Wisdom about the CIA', INS 19/1 (2004) pp.1-29.
H. Ransom, 'Strategic Intelligence and Foreign Policy', World Politics 27 (Oct 74) 131-45.
Jeffrey T. Richelson, 'High Flyin' Spies', Bulletin of Atomic Scientists 52/2 (1996) pp.48-54.
Jeffrey T. Richelson, 'The Satellite Gap', Bulletin of Atomic Scientists 59/1 (2003) pp.48-54.
PR Riley, 'CIA and Its Discontents', chapter 4 in Johnson and Wirtz, Intelligence and National
Security: The Secret World of Spies UB 250.I6
3
Estimates & interpretation: the problems of analysis
Seminar paper questions
3.1 Is it correct to dismiss the followers of R.K. Betts as doom-mongers on the matter of
"intelligence failure” – or are they right to say it is inevitable"?
3.2 Can the organizational reform of intelligence have an impact on the main pathologies
of intelligence analysis and intelligence interpretation?
3.3 ‘Attempts at resolving failures in the realm of analysis have focused on the
organizational, but the roots of the problem are actually psychological’. Discuss.
Books - Core Reading
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Chs. 6 & 7 UB 250.S6
Richard K. Betts and Thomas G. Mahnken, eds. Paradoxes of Strategic Intelligence: Essays in
Honor of Michael I. Handel UB 250.P34
H.P. Ford, Estimative Intelligence UB 271.U6
15
R.G. George and J.B. Bruce (eds) Analyzing Intelligence <e book>
Mark Lowenthal, Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy, chapter 6. UB 271.U6
D. Omand, Securing the State Ch. 6-8 UA 647.043
A N Shulsky, Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence chs. 3 & 8 L UB 250.S4
G. Treverton, Intelligence for an Age of Terror JC 704.2.T7
Books – Supplementary
Philip H. J. Davies, Intelligence and Government in Britain and the United States: A
Comparative Perspective JK468.I6 D39
Peter Gill and Mark Pythian, Intelligence in an Insecure World chapter 5. UB 270.G535
M.S. Goodman (Editor), Richard J. Aldrich (Editor), Rory Cormac (Editor) Spying on the World:
The Declassified Documents of the Joint Intelligence Committee Edinburgh UP 2014
Richard Heuer, Psychology of Intelligence Analysis QZ 340.H38
I. Janis, Groupthink HC 5120.J2
L. Johnson, Strategic Intelligence, Volume I. Understanding the Hidden Side of Government esp.
chapter 7 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
L. Johnson, Strategic Intelligence, Volume II. The Intelligence Cycle: From Spies to
Policymakers esp chapters 8-9 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
S. Kent, Strategic Intelligence for American World Policy [the classic idealist statement from
the creator of ONE/CIA] L UB 250.K3
Stephen Marrin , Improving Intelligence Analysis: Bridging the Gap between Scholarship and
Practice JF1525.I6 M295
W. Matthias, America's Strategic Blunders: Intelligence Analysis and National Security Policy,
1936-1991 UB 250.M3
H. E. Meyer, Real-World Intelligence L HN 5100.M3
William J. Lahneman (Editor) Ruben Arcos (Editor) The Art of Intelligence: Simulations, Exercises, and
Games (Rowman & Littlefield 2014)
Mark Phythian, Understanding the Intelligence Cycle (Studies in Intelligence) Routledge 2014
<e>book
R.P. Pfaltzgraff et al (eds.), Intelligence Policy and National Security chs. 6 & 7 UB 250.I6
J. Richards, The Art and Science of Intelligence Analysis, UB 250.R4
Alfred Rolington, Strategic Intelligence for the 21st Century: The Mosaic Method, OUP 2013
Timothy Walton, Challenges in Intelligence Analysis: Lessons from 1300 BCE to the Present,
Cambridge UP 2010
B. Westerfield, Inside the CIA's Private World, chs. 11-28, 31, but especially 11, 12, 14, 17, 25,
26, 27, 31 UB 271.U6
R. Wohlstetter, Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision D 767.92.W6
Vietnam case study
S. Adams, War of Numbers DS 557.A6
G.W. Allen None So Blind : A Personal Account of the Intelligence Failure in Vietnam L DS
557.A6
H P Ford, CIA and the Vietnam Policy Makers DS 551.F6
J.J. Wirtz, The Tet Offensive: Intelligence Failure in War DS557.8.T4
T. Cubbage, 'Westmoreland v CBS: Was Intelligence Corrupted by Policy Demands?' INS July
1988 [c.f Sam Adams, War of Numbers, above]
Articles - Core Reading
16
R K Betts, 'Analysis, War, Decision: Why Intelligence Failures are Inevitable' World Politics
(1978/9) (also reproduced as chapter 8 in Johnson and Wirtz, Intelligence and National Security:
The Secret World of Spies, UB 250.I6
R. Betts, ‘Surprise Despite Warning: Why Sudden Attacks Succeed' Political Science Quarterly
95 (Winter 1980) 551-72.
D. Hart and S. Simon, 'Thinking straight and talking straight: Problems of intelligence analysis',
Survival 48/1 (2006) pp.35-60.
K.A. Hatlebrekke & M.L. Smith, ‘Towards a New Theory of Intelligence Failure? The Impact of
Cognitive Closure and Discourse Failure’, INS 25/2 (2010): 147-182.
M.N. Lowenthal, 'Towards a Reasonable Standard for Analysis: How Right, How Often on
Which Issues?', INS, 23/3 (2008): 303-315.
S. Marrin, 'At Arm's Length or At the Elbow?: Explaining the Distance between Analysts and
Decisionmakers', IJICI , 20/3 (2007): 401-414.
Carmen Medina, 'What To Do When Traditional Models Fail', Studies in Intelligence 46/3
(2002): 23-9. (It is also worthwhile looking at the response - S.R. Ward, 'Evolution Beats
Revolution in Analysis', Studies in Intelligence 46/3 (2002): 29-36.
W.E. Odom, 'Intelligence Analysis', INS, 23/3 (2008): 316-332.
David Omand, 'The Cycle of Intelligence', in R. Dover, M. Goodman and C. Hillebrand,
Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies, Ch.6.
Articles - Supplementary Reading
U. Bar-Joseph, 'The Politicization of Intelligence: A Comparative Study', IJICI, 26/2 (2013): 347–369.
R. Callum, ‘The Case for Cultural Diversity in the Intelligence Community’, IJICI, 14/1 (2001):
25-48. JSTOR
E Cohen, 'Analysis' in R Godson (ed.) Intelligence Requirements for the 1990s: Collection,
Analysis, Counter-intelligence and Covert Action. UB 250.I6
S. Gazit, 'Estimates and Fortune-Telling in Intelligence Work,' INS 4/4 (1980): 36-56.
S. Gazit, 'Intelligence Estimates and the Decision-Maker,' INS 3/3 (1988): 261-287.
R.Z. George, 'Fixing the Problem of Analytical Mind-Sets: Alternative Analyses ', IJICI, 17/3
(2004): 385-404.
M. Gladwell, 'Connecting the Dots: The Paradoxes of Intelligence Reform,' The New Yorker, 10
March 2003, pp.83-88.
R. Jervis, 'Hypotheses on Misperception', World Politics, 20/3 (April 1968): 454-79.
Mark A. Jensen, 'Intelligence Failures: What Are They Really and What Do We Do about
Them?', INS 27/2 (2012): 261-282.
Stephen Marrin, 'Intelligence Studies Centers: Making Scholarship on Intelligence Analysis
Useful', INS 27/3 (2012): 398-422.
L. Johnson, ‘Analysis for a New Age’, INS 11/4 (October 1996): 657-71.
G. Schmitt, 'Truth to Power: Rethinking Intelligence Analysis' in P. Berkowitz (ed.) The Future
of American Intelligence (Hoover Institute Press 2004) JK468.I6 F88
J. Wirtz, 'Indications and Warning in an Age of Uncertainty', IJICI, 26/3 (2013): 550–562.
See also the special issue of Intelligence and National Security edited by Steve Marrin:
‘Revisiting Intelligence and Policy: Problems with Politicization and Receptivity’ INS 28/1 2013
17
4
Intelligence at the Top: Producer-Consumer Linkage
Seminar paper questions
4.1 Should intelligence be ‘a function of command’ [view of US Joint Chiefs of Staff] or
objective and insulated from the policy process [view of CIA's Sherman Kent] ?
4.2 If we accept Betts's hypothesis that "intelligence failures are inevitable", how should
the leaders of states approach the problem of surprise?
4.3 Are the leaders of democratic states typically better consumers of intelligence?
4.4 Which US Presidents does Christopher Andrew consider to have been good at
intelligence - and why?
Books - Core Reading
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Chs. 8 & 9 UB 250.S6
C.M. Andrew, For the President’s Eyes Only JC 842.A6
R.K. Betts, Surprise Attack U 163.B3
A. Codevilla, Informing Statecraft UB 271.U6
R.K. Betts & TG Mahken, Paradoxes of Strategic Intelligence UB 250.P34
Richard K. Betts, Enemies of Intelligence UB 271.U6
M. Handel (ed.), Leaders and Intelligence [special issue of INS 3/3] UB 250.L44
A. Levite, Intelligence and Strategic Surprise UB 250.L48
Mark Lowenthal, Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy, Ch.9. UB 271.U6
D. Omand, Securing the State, Chs. 6-8 UA 647.043
R L. Pfaltzgraff & V. Ra'anan (eds.), Intelligence Policy & National Security chs. 13-17, 19, 20,
23 UB 250.I6
Books - Supplementary Reading
Erik J. Dahl, Intelligence and Surprise Attack, Georgetown 2013
Peter Gill and Mark Pythian, Intelligence in an Insecure World ch.6. UB 250.I6
B. Gertz, Betrayal. [Critique of Clinton and Intelligence] JE 242.G3
L. Johnson, Strategic Intelligence, Volume I. Understanding the Hidden Side of Government esp.
chapter 8 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
Milo Jones and Philippe Silberzahn, Constructing Cassandra: Reframing Intelligence Failure at the CIA,
1947-2001 (Stanford UP 2014)
R.V. Jones, Reflections on Intelligence, Ch.6 UB 251.G7
*E. Kam, Surprise Attack: The Victim's Perspective U 163.K27
W. Laqueur, World of Secrets UB 271.U6
H.H. Ransom, 'The Politicization of Intelligence', ch.14 in Johnson and Wirtz, Intelligence and
National Security: The Secret World of Spies, UB 250.I6
J. Rovner, Fixing the facts: national security and the politics of intelligence JK 468.I6 R687
A.N. Shulsky, Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence chs. 3 & 8 UB 250.S4
S. Turner, Burn Before Reading: Presidents, CIA Directors and Secret Intelligence JK468.I6
T868
B. Whaley, Codeword Barbarossa D 764.W4
18
Articles - Core Reading
C.M. Andrew, 'American Presidents and their Intelligence Communities', INS 1/4 (1995): 95-113.
R.K. Betts, 'Surprise, Scholasticism and Strategy' and rejoinder by Levite, International Studies
Quarterly, 33/3 (September 1989).
R.K. Betts, ' 'Politicization of Intelligence: Costs and Benefits' in R Betts and T Mahnken, eds.,
Paradoxes of Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Michael Handel 59–79. UB 250.P34
R K Betts, 'Analysis, War, Decision: Why Intelligence Failures are Inevitable' World Politics
(78/9)
S Chan, 'The Intelligence of Stupidity: Understanding Failures in Strategic Warning' American
Political Science Review 73, 1 March 1979
J. Davis, ‘ Intelligence analysts and policymakers; benefits and dangers of tensions in the
relationship, INS 21/6 (2000) 999-1021
S. Farson, (eds.) Security and Intelligence in a Changing World, ch 12. UB 250.C69
K.L. Gardiner, ’Squaring the Circle: Dealing with Intelligence-Policy Breakdowns’, INS 6/1
(1991):141-152.
M. Herman, 'Intelligence and National Action', ch.15 in Johnson and Wirtz, Intelligence and
National Security: The Secret World of Spies, UB 250.I6
M.M Lowenthal, ‘The Policymaker-Intelligence Relationship’, in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford
Handbook of National Security Intelligence UB 250.O9
P. Jackson, ‘On Uncertainty and the Limits of Intelligence’, in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford
Handbook of National Security Intelligence UB 250.O9
R. Jervis, ‘Why intelligence and policy-makers clash’, Political Science Quarterly, 125/2, (2010):
185-204.
P. Pillar, ‘The Perils of Politicization’, in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of National
Security Intelligence UB 250.O9
D. Robarge, ‘Leadership in an Intelligence Organization: The Directors of Central Intelligence
and the CIA’, in L. Johnson (ed.) Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence UB 250.O9
Articles - Supplementary Reading
On intelligence at the top –
K.L. Gardiner, ‘Dealing with Intelligence-Policy Disconnects' in Inside CIA's Private World, ed.
H. Bradford Westerfield, 344-356 UB 271.U6
D. Gries, ‘New Links Between Intelligence and Policy’ in Inside CIA's Private World, ed. H.
Bradford Westerfield, 357-365 UB 271.U6
*M. Handel, 'Intelligence and Military Operations', INS 5/2 (April 1990).
*R. Jervis, 'Intelligence and Effective Policy' in A.S. Farson et al eds Security and Intelligence in
Changing World UB 250.C69
D. Kahn, 'Clausewitz and Intelligence' in M. Handel (ed) Clausewitz and Modern Strategy
A. Kovacs, ‘Using Intelligence’, INS 12/4 (October 1997): 145-64.
R. Jervis, 'Strategic Intelligence and Effective Policy' in A. Farson, D. Stafford and W. Wark
(eds) Security and Intelligence in a Changing World UB 250.C69
Martin Petersen, 'The Challenge of the Political Analyst', Studies in Intelligence 47/1 (2003)
pp.51-6.
Amit Steinhart and Kiril Avramov, ‘Is Everything Personal?: Political Leaders and Intelligence
Organizations: A Typology’, IJICI 26/3 (2013): 530–549.
19
Specifically on intelligence failure R. Cline, 'Policy Without Intelligence' Foreign Policy Winter 1974
S. J. Flanagan, 'Managing the Intelligence Community' International Security 10/1 1985 58A. S. Hulnick, 'The Intelligence Producer-Policy Consumer Linkage' INS 1/2 May 1986
G. Hopple, 'Intelligence and Warning: Implications and Lessons of the Falklands Islands War'
World Politics April 1984
R.V. Jones, 'Intelligence and Command' INS 3/3 July 1988
E. May, 'Intelligence: Backing into the Future' Foreign Affairs 71/3 (1992) 63-73
A. Reuben, 'Stalin and June 22 1941' International Affairs 42 (66) 662-73
5
Liaison: the delicate diplomacy of intelligence
Seminar paper questions
5.1 'There are no friendly intelligence services, only the intelligence services of friendly
powers.' Discuss.
5.2 Identify the main problems and benefits that are involved in intelligence co-operation
between small states.
5.3 Why have Europe and America co-operated so closely on intelligence since 9/11,
despite public arguments over matters such as the War on Terror and Iraq?
5.4 Identify the different types and models of intelligence co-operation in different types
of states.
5.5 Should the European Union have its own intelligence service?
Books - Core Reading (but the articles are better on this subject)
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Ch. 10 UB 250.S6
W. Blitzer, Territory of Lies the Exclusive Story of Jonathan Jay Pollard: The American Who
Spied on His Country for Israel and How He Was Betrayed [a US-Israeli case] UB 271.I82
M Deflem, Policing World Society. Historical Foundations of International Police Cooperation.
HF 3800.D3
J.J. Fialka, War by Other Means, Economic Espionage in America HN 355.F4
P. Schweizer, Friendly Spies HN 355.S2
A Svendsen, Anglo-American Intelligence Co-operation JE 300.T3.S93
J.I. Walsh, Intelligence Politics of Intelligence Sharing, UB 270.W2
20
Books - Supplementary Reading (but the articles are better on this subject)
M. Anderson, Policing the World HF 3800.A6
J. Bamford, The Puzzle Palace UB 271.U6
R. Cline, Secrets, Spies and Scholars UB 271.U6 C5
A.J. Cristol, The Liberty Incident: The 1967 Israeli Attack on the U.S. Navy Spy Ship
W.J. Ennes, Assault on the Liberty NIL
N. Hager, Secret Power, 1996 NIL
J. Jakub, Spies and Saboteurs, especially Chapter 7 D 810.S7 and <e>book
T. Mangold, Cold Warrior, esp ch 5 on the SAPPHIRE/de Vosjoli case. UB 271.U6.M36
Y. Melman, & D. Raviv. Friends in Deed: Inside the U.S.-Israel Alliance. [see especially
chapters 4, 7, 15] E 183.8.I7
J. Richelson, Ties That Bind: 2nd Edition UB 270.R4
J. Richelson, The US Intelligence Community, Chapter 10 UB 271.R4
Articles - Core Reading
R.J. Aldrich, ‘Dangerous Liaisons: Post September 11 Intelligence Alliances’, Harvard
International Review 24/3 (2002): 50-54.
S. Lander, 'International Intelligence Co-operation: An Inside Perspective', Cambridge Review of
International Studies 17/3 (October 2004): 481-93.
J.T. Richelson, ‘The Calculus of Intelligence Cooperation.’ IJICI 4/3 (Fall 1990): 307-323.
J.I. Walsh, 'Intelligence Sharing', in R. Dover, M. Goodman and C. Hillebrand, Routledge
Companion to Intelligence Studies, Ch.30.
Articles - Supplementary Reading
R.J. Aldrich, 'Transatlantic Intelligence and Security Cooperation,' International Affairs 80/4
(2004): 731-54.
R.J. Aldrich, 'Intelligence and European Union', in Erik Jones, Anand Menon & Stephen
Weatherill (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of the European Union (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 2012), pp.627-42.
B. Champion, 'A Review of Selected cases of Industrial Espionage', INS 13/2 (1998): 123-44
C. Clough, ‘Quid Pro Quo: The Challenges of International Strategic Intelligence Cooperation’,
IJICI, 17/4 (2004)
B. De Graaff, & C. Wiebes. 'Intelligence and the Cold War behind the Dikes: The Relationship
between the American and Dutch Intelligence Communities' INS 12/1 (1997): 41-58.
A.S. Hulnick, ‘Intelligence Cooperation in the Post-Cold War Era: A New Game Plan?’
International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence 5/4 (1991-1992) pp.455-465.
S. Lefebvre, 'The Difficulties and Dilemmas of International Intelligence Cooperation', IJICI 16/4
(2003) pp.527-542.
W. Rosenau, 'Liaisons Dangereuses? Transatlantic Intelligence Co-operation and the Global War
on Terrorism', in Co-operating Against Terrorism: EU-US Relations Post September 11-Conference Proceedings (Sweden: Swedish National Defence College, 2007) pp.31-40.
M. Rudner, 'Hunters and Gatherers: The Intelligence Coalition Against Islamic Terrorism,' IJICI,
17/2 (2004) pp.193-230.
M. Rudner, 'Britain Betwixt and Between: UK SIGINT Alliance Strategy's Transatlantic and
European Connections', INS 19/4 (2004): 571D.S. Reveron, ‘Old Allies, New Friends: Intelligence-Sharing in the War on Terror’, Orbis
(Summer 2006).
J.E. Sims, ‘Foreign Intelligence Liaison: Devils, Deals, and Details’, IJICI, 19 (2006)
21
A. Svendsen, ‘The globalization of intelligence since 9/11: frameworks and operational
parameters’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 21/1 (2008) pp.131-146.
J.I. Walsh, 'Defection and Hierarchy in International Intelligence Sharing', Journal of Public
Policy, 27/2 (2007): 151-181.
M. Warner, 'Intelligence Transformation and Intelligence Liaison,' SAIS Review 24/1 (2004)
pp.77-89.
Joe Wippl, 'Intelligence Exchange Through InterIntel', IJICI 25/1 (2012): 1-18.
Also the special Issue of INS 13/1 Knowing Your Friends especially chs 1, 5 and 11
Articles on European Union
'Intelligence and European Union', in Erik Jones, Anand Menon & Stephen Weatherill (eds.) The
Oxford Handbook of the European Union. pp.627-43.
Joa˜o Vaz Antunes, ‘The European Union. Developing an Intelligence Capability’, Studies in
Intelligence, Vol.49, No.4, 2005.
M. De Goede, “The Politics of Preemption and the War on Terror in Europe,” European Journal
of International Relations, 14/1 (2008):161–85.
B. Müller-Wille, 'The Effect of International Terrorism on EU Intelligence Co-operation', Journal
of Common Market Studies, 46/1 (2008) pp.49-73.
B. Müller-Wille, ‘EU intelligence cooperation: A Critical Analysis’, Contemporary Security
Policy, 23/2 (2002)
B. Muller-Wille, ‘Improving the Democratic Accountability of EU Intelligence’, INS 21/1 (2006)
S. Duke, ‘Intelligence, Security and Information Flows in CFSP’, INS 21/4 (2006).
J.I. Walsh, ‘Intelligence-Sharing in the European Union: Institutions Are Not Enough’, Journal of
Common Market Studies, 44/3 (2006): 625-43.
O.R. Villadsen, “Prospects for a European Common Intelligence Policy,” Studies in Intelligence,
9 (2000):81–94;
T. Wetzling, “European Counter-Terrorism Intelligence Liaison,” in S. Farson et al. (eds.),
Global Security and Intelligence: National Approaches, Vol. 2. (NY: Praeger, 2008), pp.500–20.
6 Reading Week - No Lecture
C: COUNTER-TERRORISM AND SECURITY
7 - The Attacks of 9/11: What Kind of Failure?
Seminar paper questions
22
7.1 The 9/11 attack was the result of an 'intelligence failure', and especially a failure of
the collection of intelligence. Discuss.
7.2 How far do you agree with Amy Zegart's assertion that the intelligence failures that
resulted in 9/11 are about the self-interested groups that prevent adaptation?
7.3 A second Pearl Harbor? Consider the similarities and differences between 11
September 2001 and 7 December 1941.
Internet
Senate, Select Committee on Intelligence and House, Permanent Select Committee
on Intelligence, Joint Inquiry Into Intelligence Community Activities Before and
After the Terrorist Attacks of September, Washington D.C.: Government Printing
Office, 2003 Soft Cover. available at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/911.html
if you want the hearings which are very detailed see http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/
9/11 Commission Report: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist
Attacks Upon the United States (Official Edition) including the Executive Summary
1577363418 & HV6432.7.N2
The 'Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the
United States, Official Government Edition,' dated 22 July 2004,
available at http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/911comm.html.
Books -Core Reading
MM Aid, The Secret Sentry UB 271.U6
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Chs. 11 & 12 UB 250.S6
D. Benjamin and S. Simon, The Age of Sacred Terror JE 300 T3.B3
B. Gertz, Breakdown: How America’s Intelligence Failures led to September 11
JE 300.T3.G3
Bob Graham, with Jeff Nussbaum. Intelligence Matters: The CIA, the FBI, Saudi Arabia, and the
Failure of American's War on Terror JC 704.2.G7
T. Naftali, Blind Spot
JE 300.T3.N2
See also the useful review summary of Naftali by Crenshaw at
http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20050701fareviewessay84414/martha-crenshaw/counterterrorismin-retrospect.html
G. Posner, Why America Slept: The Failure to Prevent 9/11
E 888.P6
R. Posner, Preventing Surprise Attacks: Intelligence Reform in the Wake of 9/11 UB 250.P6
P Shenon, The Commission: The Uncensored History of the 9/11 Investigation HV6432.7.S496
A. Summers and R. Swann. The Eleventh Day: The Ultimate Account of 9/11, HV6432.7.S85
S. Strasser, The 9/11 Investigations E 888.N4
A. Zegart, Spying Blind: The CIA, the FBI, and the Origins of 9/11 UB 271.U6
23
Books - Supplementary Reading
P. Bergen, Holy War Inc: Inside the Secret World of Osama Bin Laden JE 300.T3
Richard A. Clarke, Against All Enemies. JC 704.2.C5
Der Spiegel, Inside 9-11: What Really Happened E 888.I6
Y. Fouda and N. Fielding, Masterminds of Terror: the Truth Behind the Most Devastating Attack
the World Has Ever Seen, JE 242.F6
L. Johnson, Strategic Intelligence, Volume I. Understanding the Hidden Side of Government esp.
chapter 9 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
M. Mahle Boyle, Denial and Deception: An Insider's View of the CIA from Iran-Contra to 9/11
UB 271.U6.M34
J. Miller The Cell: Inside the 9/11 Plot and Why the FBI & the CIA Failed HV 6432.M54
Y Bodansky, Bin Ladin: the man who declared war on America JE 300.T3 B6
S. Reeve, The New Jackals Rami Yousef, Osamar Bin Ladin & the Future of Terrorism JE
300.T3.R3
L. Wright, The Looming Tower JE 300.T.3
Articles - Core Reading
R.K.Betts, ‘Two Faces of Intelligence Failure : September 11 and Iraq's Missing WMD’
Political Science Quarterly 122/4 (2007): 585-606
R.A. Falkenrath, 'The 9/11 Commission Report a Review Essay, International Security 29/3
(2004), 170-190.
A.B. Zegart, '9/11 and the FBI: The organizational roots of failure', INS, 22/2 (2007): 165-184.
A.B. Zegart, 'September 11 and the Adaptation Failure of U.S. Intelligence Agencies',
International Security 29/4 (2005): 78-111.
Articles - Supplementary Reading
B. Lee, W. Enders, T. Sandler, '9/11: What Did We Know And When Did We Know It?',
Defence and Peace Economics, 20/2, (2009): 79-93.
F.L. Borch, 'Comparing Pearl Harbor & "9/11": Intelligence Failure? American Unpreparedness?
Military Responsibility?' The Journal of Military History 67/3 (2003): 845-860.
H.D.E. Bruijn, 'One fight, one team: The 9/11 Commission Report on Intelligence, Fragmentation
and Information', Public Administration 84/2 (2006):267-87.
D. Byman, 'Strategic Surprise and The September 11 Attacks', Annual Review of Political
Science 8 (2005): 145-170.
T.G. Carpenter, 'Missed Opportunities: The 9/11 Commission Report and US Foreign Policy',
Mediterranean Quarterly 16/1 (2005): 52-61.
S. Clarke, 'Conspiracy Theories and the Internet: Controlled Demolition and Arrested
Development', Episteme: A Journal of Social Epistemology 4/2 (2007):167-180.
E. J. Dahl, 'Warning of Terror: Explaining the Failure of Intelligence Against Terrorism', Journal
of Strategic Studies 28/1 (2005): 31-55.
H. Fessenden 'The Limits of Intelligence Reform', Foreign Affairs 84/6 (2005): 106-120.
R.A. Goldberg, 'Who Profited From the Crime? Intelligence Failure, Conspiracy Theories and the
Case of September 11', Ch.6. in L.V. Scott and P.D. Jackson (eds.) Understanding Intelligence in
the 21st Century UB 250.U53 [this is also in INS, 20/1 (2004)]
M.A. Goodman, '9/11: The Failure of Strategic Intelligence', INS - (2003) 18/4: 59-71
T. Homer-Dixon,‘The Rise of Complex Terrorism’ Foreign Policy 2002 [on the FP website]
G. Ilardi, ‘The 9/11 Attacks—A Study of Al Qaeda's Use of Intelligence and
Counterintelligence’, Studies In Conflict And Terrorism, 32/3 (2009): 171-187.
24
S. Lefebvre, . 'A Look at Intelligence Analysis.' IJICI 17/2 (2004): 231-264.
P.R. Neumann & M.L.R Smith. 'Missing the Plot? Intelligence and Discourse Failure', Orbis
49/1 ( 2004/2005): 95-107
C.F. Parker & E.K. Stern 'Blindsided? September 11 and the Origins of Strategic Surprise',
Political Psychology 23/3 (2002): 601–630.
P.R. Pillar, 'Good literature and bad history: The 9/11 commission's tale of strategic intelligence',
INS, 21/6 (2006): 1022-44.
J. Simon, ‘Parrhesiastic Accountability: Investigatory Commissions and Executive Power in an
Age of Terror’, Yale Law Journal, Vol. 114, (2005).
J. J. Wirtz, ‘Deja Vu? Comparing Pearl Harbor and September 11’, Harvard International Review
24/3 (2002): 73–77.
J Wirtz, 'Responding To Surprise', [compares responses to Pearl Habor and 9/11] Annual Review
of Political Science 9 (2006): 45-65.
A.B. Zegart, 'An Empirical Analysis of Failed: Intelligence Reforms Before September 11,'
Political Science Quarterly 121/1 (2006): 33-60.
Topic 8 Proliferation and WMD - the Iraq Case
Seminar paper questions
8.1 To what extent was the Iraqi WMD fiasco in the USA a product of intelligence failure
and to what extent the product of interference by policy-makers and politicians?
8.2 What problems and weaknesses in the UK intelligence system have been
illuminated by the Iraqi WMD saga and the 4 subsequent inquiries held in 2003 and
2004?
8.3 Why did Canada and the Netherlands get the WMD question right - while German
and France and Australia got it wrong? [you will need to prowl the web for this one]
US Reading
Internet
Senate Select Committee Report on WMD
Available at http://www.fas.org/irp/congress/2004_rpt/index.html#ssci
WMD Commission Report
Available at - http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/wmdcomm.html
Books - Core Reading
25
Select Committee on Intelligence, Report of the Select Committee on Intelligence on
the United States Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq,
M.M. Aid, The Secret Sentry Ch13 UB 271.U6
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Ch. 13 UB 250.S6
J. Bamford, Pretext for War DS 79.6.B2
M.A. Goodman, Failure of intelligence: the decline and fall of the CIA UB 250.G6
R. Jervis, Why intelligence fails: lessons from the Iranian Revolution and the Iraq War E
183.8.I57
Paul Pillar, Intelligence and U.S. Foreign Policy: Iraq, 9/11 and Misguided Reform JK468.I6 P55
J. Risen, State of War UB 271.U6
Books - Supplementary Reading
H. Blix, Disarming Iraq: The Search for Weapons of Mass Destruction DS 79.591.B5
Y. Bodansky, The secret history of the Iraq War DS 79.6.B6
M. DeLong, Inside CentCom: The Unvarnished Truth About the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
DS 371.412.D45
Bob Drogin, Curveball: Spies, Lies, and the Con Man Who Caused a War DS 79.591.D7
Tyler Drumheller, On the Brink: An Insider's Account of How the White House Compromised
American Intelligence UB 271.U6
Peter Gill and Mark Pythian, Intelligence in an Insecure World chapter 7. UB 250.I6
S.M. Hersh, Chain of command : the road from 9/11 to Abu Ghraib JE 242.H3
L. Johnson, Strategic Intelligence, Volume I. Understanding the Hidden Side of Government esp.
chapter 9 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
G. Tenet, At the Center of the Storm JC 842.T3
C.R. Whitney (ed.) The WMD Mirage DS 79.76.W484
Articles - Core Reading
R.K. Betts, ‘Two Faces of Intelligence Failure : September 11 and Iraq's Missing WMD’
Political Science Quarterly 122/4 (2007): 585-606.
P. Conway, 'Red Team: How the Neoconservatives Helped Cause the Iraq Intelligence Failure',
INS 27/4 (2012): 488-512.
Robert Jervis, 'Reports, Politics, and Intelligence Failures: The Case of Iraq', Journal of Strategic
Studies 29/1 (2006): 3-52.
*David Isenberg, See, Speak, and Hear No Incompetence: An Analysis of the Findings of The
Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass
Destruction BASIC Report 2005 available at - http://www.basicint.org/pubs/pubindex.htm
M. Ryan, ‘Wilful Blindness or Blissful Ignorance? The US and the Successful Denuclearization
of Iraq’, INS, 29/3 (2014): 458-86.
J. Wirtz, 'WMD', in R. Dover, M. Goodman and C. Hillebrand, Routledge Companion to
Intelligence Studies, Ch.28.
J. Wirtz, ‘The Art of Intelligence Autopsy’, INS, 29/1 (2014): 1-19.
Articles - Supplementary Reading
R. Best, ‘What the Intelligence Community Got Right About Iraq’, INS 23/3 (2008): 289-302
C. Kaufmann, 'Threat Inflation and the Failure of the Marketplace of Ideas: The Selling of the
Iraq War', International Security 29/1 (2004): 5-48.
26
K. Pollack, 'Spies, Lies and Weapons: What went wrong', Atlantic Monthly, 293/1 (2004):
http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200401/pollack
R.L. Russell, 'CIA's Strategic Intelligence in Iraq', in also reproduced as chapter 12 in Johnson
and Wirtz, Intelligence and National Security: The Secret World of Spies UB 250.I6
K. Russell, 'The Subjectivity of Intelligence Analysis and Implications for U.S. National Security
Strategy.' SAIS Review, 24/1 (2004): 147-163.
R.L. Russell, ‘A Weak Pillar for American National Security : The CIA's Dismal Performance
against WMD Threats’ Intelligence and National Security - 20/3 (2005): 466-485
UK Reading
Internet
Foreign Affairs Committee Report
http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/ukiraq0703.pdf
Intelligence and Security Committee Report
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/uk/index.html
Hutton Report
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/uk/index.html
Lord Butler Report
http://www.fas.org/irp/world/uk/index.html
Glen Rengwala also has some useful material at
http://middleeastreference.org.uk/fac030616.html
Books - Core Reading
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds.), Secret Intelligence Chs.14 UB 250.S6
Tim Coates & Lord Butler, Lord Butler's Report: Espionage and and Iraq War DS 79.591.L6
A. Glees & P. Davies, Spinning the Spies, UB 250.G5
B. Jones, Failing Intelligence How We Were Fooled into Going to War in Iraq DS 79.76.J66
Books - Supplementary Reading
H Blix, Disarming Iraq: The Search for Weapons of Mass Destruction DS 79.591.B5
A. Campbell, The Blair Years DA 592.7.C2
G. Corera, The Art of Betrayal: Life and Death in the British Secret Service, Ch.10 UB 251.G7
27
S. Kettell, Dirty Politics? New Labour, British Democracy & the Invasion of Iraq. Ch.4 JE
232.K3
G. Rangwala & D. Plesch, A Case To Answer DA 591.B56
A Seldon, Blair DA 592..7.B5
Articles - Core Reading
R.J. Aldrich, 'Whitehall and the Iraq War: The UK's Four Intelligence Enquiries', Irish Studies in
International Affairs, 16/1 (2005) online at - http://www.ria.ie/publications/journals/isia/
A. Danchev, 'Story Development, or, Walter Mitty the Undefeated', ch.7 in A. Danchev & J.
Macmillan (eds.), The Iraq War and Democratic Politics DS 79.6.I7
Philip Davies, 'Intelligence Culture and Intelligence Failure in Britain and the United States',
Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 12/3 (2004): 495-520.
Ian Davis and Andreas Persbo, ‘After the Butler report: time to take on the Group Think in
Washington and London’, BASIC papers: occasional papers in international security, no. 46
(July 2004) available at http://www.basicint.org/pubs/Papers/BP46.htm
David Hannay, ‘Three Iraq Intelligence Failures Reconsidered’, Survival, 51/6 (December 2009):
13 – 20.
S. Kettell, ‘Who's Afraid of Saddam Hussein? Re-examining the 'September Dossier' Affair’,
Contemporary British History, 22/3 (2008): 407-426
J. Morrison, ‘British Intelligence Failures in Iraq’, Intelligence and National Security 26/4
(2011): 509-520
Articles - Supplementary Core Reading
C. Bluth, ‘The British road to war: Blair, Bush and the decision to invade Iraq’, International
Affairs 80/5 (2004): 851-872.
A Doig, ’45 Minutes of Infamy? Hutton, Blair and the Invasion of Iraq’, Parliamentary Affairs,
58/1 (2005).
A. Doig & M. Phythian, 'The national interest and the politics of threat exaggeration: the Blair
government's case for war against Iraq'. Political Quarterly 76/1 (2005): 368-376.
P. Gill, 'Keeping "Earthly Awkwardness": Failures of Intelligence in the United Kingdom', in
T.C. Bruneau & Steven C. Boraz (eds.), Reforming Intelligence: Obstacles to Democratic
Control and Effectiveness (Texas University Press, 2007) chapter 4. UB 250.R4 <ebook>
A Glees, ‘Evidence-based policy or policy-based evidence? Hutton and the government’s use of
secret intelligence’, Parliamentary Affairs, 58/1 (2005).
E. O'Halpin, 'British Intelligence and the Case for Confronting Iraq: Evidence from the Butler and
Hutton Reports,' Irish Studies in International Affairs 16 (2005): 89–102. [http://www.ria.ie/cgibin/ria/papers/100537.pdf]'
J Humphries, ‘The Iraq dossier and the meaning of spin’ Parliamentary Affairs, 58/1 (2005): 15670.
L Freedman, ‘War in Iraq: selling the threat’, Survival 46/2 (2004): 7-50.
For both also read the Australian Account - A. Wilkie, Axis of Deceit DS 79.76.W54
9
Security Intelligence and Counter-terrorism:
28
Northern Ireland Case Study 1969-1999
Seminar paper questions
9.1 Why did intelligence in the counter-terrorist context present the Britain with special
problems in the period 1967-89?
9.2 Was there a particular UK doctrine of counter terrorist intelligence that emerged from
Northern Ireland? Does it remain valid?
Books - Core Reading
C Andrew, In Defence of the Realm, Section E , chs. 3, 5 & 10 pp 600-27, 644-56 734-53 UB271.G7
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Ch.16 UB 250.S6
J Boyer Bell, Dynamics of the Armed Struggle – chapter on intelligence JE 300.T3.B3
S. Farson, (eds.) Security and Intelligence in a Changing World, ch 13. UB 250.C69
P Taylor, Brits: The War Against the IRA DA 990.U468
Books - Supplementary Reading
J. Adams, The New Spies, chs.14 & 15 UB 250.A3
J. Adams et al, Ambush NIL
J. Bowyer Bell, The dynamics of the armed struggle JE 300.T3
M.G. Davidson, Combatting Terrorism NIL
M Dillon, The Enemy Within L DA 990.U463
T. Geraghty, The Irish War L DA 990.U464
T. Hennessey & C Thomas, Spooks: The Unofficial History of MI5 Ch.36 UB 271.G7
A. Marenches, The fourth world war: diplomacy and espionage in the age of terrorism D 860.M3
T.R. Mockaitis, British Counter-Insurgency in the Post Imperial Era UA 647.M63
T. Hennessey & C Thomas, Spooks: The Unofficial History of MI5 Ch 36 UB 271.G7
J. Holland, Phoenix: Policing in the Shadows HV7911.P48 H64
M. McGartland 50 Dead Men Walking DA 990.U46
P. Neumann, Britain's long war: British strategy in the Northern Ireland conflict, 1969-98 DA
990.U46 and <ebook>
M. Smith, The Spying Game UB 251.S6
M. Urban, Big Boys Rules DA 990.U46
Articles - Core Reading
B. Bamford, 'The Role and Effectiveness of Intelligence in N Ireland', INS, 20/4 (2005): 581-607.
D.A. Charters, 'Counter-Terrorism Intelligence: Sources, Methods, Processes and Problems' in
D.A. Charters (ed.), Democratic Responses to International Terrorism 227-267,
B. Dickson, ‘Counter-Insurgency and Human Rights in Northern Ireland’, Journal of Strategic
Studies 32/3 (2009): 475-93.
G.J. Ilardi, “IRA Operational Intelligence: the heartbeat of the war”, Small wars and
insurgencies, 21/2 (2010): 331-358
G.J. Ilardi, “Irish Republican Army counterintelligence”, IJICI 23/1 (2009)
Kirk-Smith and Dingley, “Countering terrorism in Northern Ireland: the role of intelligence”,
Small Wars and Insurgencies, 20/3-4 (2009): 1-26
29
J. Moran, “Evaluating Special Branch and the use of informant intelligence in Northern Ireland”,
INS, 25/1 (2010)
Sarma, “Informers and the battle against republican terrorism”, Police Practice and Research, 6/2
(2005)
Tuck, “Northern Ireland and the British approach to counterinsurgency”, Defense and Security
Analysis, 23/2 (2007)
Articles - Supplementary Reading
S.A. Farson, 'Criminal Intelligence vs. Security Intelligence: Re-evaluation of the Police Role in
the Response to Terrorism' in D.A. Charters (ed) Democratic Responses, 191-227. JE 300 T3.D3
*K.G. Robertson, 'Intelligence, Terrorism and Civil Liberties', Conflict Quarterly, 7/2 (1987) –
reproduced in the P. Wilkinson et al volume Contemporary Research on Terrorism JE 300.T3
10
Intelligence and Counter-terrorism since 9/11:
From Gatherers to Hunters?
Seminar paper questions
10.1 To what extent may terrorist organizations be considered to be simply malignant
forms of secret service ?
10.2 Does counter-terrorist intelligence require special forms of control, regulation and
oversight and if so what shape should it take?
10.3 Consider how either, British, French or American intelligence has changed since
9/11.
10.4 The United States has invested significant resources in hunting for specific human
targets since 9/11. Is this a judicious and sensible approach to counter-terrorist
intelligence? [see special section of reading on human targets page 33]
Books - Core Reading
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Chs.15 & 27 UB 250.S6
R.D. Crelinsten, Intelligence and Counter-Terrorism in a Multi-Centric World (Swedish National
Defence College, War Studies Research Reports No.13, 2006) JE 300.T3.C7
P. Chalk & W Rosenau, Confronting 'the Enemy Within': Security Intelligence, the Police, and
Counterterrorism in Four Democracies, UB 250.C4
30
T. Naftali, Blind Spot JE 300.T3.N2
R. Posner, Countering Terrorism JC 704.2.P6
G. Treverton, Intelligence for an Age of Terror JC 704.2.T7
Wesley K. Wark (ed.), Twenty-First Century Intelligence JC 842.T9
Books - Supplementary Reading
Anonymous[M.Scheuer] Imperial Hubris: Why the West is Losing the War on Terror JE
300.T3.S2
J. Arquilla, Countering the New Terrorism RAND JE 300.T3 C68
Philip Bobbitt, Terror and Consent: The Wars for the Twenty-first Century JE 300.T3
A. Cronin & J Ludes, Attacking Terrorism, (ch.5 on intelligence by Pillar) JC 704..2.A8
D.D. Clarridge, A Spy for all seasons: my life in the CIA [on creation of CT centre] UB 271.U6
R. Baer, See No Evil JC 701.42.B2
Peter Chalk & W. Rosenau, Confronting 'the Enemy Within': Security Intelligence, the Police,
and Counterterrorism in Four Democracies. available at http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/MG100/ UB 250.C4
P. Hennessy (ed.), The New Protective State UB 251.N3
T. Hennessey & C Thomas, Spooks: The Unofficial History of MI5 Ch.37 UB 271.G7
S. Hewitt, The British War on Terror JE 300 11.T3
P. Heymann, Terrorism, Freedom and Security especially Part II, 37-87 JE 300.42.T3
A. Hulnick, Keeping us Safe UB 250.H8
L. Johnson, Strategic Intelligence: Volume III. Covert Action: Behind the Veils of Secret Foreign
Policy esp chapter 9 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
L. Johnson, Strategic Intelligence: Volume IV. Counterintelligence and Counterterrorism:
Defending the Nation Against Hostile Forces esp chapter 6-8 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
J. Prados, America Confronts Terrorism TE 300.T3 A6
W. Rosenau, Confronting the Enemy Within
G. Treverton, Intelligence for an Age of Terror Ch.2 JC 704.2.T7
Articles - Core Reading
C. Cogan, 'Hunters not gatherers: Intelligence in the twenty-first century', INS, 19/2 (2004):.304–
321.
Antony Field, ‘Tracking terrorist networks: problems of intelligence sharing within the UK
intelligence community’, Review of International Studies, 35 (2009): 997-1009
F. Foley, ‘The expansion of intelligence agency mandates: British counter-terrorism in
comparative perspective’, Review of International Studies 35/4 (2009): 983-996.
Neal A. Pollard and Lt John P. Sullivan, 'Counterterrorism and Intelligence',in R. Dover, M.
Goodman and C. Hillebrand, Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies, Ch.25.
John R Schindler, 'Defeating the Sixth Column: Intelligence and Strategy in the War on Islamist
Terrorism', Orbis 49/4 (2005) pp.695-712.
J. Sims, 'Intelligence to counter terror: The importance of all-source fusion', INS, 22/1 (2007): 3856.
John P. Sullivan, 'Terrorism Early Warning and Counterterrorism Intelligence', IJICI 21/1 (2008):
13-25.
G. Treverton, ‘Addressing "Complexities" in Homeland Security’ in Loch Johnson (ed.) The
Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence
31
Articles - Supplementary Reading
Thomas C. Bruneau, 'Democracy and Effectiveness: Adapting Intelligence for the Fight Against
Terrorism', IJICI 21/3 (2008): 448-460.
D.A. Charters, 'Counter-Terrorism Intelligence: Sources, Methods, Processes and Problems' in
D.A. Charters (ed.), Democratic Responses to International Terrorism, pp.227-67. JE 300 T3.D3
Peter C. Courtney, 'To Render or Intern: Counterterrorism: Methods of the FBI SIS and CIA',
International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, 26/3 (2013): 482–506
S.A. Farson, 'Criminal Intelligence vs. Security Intelligence: Re-evaluation of the Police Role in
the Response to Terrorism' in D.A. Charters (ed.), Democratic Responses to International
Terrorism, pp.191-227. JE 300 T3.D3
L. Freedman, ‘The Politics of Warning: Terrorism and Risk Communication’, INS 20/3 (2005):
379-418.
P. Gill, 'Securing the Globe: Intelligence and the Post-9/11 Shift from 'Liddism' to 'Drainism' ,
INS 19/3 (2004): 467-489.
P. Gill, 'Security Intelligence and Human Rights: Illuminating the 'Heart of Darkness'?', INS, 24/1
(2009): 78-102.
Peter Gill, 'Intelligence, Threat, Risk and the Challenge of Oversight', INS 27/2 (2012): 206-40.
M. Herman, 'Counter-Terrorism, Information Technology and Intelligence Change', INS 18/4
(December 2003): 40-58.
B. Hoffman, ‘Intelligence and Terrorism: Emerging Threats and New Security Challenges in the
Post-Cold War Era,’ INS 11/2 (1996): 207-223.
E. Kahana, ‘Combating Terrorism With Intelligence: The Normative Debate in Israel’, IJICI
26/3 (2013): 546–570.
Torin Monahan and Neal A. Palmer, 'The Emerging Politics of DHS Fusion Centers', Security
Dialogue, 40/6 (2009): 617-636.
P.R Pillar, 'Counterterrorism after Al Qaeda,' The Washington Quarterly 27/3 (2004): 101-113.
Mark Phythian, 'Policing Uncertainty: Intelligence, Security and Risk', INS 27/2 (2012): 187-205.
M. Rudner, 'Financial Intelligence, Terrorism Finance, and Terrorist Adaptation,” IJICI 19/1
(2006): 32-58.
G. Treverton, 'Terrorism, Intelligence and Law Enforcement: Learning the Right Lessons.' INS
18/4 (2003): 121-40.
W. Wark, 'Learning Lessons (and how) in the War on Terror: The Canadian Experience,'
International Journal 60/1 (2004-2005): 71-90.
A dozen useful short articles on terrorism in general from the Harvard International Review are
available online at >
http://hir.harvard.edu/special/
The journal International Security has also put its terrorism articles on line- you can find these by
going to the sample articles page for the journal on the MIT press website
The Shift to Human Targets
Core
Seth G Jones, Hunting in the Shadows: The Pursuit of Al Qa'ida Since 9/11: The Persuit of Al Qa'ida
Since 9/11 Norton 2013
Mark Mazzetti, The Way of the Knife: The CIA, a Secret Army, and a War at the Ends of the Earth,
Penguin 2013
Eric Rosenbach, Find, Fix, Finish, PublicAffairs 2012
32
Secondary
Peter L. Bergen, Manhunt: The Ten-Year Search for Bin Laden from 9/11 to Abbottabad,
Bodley 2012
Claire Finkelstein, Jens David Ohlin, Andrew Altman (eds.) Targeted Killings: Law and
Morality in an Asymmetrical World <e>book
S. Hendricks, A Kidnapping in Milan: The CIA on Trial (Morrow 2010)
Benjamin Medea & Barbara Ehrenreich, Drone Warfare: Killing by Remote Control, Verso 2013
David E. Sanger, Confront and Conceal: Obama's Secret Wars and Surprising Use of American Power
Broadway 2013
Jeremy Scahill, Dirty Wars: The world is a battlefield, <e>book
E. Schmitt & T. Shanker, Counterstrike the untold story of america's secret campaign against al qaeda,
NY Time Books, 2011.
Articles
F. Hitz, 'Unleashing the Rogue Elephant: September 11 and Letting the CIA Be the CIA', ch.29 in
Johnson and Wirtz, Intelligence and National Security: The Secret World of Spies, UB 250.I6
11
Security Intelligence and Tyranny
Seminar paper questions
11.1 What functions does security intelligence perform in the authoritarian state?
11.2 Discuss the relationship between political policing and state development in
Continental Europe and Russia in the 18th and 19th Centuries
11.3 To what extent are the organisations of state security the defining characteristic of
the totalitarian [not authoritarian] state?
Books - General - Core Reading
Literature on the general relationship between political policing and repressive regimes is
limited. Specific material is plentiful.
*J. Adelman (ed.), Terror and Communist Politics: The Role of the Secret Police in Communist
States JE 300.T3.T3
*B. Chapman, Police State JC 11.C4
33
*C. Dandeker, Surveillance, Power and Modernity: Bureaucracy and Discipline form 1700 to the
Present Day HB 6000.D2
*M. Deflem, Policing World Society HF 3800.D3
Books - General - Supplementary Reading
R. Bengalli and C. Summer, Social Control and Political Order HD 5020.S6
B.B. Campbell & A.D. Brenner, Death Squads in Global Perspective HV6322.C2
J.E. Cronin, The Politics of State Expansion DA 566.7.C7
JJ Linz, Totalitarian and authoritarian regimes JB 2500.L4
M. Mazower, (ed.) The policing of politics in the twentieth century HF 3800.P6
S. Schafer, The Political Criminal HF 3200.S2
Jacob Soll , The information master: Jean-Baptiste Colbert's secret state intelligence system
<e>book and DC 130.C6
S. Tormey, On Tyranny, for the nature of the totalitarian state in general. NIL
DR Villa, Politics, Philosophy, Terror: Essays on the Thought of H Arendt JB 1742.A75
Articles - Core Reading
M. Raeff, 'The Well-ordered Police State and the Development of Modernity in Seventeenth and
Eighteenth Century Europe', American Historical Review, 80, 5 (December 1975): 1221-43.
Articles - Supplementary Reading
D. Banley, ‘The Police and Political Development in Europe’ in The Formation of National
States in Western Europe, ed. by C. Tilly D 217.T4
D.H. Bayley, 'The Police and Political Development in Europe' in C.H. Tilly (ed.) The Formation
of Nation States in Europe D 217.T4
C. Davenport, ‘Multi-Dimensional Threat Perception and State Repression: An Enquiry into Why
States Apply Negative Sanctions’ American Journal of Political Science 39, 3 (August 1995): 683713
Under specific country headings - the best material has an asterisk
Argentina
C Aldini, That Inferno NIL
David Cox, Dirty Secrets, Dirty War: The Exile of Robert J. Cox (Buenos Aires, Argentina:
1976-1983)ISBN: 0981873502 / 0-9818735-0-2 Evening Post Publishing Company, 2008
M Feitlowitz, Lexicon of Terror F 2849.5.F3
P.H. Lewis, Guerrillas and Generals: The Dirty War in Argentina F 2849.2.L3
I Guest, Behind the disappearances : Argentina's dirty war against human rights and the United
Nations JC 545.A7
H. Verbitsky, Confessions of an Argentine Dirty Warrior HV 6433.A7 V4713
Czarist Russia & Early European Police States
R.J. Goldstein, Political Repression in Nineteenth Century Europe D 363.G6
*Hsi Huey Liang, The Rise of the Modern Police and European State System HF 3820.L4
B.B. Fischer, Okhrana HF 3831.O5
J. Daly, The Watchful State HF 3831.D2
*J. Daly, Autocracy Under Siege DK 221.D2
34
R. Hingley, The Russian Secret Police HF 3831.H4
S. Monas, The Third Section DK 211.M6
* M. Raeff, The Well-Ordered Police State. Social and Institutional Change through law in the
Germanies and Russia, 1600-1800. DD 175.R2
C. Ruud and S Stepanov, Fontanka 16 <e book >
P.S. Squire, The Third Department DK 211.S7
F.S. Zuckerman, The Tsarist Secret Police in Russian Society, D 363.G6
F.S. Zuckerman, The Tsarist Secret Police abroad <e book>
Imperial India
C. Bayly, Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India
DS 475.1.B2
U. Singh, Political Prisoners in India JC 572.S4
Nazi Germany
G.C. Browder, Foundations of the Nazi Police State DD 253.6.B7
G.C. Browder, Hitler’s Enforcers DD 256.5.B7
M. Burleigh, The Third Reich DD 256.5.B8 esp Chapter 2, pp.146-205
R. Gellately, The Gestapo and German Society HF 3823.G3
M Mazower, Nazi Rule in Occupied Countries, D 802 A2
W. Sofsjky, The Order of Terror <e>book
* E. Johnson, The Nazi Terror DD 256.5.J6 see especially pp 1-50
*T. Todorov, Moral Life in the Concentration Camps D 804.G4
Eric A. Johnson, ‘Some thoughts on social control in Totalitarin society, the case for Nazi
Germany’ in C. Emsley et al Social control in Europe, 1800-2000 HD 5020.S6
S. Wheatcroft, ‘The scale and nature of German and Soviet repression and mass killings’,
Europe-Asia Studies 48 (1996)
German Democratic Republic
*D. Childs and R. Popplewell, The Stasi, DD 261.2.C4
*Helena Flam, Mosaic of Fear, Poland and East Germany before 1989 JB 2334.1.F5
M. Fulbrook, Anatomy of a Dictatorship, DD 261.F8 .
A. Funder, Stasiland DD 261.2.F8
*J Koehler, The Stasi, HV8210.5.K6
Kristie Macrakis: Seduced by Secrets: Inside the Stasi's Spy-Tech World UB 271.G35
B Miller, Narratives of Guilt, HV8210.5.M4
EN Peterson, The Limits of Secret Police Power DD 261.2.P3
T. Wegener Friis K. Macrakis and H. Müller-Enbergs, (eds) East German Foreign Intelligence
UB 271.G35
Soviet Russia
*C.M. Andrew, KGB: the Inside Story UB 271.R9
E. T. Bacon, The Gulag at War: Stalin’s Forced Labour System in the Light of the Archives HM
5531.B2
R Conquest, Inside Stalin's Secret Police HF 3831.C6
S Courtois et al, The Black Book of Communism JB 2300.L4
35
*A. Dallin & G. Breslauer, Political Terror in Communist Systems JB 2300.A1
* Y. Druzhnikov, Informer 001: The Myth of Pavlik Morozov. DK 268.M66
* J. Fedor, Russia and the Cult of State Security JC 705.1.F3
J.A. Getty and R. Thompson (eds.), Stalinist Terror: New Perspectives DK 267.S8
J. Harris, The Great Urals: Regionalism & the Evolution of the Soviet System HV 1630.H2
D.L. Hoffman, (ed.) Stalinism : the essential readings, chapters 1,4,6,7 DK 267.S8
*A. Knight, The KGB, especially, chs 1, 10 & 11 HF 3831.K6
A Knight, Beria DK 268.B32
I Kershaw & M Lewin, Stalinism and Nazism : dictatorships in comparison DK 267.S8
B. Moore, Terror and Progress, HE 1003.1.M6
D. Priestland, Stalinism and the Politics of Mobilisation DK 268.P7
*R.C. Tucker, Stalinism: Essays in Historical Interpretation JB 2351.S8
J. Arch Getty, Gabor T. Rittersporn, V. N. Zemskov, 'Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the
Pre-War Years', American Historical Review 98/4, (1993), pp. 1017-1049.
Sheila Fitzpatrick, 'Revisionism in Soviet History', History and Theory, 46/4 (2007): 77–91.
J. Harris, ‘The Growth of the Gulag: Forced Labor in the Urals Region, 1929-1931’, The Russian
Review, 56 (April 1997): 265-280.
J. Harris, ‘The Purging of Local Cliques in the Urals Region, 1936-7’ in Sheila Fitzpatrick ed.,
Stalinism: New Directions, pp.262-285. DK 267.S8
J. Harris, ‘Dual Subordination? The Political Police and the Party in the Urals Region, 19181953’ in Cahiers du Monde Russe 42/2 (2001)
* J. Harris, ‘Resisting the Plan in the Urals, 1928-1956, Or Why Regional Officials Needed
'Wreckers' and 'Saboteurs' ‘ in Lynne Viola ed., Contending with Stalinism
J. Harris, Stalinism in a Russian Province. Journal of Modern History 71 (1999): 785-786
**P. Holquist, ' 'Information is the Alpha and Omega of our Work' Bolshevik Surveillance in its
Pan European Context', Journal of Modern History 69/3 (Sept 1997): 415-50.
T. Martin, ‘The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing’, Journal of Modern History 70/4 (1998):
813-861
David J. Norlander, ‘Origins of a Gulag Capital: Magadan and Stalinist Control in the early
1930s,’ Slavic Review, 57/4 (1998): 791-81
D: CONTROLLING INTELLIGENCE
12 The Problems of Oversight and Accountability
Seminar paper questions
12.1 'The first rule of a secret service is that it should be secret. Democratic control is
incompatible with this.' Discuss.
12.2 Compare and contrast the systems of accountability employed by two Englishspeaking states. [Possibilities include UK, US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand]
36
12.3 Consider the structure and functions of the UK Intelligence and Security
Committee. Comment on its effectiveness and suggest ways in which it might be
improved.
12.4 Is a free press the only really effective form of intelligence oversight?
12.5 How can “whistleblowers” like Edward Snowden or Katherine Gunn be
accommodated within a national system of oversight and accountability?
Books - Core Reading
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Chs. 18 & 19 UB 250.S6
Hans Born, Loch K. Johnson & Ian Leigh, (eds.) Who's Watching the Spies? Establishing
Intelligence Service Accountability UB 250.B6
Hans Born, Ian Leigh, A. Wills, International Intelligence Co-operations and Accountability, UB
270.I6 also <e book>
Hans Born and Marina Caparini (eds.) - Democratic Control of Intelligence Services. Containing
Rogue Elephants. UB 250.D3
Thomas C. Bruneau and Steven C. Boraz (eds.) Reforming Intelligence. Obstacles to Democratic
Control and Effectiveness. UB 250.R4 also <e book>
P. Brodeur et al, Democracy, Law, and Security: Internal Security Services in Contemporary
Europe HF 3820.D3
P. Gill, Policing Politics: Security Intelligence and the Liberal Democratic State UB 270.G4
P Gill and Mark Pythian, Intelligence in and Insecure World chapter 8. UB 250.I6
H. Koh, The National Security Constitution E 873.K6
M. Lowenthal, Intelligence: From Secrets to Policy, ch.10. UB 271.U6
L. Lustgarten and I. Leigh, In From the Cold: National Security and Democracy
JE 215.L8 and esp parts I, IV & V
Books - Supplementary Reading
W. Baker & J. Reisman, Regulating Covert Action
KC 1311.R3
Vian Bakir, Torture, Intelligence and Sousveillance in the War on Terror, <e>book
U. Bar-Joseph, Intelligence Intervention in the Politics of Democratic States: The United States,
Israel and Britain UB 271.B3
David M. Barrett: The CIA and Congress: The Untold Story from Truman to Kennedy, UB
271.U6.B38
W.C. Banks and P Raven-Hansen, National Security Law and the Power of the Purse KM 233.B2
P. Birkinshaw, Reforming the Secret State KM 207.B4
F. Cain, The Australian Security and Intelligence Organization JE 215.91.C2
E.A Cohen, Commandos and Politicians: Elite Military Units in Modern Democracies U 262.C6
S. Farson, (eds.) Security and Intelligence in a Changing World, chs 2, 4-8 UB 250.C69
R. Dover and M. Goodman (eds.) Spinning Intelligence JD 305.S74
G.P. Hastedt, Controlling Intelligence [specifically on USA and CIA] UB 271.U6
M Hollingsworth & N Fielding, Defending the Realm UB 271.G7
L Johnson, Strategic Intelligence: Volume V. Intelligence and Accountability: Safeguards Against
the Abuse of Secret Power esp chapter 6-8 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
L Johnson, Strategic Intelligence, Volume I. Understanding the Hidden Side of Government esp.
chapter 4 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
L Johnson, Hans Born and Iain Leigh (eds.) Who's Watching the Spies? Establishing Intelligence
Service Accountability, UB 250.B6
37
D. McKnight, Australia's Spies and their Secrets JQ4029.I6 M39
R. Norton-Taylor, Truth is a Difficult Concept
K. Olmsted, Challenging the Secret Government: The Post-Watergate Investigations UB 271.O5
A. Roberts, Blacked Out L JC 801.R6
KG Robertson, Secrecy and Open Government JC 832.R6
F.J. Smist, Congress Oversees the United States Intelligence Community JC 242.S53
A. Thomkins, The Constitution After Scott esp ch 4 KM 61.T6
B. Thompson & FF Ridley, Under the Scott Light JD 300.32.U6
D. Williams, Not in the Public Interest JC 832.W4
D. Vincent, The Culture of Secrecy JC 832.V4
Edward Woodward, One Brief Interval KB 15.W6
Amy Zegart, Eyes on Spies: Congress and the United States Intelligence Community, Hoover
Institution Press 2009
Articles - Core Reading
R.J. Aldrich, ‘Global Intelligence Co-operation versus Accountability: New Facets to an Old
Problem’, INS 24/1 (2009): 26-56.
M. Andregg & P. Gill, 'Comparing the Democratisation of Intelligence', INS, 29/4 (2014); 487-98
- and see whole issue for developments in Latin America
K. Clark, ‘The Architecture of Accountability: A Case Study of the Warrantless Surveillance
Program’, Brigham Young University Law Review 2 (2010) pp.357-420
P. Gill ‘Re-asserting Control’, INS 1/2 (1996)
P. Gill, The Intelligence and Security Committee and the challenge of security networks. Review
of International Studies, 35 (2009): pp 929-941
G. Hastedt, ‘The Politics of Intelligence Accountability’ in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford
Handbook of National Security Intelligence
C. Hillebrand, 'Intelligence Oversight and Accountability', in R. Dover, M. Goodman and C.
Hillebrand, Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies, Ch.32.
C. Hillebrand, ‘The Role of News Media in Intelligence Oversight’, INS, 27/5 (2012): 689–706.
W.H. Jackson, ‘Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Search for a Framework’, INS 5, 3 (Jul.
1990): 113-147.
L. Johnson, 'Accountability and America's Secret Foreign Policy: Keeping a Legislative Eye on
the Central Intelligence Agency', Foreign Policy Analysis, 1, 1 (2005): 99S.F. Knott, ‘The Great Republican Transformation on Oversight’, IJICI 13/1 (2000): 49-63.
A.J. O'Connell, ‘The Architecture of Smart Intelligence: Structuring and Overseeing Agencies in
the Post-9/11 World’, 94 Cal. L. Rev. 1655 (2006).
D. Omand, 'Can we have the Pleasure of the Grin without Seeing the Cat? Must the Effectiveness
of Secret Agencies Inevitably Fade on Exposure to the Light?', INS 23/5, 593-607.
M.C. Ott, 'Partisanship and the Decline of Intelligence Oversight.' IJICI (2003) 16/1: 69-94.
M. Phythian, 'The British experience with intelligence accountability', INS 22/1 (2007): 75-99.
M. Pythian, ‘ "A Very British Institution": The ISC and Intelligence Accountability in the United
Kingdom’ in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence
K.G. Robertson, 'Recent Reform of Intelligence in the UK', INS 13, 2 (1999): 144-59.
A. Zegart, ‘The domestic politics of irrational intelligence oversight’, Political Science Quarterly,
126/1 (2011): 1-25.
A. Zegart & J. Quinn, ‘Congressional Intelligence Oversight: The Electoral Disconnection’, INS
25/6 (2010): 744-66.
38
Articles - Supplementary Reading
H. Barnett, 'Legislation-based National Security Services', INS 9/2 (April 1994): 287-300.
L. Britt Snyder, 'Congressional Accountability and Intelligence after September 11,' in Jennifer E.
Sims, and Burton L. Gerber, (eds.) Transforming U.S. Intelligence pp.239-58. UB 250.T7
William J. Daugherty, 'Approval and Review of Covert Action Programs since Reagan.' IJICI
17/1 (2004): 62-80.
A.Defty, ‘Educating Parliamentarians about intelligence, the role of the ISC, Parliamentary
Affairs, 61/4 (2008) 621-41;
S. Farson & G. Whitaker, ‘Accounting for the Future or the Past?: Developing Accountability and
Oversight Systems to Meet Future Intelligence Needs’, in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford
Handbook of National Security Intelligence UB 250.O9
P. Gill, 'Evaluating intelligence oversight committees: The UK Intelligence and Security
Committee and the 'war on terror', INS 22/1 (2007):14-37.
P. Gill, 'Symbolic or Real? The Impact of the Canadian Security Intelligence Review Committee,
1984-88?', INS 4, 3 (July 1989): 550-75.
P. Gill, 'Democratic and Parliamentary Accountability of Intelligence Services after September
11 th'. Working Paper 103, Geneva Centre for Democratic Control of Armed Forces, January.
http://www.dcaf.ch/publications/Working_Papers/103.pdf
Anthony Glees & Philip H.J. Davies. 'Intelligence, Iraq and the Limits of Legislative
Accountability during Political Crisis,' INS 21/ 5 (2006): 848-883.
A. Hulnick, 'Openness: Being Public About Secret Intelligence.' IJICI (Winter 1999), 12/4, p.
463-483.
J. Kibbe, ‘Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Is the Solution Part of the Problem?’
INS 25, 1 (2010): 24-49.
S.F. Knott, ‘The Great Republican Transformation on Oversight’, IJICI 13/1 (2000): 49-63.
L. Johnson, ’The CIA and the Question of Accountability’, INS 12/1 (Jan. 1997): 178-200
L. Johnson, 'Covert Action and Accountability: Decision-Making for America's Secret Foreign
Policy', ch.28 in Johnson & Wirtz, Intelligence and National Security: The Secret World of Spies,
UB 250.I6
H.P. Lee, 'The Australian Security Intelligence Organisation: New Mechanisms for
Accountability', The International and Comparative Law Quarterly 38/4 (1989): 890-905
L. Lustgarten, 'Accountability of the Security Services in Western Democracies', 1992 Current
Legal Problems 145
FF Manget, ‘Another System of Oversight: Intelligence and the Rise of Judicial Intervention.’,
Studies in Intelligence 39, 5 (1996): 43-50. Also reproduced as ch.31 in Johnson and Wirtz,
Intelligence and National Security: The Secret World of Spies, UB 250.I6
K.G. Robertson, 'Accountable Intelligence: The British Experience', Conflict Quarterly, VIII, 1
(1988).
F.F. Manget, ‘Another System of Oversight: Intelligence and the Rise of Judicial Intervention,’
Studies in Intelligence 39/5 (1996): 43-50.
G. Merom, 'Virtue, Expediency and the CIA's Institutional Trap', INS 7/2 (1992): 30-52.
M. Phythian, 'Still a Matter of Trust: Post-9/11 British Intelligence and Political Culture',
International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence 18/4 (2005):.653-81.
R. Rempel, 'Canada's Parliamentary Oversight of Security and Intelligence,' IJICI 17/4 (2004):
634-54.
F.A.O. Schwarz, 'The Church Committee and a New Era of Intelligence Oversight,' INS 22/2
(2007):270-297.
Matthew B. Walker, 'Reforming Congressional Oversight of Intelligence.' IJICI 19/4 (20067):702-720
G.R. Weller, 'Oversight of Australia's Intelligence Services', IJICI 12/4 (1999): 484-503.
39
R. Whitaker, 'The "Bristow Affair": A Crisis of Accountability in Canadian Security Intelligence',
INS 11/2 (1996): 279-305.
R. Whitaker, 'The Politics of Security Intelligence Policy-making in Canada: I 1970-84', INS 6/4
(1992): 649-668.
R. Whitaker, 'The Politics of Security Intelligence Policy-making in Canada: II 1984-91', INS 7/2
(1992); 53-76.
13
The Problem of Surveillance and Civil Liberties
Seminar paper questions
13.1 How far can civil liberties be reconciled with the security demands made of the
modern surveillance state after 11 September 2001?
13.2 Do technological societies and knowledge-based economies help us to curb
excessive surveillance by the state – as David Brin sugggests ?
13.3 To what extent are security, democracy, affluence and privacy compatible in
developed democratic states in the twenty-first century ?
13.4 ‘If citizens demand transparency of the state, then the state is entitled to demand
transparency of its citizens.’ Discuss.
Books - Core Reading
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Chs. 20 & 21 UB 250.S6
J. Angwin, Dragnet Nation: A Quest for Privacy, Security, and Freedom in a World of Relentless
Surveillance (Times Books, 2014).
David Brin, The Transparent Society <e>book
W. Diffie & S. Landau, Privacy on the Line, QA 73.4.D4
A. Etzioni, The Limits of Privacy JC 542.E8
K. Ewing, The bonfire of the liberties: New Labour, human rights, and the rule of law KM
201.E9
S. Harris, The watchers: the rise of America’s surveillance state JE 300.T3 H27
Sean Hier and Joshua Greenberg., The surveillance studies reader TK 7882.E2.S87
R. Jeffreys-Jones, The CIA and American Democracy UB 271.U6
David Michael Levin, The Philosopher’s Gaze B 825.5.L3
D. Lyon, The Electronic Eye: The Rise of the Surveillance Society QA 73.4.L9
D. Lyon, Surveillance After September 11 HD 5062.L9
Armand Mattelart, The Globalization of Surveillance HD 5011.M2
J. Rosen, The Unwanted Gaze: The destruction of privacy in America KM 209.P7
M Sidel, More Secure Less Free? JD 300.42.S4
F. Webster, Theories of the Information Society HE 1500.W3 [in Webster see especially chapter
4 on Anthony Giddens and surveillance]
R. Whitaker, The end of privacy: how total surveillance is becoming a reality HD 2000.W4 &
Books - Supplementary Reading
C. Ackroyd et al, The Technology of Political Control U 240.T3
Kirstie Ball et al, Routledge Handbook of Surveillance Studies JC596.R68
40
R. Bengalli and C. Summer, Social Control and Political Order HD 5020.S6
R. Billingsley, T. Nemitz and P. Bean. Informers: policing, policy, practice HF 3811.I6
Roger Billingsley, Covert Human Intelligence Sources: The 'Unlovely' Face of Police Work HF
3811.C69
W. Bogard, The Simulation of Surveillance: Hypercontrol in Telematic Societies. QA 73.4.B69
R.H. Blum, Surveillance and Espionage in a Free Society NIL
M. Castells, The Rise of the Network Society HP 994.3.C2 F.H. Cate, Privacy in the Information Age KN 38.9.C2
Simon Chesterman, One Nation under Surveillance HD 5011.C4
R.A. Clarke, The NSA Report: Liberty and Security in a Changing World (Princeton UP 2014)
D. Cohen & J. Wells, (eds.) American National Security and Civil Liberties in an Era of
Terrorism <e>book and JC599.U5 A4985
D. Cole and J.X. Dempsey, Terrorism and the Constitution JE 300.42.T3
D. Dyzenhaus, Civil Rights and Security JC 542.C4
A. Etzioni, & JH Marsh, eds. Rights vs. Public Safety After 9/11: America in the Age of Terrorism
JD 300.42.R4
S. Field and C. Pelser (eds.) Invading the private: state accountability and new investigative
methods in Europe HV8080.U5.I58
Simon Garfinkel, Database Nation JC 542.G2
J. Gilliom, Overseers of the poor: surveillance, resistance, and the limits of privacy KN 38.9.G4
K.D. Haggerty & RV Ericson, The New Politics of Surveillance and Visibility TK 7882.E2.N485
P. Hanks and J McManus (eds.), National Security: Surveillance and Accountability in a
Democratic Society NIL
S. Hewitt, Snitch! a history of the modern intelligence informer UB 250.H3
P.B. Heymann, Terrorism, Freedom and Security JE 300..42.T3
Philip B. Heymann and Juliette N. Kayyem, Protecting Liberty in an Age of Terror JD 300.42.H3
R. Hunter, World without secrets: business, crime, and privacy in the age of ubiquitous
computing <e>book
J Kampfner, Freedom for sale : why the world is trading democracy for security <e>book and
JB 1000.K26
G. Kinsman, et al (eds) Whose national security? Canadian state surveillance and the creation of
enemies JE 215.43.W4
R. Leone & G. Anrig, The War on Our Freedoms JC599.U5 W313
T. Y. Levin, U. Frohne and P. Weibel. (ed) Rhetorics of surveillance from Bentham to Big
Brother NIL
S. Levy, Crypto: Secrecy and Privacy in the New Code War QA 77.3.L3
Paul Lewis, Rob Evans, Undercover: The True Story of Britain's Secret Police, HV8080.U5 E93
T. Monahan. Surveillance in the time of insecurity HV6432.M647 and JE 215.42.M66
C. Norris and G. Armstrong, The Maximum surveillance society : the rise of CCTV HD 5011.N6
Joseph Pugliese, Biometrics: Bodies, Technologies, Biopolitics TK 7882.B56 P84
S. Sharpe, Search and surveillance: the movement from evidence to information KM 580.2.S42
D. Stafford, The Delicate Balance: Security, Liberty and the Canadian Intelligence Community
JC 543.S8
W.G. Staples, Everyday surveillance: vigilance and visibility in postmodern life HN59.2.S698
William G. Staples, The Culture of Surveillance: Discipline and social control in the United
States HN 59.2.S697
D. Thomas & B.D. Loader, (eds.) Cybercrime : law enforcement, security and surveillance in the
information age HF 3200.C9 L
C. Walker, The Prevention of Terrorism in British Law KM 562.2.W2
41
Articles - Core Reading
K.G. Robertson, 'Intelligence, Terrorism and Civil Liberties', Conflict Quarterly, 7/2 (Spring
1987) available in P Wilkinson & AM Stewart (eds.) Contemporary Research on Terrorism
M. De Rosa, 'Privacy in the Age of Terror', The Washington Quarterly 26/3 (2003): 27–41.
Online at - http://www.twq.com/03summer/docs/03summer_derosa.pdf
J. Sheptycki, 'High Policing in the Security Control Society', Policing 1/1 (2007): 70-79.
H.E. Ventura, J Miller, J. Mitchell, M Deflem, ‘Governmentality and the War on Terror: FBI
Project Carnivore and the Diffusion of Disciplinary Power’, Critical Criminology 13/1 (2005) 5571.
Articles - Supplementary Reading
Akdeniz, Y., Taylor, N., and Walker, C., "Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000:
Bigbrother.gov.uk" [2001] Criminal Law Review, 73-90
L. Amoore, 'Biometric borders: Governing mobilities in the war on terror', Political Geography
25/ 3 (2006) pp.336-351.
C. Bell, ‘Surveillance Strategies and Populations at Risk’, Security Dialogue 37/2 (2006) pp.14765.
Robin Evans, ‘Bentham’s Panopticon: An incident in the social history of architecture,’
Architectural Association Quarterly 3/2 (1971) pp.21-37.
C. Gearty, ‘Terrorism and Human Rights’, Government and Opposition 42/3 (2007) pp.340-62.
P. Gill, 'Defining Subversion: The Canadian Experience since 1977,' Public Law 617 (1989)
pp.617-636.
Peter Gill, 'Not Just Joining the Dots But Crossing the Borders and Bridging the Voids:
Constructing Security Networks after 11 September 2001' Policing and Society 16/1 (2006)
pp.27-49.
Michael Levi & David Wall, 'Technologies, Security, and Privacy in the Post-9/11 European
Information Society', Journal of Law and Society 31/ 2 (2004) pp.194-220.
M. Lianos and M. Douglas, ‘Dangerization and the End of Deviance: The Institutional
Environment’ in R. Sparks and D. Garland (Eds) Criminology and Social Theory. HV6025.C7
Kate Martin, 'Domestic Intelligence and Civil Liberties', SAIS Review 24/1, (2004), pp.7-21.
Gary Marx, 'Some Concepts that May be Useful in Understanding the Myriad Forms and
Contexts of Surveillance', in L.V. Scott and P.D. Jackson (eds.) Understanding Intelligence in the
21st Century, pp.78-98. UB 250.U53
Thomas Mathieson, ‘The Viewer Society: Foucault’s Panopticon revisited’ in Theoretical
Criminology 1: 125-134. 1997.
G. Marx, 'Some Concepts that May be Useful in Understanding the Myriad Forsm and Context of
Surveillance' Ch 5. In LV Scott and PD Jackson (eds.) Understanding Intelligence in the 21st
Century [this book is also INS, 20/1 (2004)] UB 250.U53
Mark Poster, ‘Databases as discourse, or Electronic Interpellations,’ in D. Lyon and E. Zureik
[Eds.] Computers, Surveillance and Privacy. pp.175-192. QA 73.4.C6
Ken Roach, 'The World Wide Expansion of Terrorism Laws after September 11,' Studi Senesi
116 (2004) pp.487-524.
K.G. Robertson, 'Intelligence, Terrorism and Civil Liberties', Conflict Quarterly, 7/2 (1987)
pp.43-62 also in P. Wilkinson & A.M. Stewart (eds.) Contemporary Research on Terrorism JE
300.T3
Shlomo Shpiro, 'No Place to Hide: Intelligence and Civil Liberties in Israel', Cambridge Review
of International Affairs 19/4 (2006) pp.629-48
Thomas Mathieson, ‘The Viewer Society: Foucault’s Panopticon revisited’ in Theoretical
Criminology 1 (1997) pp.125-134.
42
Lee S. Strickland, 'Civil Liberties vs. Intelligence Collection: The Secret Foreign Intelligence
Surveillance Act Court Speaks in Public.' Government Information Quarterly 20/1 (2003) pp.112.
14 The Ethics of Espionage
Seminar paper questions
14.1 Can espionage form part of an ethical foreign policy?
14.2 'Espionage can be ethical but it can never be moral'. Discuss.
14.3 How useful is the concept of 'Just War' as an ethical benchmark for both foreign
intelligence collection and covert action?
Books - Core Reading
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Chs. 22 & 23 UB 250.S6
Jan Goldman, (ed.), Ethics of Spying: A Reader for the Intelligence Professional JF1525.I6 E895
and JC 842.E8
David L. Perry, Partly Cloudy: Ethics in War, Espionage, Covert Action, Interrogation U 22.P45
Ross Bellaby, Ethics and Intelligence Collection: A New Framework, Routledge 2014
Books - Supplementary Reading
M. Herman, Intelligence in the Information Age UB 250.H47
J. Kish, International Law and Espionage KC 1306.K4
Jane Mayer, The Dark Side: The Inside Story of How the War on Terror Turned Into a War on
American Ideals, HV6432.M383
Jon Moran, From Northern Ireland to Afghanistan <e> book
James Olson, Fair Play: The Moral Dilemmas of Spying JC 842.O4
Articles - Core Reading
M. Andregg, ‘Ethics and Professional Intelligence’, in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford Handbook
of National Security Intelligence <e>book and UB 250.O9
R.W. Bellaby, ‘What’s the Harm? The Ethics of Intelligence Collection in the 21st Century’ INS
27/1 (2012): 93-117.
*T. Erskine, 'As Rays of Light to the Human Soul', Ch.13. In LV Scott and PD Jackson (eds.)
Understanding Intelligence in the 21st Century [also INS 20/1 (2004)] UB 250.U53
M. Herman, 'Ethics and Intelligence after September 2001', Ch.12 in In LV Scott and PD Jackson
(eds.) Understanding Intelligence in the 21st Century [this is also INS 20/1 (2004)] UB 250.U53
F. Hitz, 'Unleashing the Rogue Elephant: September 11 and Letting the CIA Be the CIA' ch.29 in
Johnson and Wirtz, Intelligence and National Security: The Secret World of Spies, UB 250.I6
Sir David Omand, 'Ethical Guidelines in Using Secret Intelligence for Public Security',
Cambridge Review of International Affairs 19/4 (2006): 613-28.
43
Sir David Omand and Mark Phythian, Ethics and Intelligence: A Debate', IJICI 26/1 (2013): 38–
63.
D. L. Perry, 'Repugnant Philosophy: Ethics, Espionage, and Covert Action,' Journal of Conflict
Studies, 15/1 (1995): 92–115.
Sir Michael Quinlan, 'Just Intelligence: Prolegomena to an Ethical Theory.' INS 22/1 (2007): 113, also in Peter Hennessy (ed.), The New Protective State pp.97-122. UB 251.N3
Articles - Supplementary Reading
Ross Bellaby, 'What's the Harm? The Ethics of Intelligence Collection', INS 27/1 (2012): 93-117.
H Cohen & R Dudai, 'Human Rights Dilemmas in Using Informers to Combat Terrorism: The
Israeli-Palestinian Case'. Terrorism and Political Violence 17 (2005): 229-243
William E. Colby, 'Public Policy, Secret Action' Ethics and International Affairs 3 (1989):61-71.
GE Drexel. 'Ethics & Intelligence', Foreign Affairs 56/3 (1978): 624-642.
Paul G. Ericson, 'The Need for Ethical Norms,' Studies in Intelligence 36/5 (1992) pp.15-18.
M. Herman, 'Modern Intelligence Services: Have They a Place in Ethical Foreign Policies.' In
Agents for Change: Intelligence Services in the 21st Century, ed. Harold Shukman, 287-311.
Michael Herman, 'Intelligence Services and Ethics in the New Millenium,' Irish Studies in
International Affairs 10 (1999) pp.260-261.
Michael Herman, 'Modern Intelligence Services: Have They a Place in Ethical Foreign Policies'
in, Harold Shukman (ed.) Agents for Change: Intelligence Services in the 21st Century, pp.287311. UB 250.A4
A.S Hulnick & David W. Mattausch. 'Ethics and Morality in United States Secret Intelligence,'
Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 12/2 (1989) pp.509-522.
A. Hurrell, ‘‘There Are No Rules’ (George W. Bush): International Order After September 11th,’
International Relations 16/2 (2002).
Angela Gendron, 'Just War, Just Intelligence: An Ethical Framework for Foreign Espionage',
IJICI 18/3 (Fall 2005): 398-434
E.D. Godfrey, 'Ethics and Intelligence, ch.30 in Johnson and Wirtz, Intelligence and National
Security: The Secret World of Spies UB 250.I6
William R Johnson, 'Ethics and Clandestine Collection,' Studies in Intelligence 27/1 (1983):.1-8.
John, S.J. Langan, 'Moral Damage and the Justification of Intelligence Collection from Human
Sources,' Studies in Intelligence 25/2 (1981): 57-64.
Sir David Omand, 'Ethical Guidelines in Using Secret Intelligence for Public Security',
Cambridge Review of International Affairs 19/4 (2006): 613-28.
Kent Pekel, 'Integrity, Ethics, and the CIA: The Need for Improvement,' Studies in Intelligence
(1998): 85-94.
Allison Shelton, "Framing the Oxymoron: A New Paradigm for Intelligence Ethics," INS 26/1
(2011).
Tony Pfaff & Jeffrey Tiel, 'The ethics of espionage', Journal of Military Ethics 3/1, (2004):1-15.
G. Treverton, 'Imposing a Standard: Covert Action and American Democracy,' Ethics &
International Affairs 3 (1989): 27-43.
G Treverton, "Covert Action and Open Society." Foreign Affairs 65/5 (Summer 1987): 995-1014
44
15 Torture and Assassination
Seminar paper questions
15.1 Can an ethical case ever be made for assassination?
15.2 Can an ethical case ever be made for the use of torture during interrogation?
15a TORTURE – journal articles are the key thing here
Books - Core Reading
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Ch.24 UB 250.S6
M. Bagaric, J. Clarke, Torture: When the Unthinkable HV8593.B35
M. Cohn (ed.), The United States and torture: interrogation, incarceration, and abuse KM
562.22.U64
R. Crelinsten & A. Schmid, The Politics of Pain Boulder: Westview Press, 1994. NIL
S. Levinson (ed.) Torture, esp pp. 257-90. HF 4100.T6
Tara McKelvey, Monstering: Inside America's Policy of Secret Interrogations and Torture in the
Terror War, DS 79.767.D38 M35
D. Rejali, Torture and Democracy HF 4010.R3
J.E.S. Philips, None of us were like this before: American soldiers and torture HF 3300.P4
I. Resnick, Idrian and Cohn, Marjorie, The United States and Torture: Interrogation,
Incarceration, and Abuse: NEW YORK UNIV PR, 2012
P. Sands, Torture Team: Uncovering War Crimes in the Land of the Free JE 300.T3.S2
Michael Skerker, An Ethics of Interrogation, <e>book and HV8073.3.S57
Books - Supplementary Reading
Ian Cobain, Cruel Britannia: A Secret History of Torture, HV8599.G8 C62
M. Danner, Torture and Truth HF 3342.D3
Stuart Gottlieb (ed.), Debating Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Conflicting Perspectives on
Causes, Contexts, and Responses (Debating Politics) Sage 2013
J. Gray, M. Benvenisti & B. Ehrenreich, Abu Ghraib: The Politics of Torture HF 3342.A2
K. Greenberg, Torture Debate in America <e>book
K. Greenberg & J. Dratel, The Torture Papers HF 3342.T6 also e-resource
S. Grey, Ghost Plane UB 271.U6
M. Farrell, The prohibition of torture in exceptional circumstances KC218.T6 F37
J. Jaffer, A Singh Administration of Torture <e>book
M. Lazreg, Torture and the Twilight of Empire: From Algiers to Baghdad HF 3300.L2
45
Paul Lauritzen , The Ethics of Interrogation: Professional Responsibility in an Age of Terror,
Georgetown 2013
C. Mackey & G. Miller, The Interrogators: Inside the Secret War Against al Qaeda
DS371.414.M33
A.W. McCoy, A Question of Torture: CIA Interrogation, from the Cold War to the War on Terror
UB 271.U6
A. McCoy, Torture and Impunity: The US. Doctrine of Coercive Interrogation, HV 8599.U6 M34
R. Meeropol, America’s Disappeared: Secret Imprisonment, Detainees & the War on Terror JC
542.A63
T. Paglen & A.C. Thompson, Torture Taxi JK 468.I6 P3
Gareth Peirce, Dispatches from the Dark Side: On Torture and the Death of Justice HF 4010.P3
E. Saar, Inside the Wire : A Military Intelligence Soldier's Eyewitness Account of Life at
Guantanamo JE 300.T3.S2
P. Sands, Lawless World esp chs 7 & 9 JE 210.S2
S. Strasser, The Abu Ghraib Investigations: The Official Reports of the Independent Panel and
Pentagon on the Shocking Prisoner Abuse in Iraq HF 3342.A2
T. Williamson, Investigative Interviewing HF 3800.I6
Articles - Core Reading
Mark Bowden, 'The Dark Art of Interrogation,' Atlantic Monthly, 292/3 (2003): 51–76. [pro]
Mirko Bagaric and Julie Clarke, 'Not Enough Official Torture in the World? The Circumstances
in Which Torture Is Morally Justifiable,' University of San Francisco of Law Review 39 (2005)
pp.581-616. [see reply by Rumney below]
Gary Kern, 'Torture and Intelligence in the Global War on Terror', INS, 24/3 (2009): 429-57
P.D. Kenny, ‘The Meaning of Torture’, Polity 42/2 (2010): 131-155
Maureen Ramsay, 'Can the torture of terrorist suspects be justified?', The International Journal of
Human Rights 10/ 2 (2006): 103-19.
A. Roberts, ‘Review Essay: Torture and Incompetence in the “War on Terror”’, Survival, 49/1
(2007): 199-212.
Philip N.S. Rumney, 'Is Coercive Interrogation of Terrorist Suspects Effective? A Response to
Bagaric and Clarke,' University of San Francisco of Law Review 40 (2006) pp.479-513 [see
Bagaric and Clarke above]
H Schue, 'Torture', Philosophy and Public Affairs 7/2 (1978): 124-43
Jerome Slater, 'Tragic Choices in the War on Terrorism: Should We Try to Regulate and Control
Torture?', Political Science Quarterly 121/2 (2006) pp.191-215. [pro]
David Sussman, ‘What's Wrong with Torture?’ Philosophy and Public Affairs, 33/1 (2005):1–33
[pro]
Marcy Strauss, 'Torture'. New York Law School Law Review, 48/1 & 2 (2004) pp.201-274 [see
reply by Dershowitz above]
Articles - Supplementary Reading
R.J. Aldrich, ‘ "A skeleton in our cupboard" : British interrogation procedures in Northern
Ireland’, in R. Dover and M. Goodman (eds.) Learning from the secret past: cases from British
intelligence history UB 271.G7
F. Allhof, 'Terrorism and Torture', Int. Jnl of Applied Philosophy 17/1 (2003) pp.105-18.
T.E. Ayres, ' "Six Floors" of Detainee Operations in the Post-9/11 World', Parameters, 35/3
(2005): 3-53.
Alex Bellamy, 'No pain, no gain? Torture and ethics in the war on terror', International Affairs
82/1 (2006): 121-48.
46
Ruth Blakeley, 'Language, policy and the construction of a torture culture in the war on
terrorism', Review of International Studies 33/1 (2007): 373-94.
A.W. Clarke, ‘Rendition to Torture: A Critical Legal History’, Rutgers Law Review 62/1 (2009):
1-74.
C.R. Conrad & W.H. Moore, ‘What Stops the Torture?’, American Journal of Political Science
54/2 (2010): 459-476.
R. Crelinsten, 'The World of Torture: A Constructed Reality,' Theoretical Criminology 7/3
(2003): 293-318.
Alex Danchev, ‘Accomplicity: Britain, Torture and Terror’, The British Journal of Politics and
International Relations 8/4 (2006)
Alan M. Dershowitz, “Reply: Torture Without Visibility And Accountability Is Worse Than With
It,” University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 6 (2003):326. [reply to Kriemer,
see below]
Alan M. Dershowitz, 'The Torture Warrant: a Response to Professor Strauss", New York Law
School Law Review 48 (2003) pp.275-294 [reply to Strauss, see below]
H.A. Giroux, 'Education after Abu Graib: Revisiting Adorno's Politics of education' Cultural
Studies 18/6 (2004): 779-815.
G. Hooks & C. Mosher, 'Outrages against personal dignity: Rationalizing abuse and torture in the
war on terror' Social Forces, 83/4 (2005): 1627-46.
R. Jackson, 'Language, policy and the construction of a torture culture in the war on terrorism',
Review of International Studies 33/1 (2007) pp.353-371.
Seth Kreimer, 'Too Close to the Rack and the Screw: Constitutional Constraints on Torture in the
War on Terror,' University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law 6 (2003) 278 [see
reply by Dershowitz above]
A. Lankford, ‘Assessing the Obama Standard for Interrogations: An Analysis of Army Field
Manual 2-22.3’, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33/1 (2010): 20-35.
A.C. McCarthy 'Ticking Time bombs: Continuing the Torture Debate' National Review online
2005
D. Leebaert, 'The CIA in Unknown Terrain: ‘The Education of an Interrogator’, INS 27/4 (2012):
582-591.
Alfred W. McCoy, 'Cruel Science: CIA Torture and U.S. Foreign Policy', New England Journal
of Public Policy, 19/2 (2005): 1-54.
Assaf Meydani, 'The Interrogation Policy of the Israeli General Security Service: Between Law
and Politics', IJICI 21/1 (2008): 26-39.
Assaf Meydani, 'Security and Human Rights Policy: Israel and the Interrogation Case of 1999',
Contemporary Security Policy 28/3 (2007): 579-96.
R. Morgan' The Utilitarian Justification of Torture', Punishment and Society 2/2 (2000) 181-96
G.L. Neuman, 'Comment Counter-terrorist operations and the rule of law' European Journal of
International Law 15/5 (2004) 1019-29
A.W. McCoy, 'Cruel Science: CIA Torture and U.S. Foreign Policy', New England Journal of
Public Policy, 19/2 (2005): 1-54.
John T. Parry, 'What Is Torture, Are We Doing It, and What If We Are?' University of Pittsburgh
Law Review 64 (2003): 237-262.
Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 13/4 (2007) is a special issue of eight essays
focusing on torture.
15b ASSASSINATION – again almost all the material is articles
47
Books
Fabian Escalante, The Cuba Project E 183.8.C9
M.L. Gross, Moral Dilemmas of Modern War: Torture, Assassination, and Blackmail in an Age of
Asymmetric Conflict CUP 2010
R.W. Haas: Enter the Past Tense: My Secret Life as a CIA Assassin JK468.I6 H33 & JC 842.H2
L. Johnson, Bombs, Bugs, Drugs and Thugs, UB 271.U6.J75 <e>book
B. Stockton, Flawed Patriot UB 271.U6
Articles - Core Reading
D.S. Byman, 'Time to Kill? Assassinations and Foreign Policy,' 85/2 Foreign Affairs (2006)
pp.95-111.
M.L. Gross, 'Fighting by other means in the Mideast: a Critical Analysis of Israel's Assassination
Policy', Political Studies 51/2 (2003) pp.350-68 [see the reply by Statman below].
Daniel Statman (2003) 'The Morality of Assassination: A Response to Gross' Political Studies
51/4 (2003):, 775–779. [see Gross above]
J.T. Richelson, "When Kindness Fails: Assassination as a National Security Option." IJICI 15/2
(Summer 2002): 243-274.
T. Ward, 'Norms and Security: The Case of International Assassination', International Security
25/1 (2000): 105-33.
Articles - Supplementary Reading
Louis Ren Beres, 'On Assassination, Preemption, and Counterterrorism: The View from
International Law', IJICI 21/4 (2008): 694-725.
B. Berkowtiz, 'Is Assassination an Option?', Hoover Digest 2002, 1 at http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/4477731.html
R.J. Bruemmer, "The Prohibition on Assassination: A Legal & Ethical Analysis." In In the Name
of Intelligence: (eds.) Hayden B. Peake and Samuel Halpern, 137-165. NIL
J. Claburn, "Public Constraints on Assassination as an Instrument of U.S. Foreign Policy." IJICI
7/1 (1994): 97-109.
Steven R. David & Yael Stein, 'Israel's Policy of Targeted Killings,' Ethics and International
Affairs 17/2 (2003) pp.111-126.
K. Eichensehr, 'On the Offensive: Assassination Policy Under International Law', Harvard
International Review 25/3 (Fall 2003)
Z. Iqvbal & C. Zorn, ‘Sic Semper Tyrannis? Power, Repression and Assassination since the
Second World War 2’, The Journal of Politics, 68/3 (2006): 489-501.
B.M. Johnson, "Executive Order 12,333: The Permissibility of an American Assassination of a
Foreign Leader" Cornell International Law Journal 25/2 (Spring 1992): 401-436.
Asa Kasher & Amos Yadlin, 'Assassination and Preventive Killing', SAIS Review, 25/1 (2005)
pp.41-57.
D. Krezmer, ‘Targeted Killing of Suspected Terrorists: Extra-judicial Executions or Legitimate
Means of Defence?’, European Journal of International Law 16/2 (2005) pp.171-212.
C. Lotrione, 'When to target Leaders', Washington Quarterly 26/3 (2003): 73-86
Eric Patterson & Teresa Casale, 'Targeting Terror: The Ethical and Practical Implications of
Targeted Killing,' IJICI 18/4 (2005-2006) pp.638-652.
48
D. Pickard, ‘Legitimizing assassination Terrorism the CIA and international law’, Georgia
Journal of International and Comparative Law 30/1 (2001): 3-34
Bruce A. Ross, 'The Case for Targeting Leadership in War,' Naval War College Review 46/1
(1993) pp.73-93.
M.N. Schmitt, "State-Sponsored Assassination in International and Domestic Law" Yale Journal
of International Law 17 (1992): 609-685.
H.A. Wachtel, ‘Targeting Osama bin laden: examining the legality of assassination as a tool of
US foreign policy’, Duke Law Journal, 55/3 (2005): 677-710.
T. Ward, 'The New Age of Assassination', SAIS Review 25/1 (2005) pp.27-39.
Patricia Zengel, 'Assassination and the Law of Armed Conflict,' Military Law Review 131 (1991)
pp.23-55.
M. Wiebe, ‘Assassination in Domestic and International Law; The CIA, State sponsored
Terrorism and the right to self defence’, Tulsa Journal of Comparative and International Law,
11/3 (2003): 365-404.
16 Reading Week - no lectures or seminars
E: INTELLIGENCE AND THE NEW WARFARE
17. Covert Action as Culture
Case Study: the CIA funding of Art, Ballet and Opera
This week we look at a case study. Tom Braden’s CIA International Organisations
Division and its efforts to deploy culture against Soviet front organisations in what has
been called the “Battle of the Festivals”. Artists assisted by these cultural programmes
included Jackson Pollack and Marc Rothko. Predictably, the programme proved
somewhat controversial.
Seminar paper questions
17.1 How far do you accept the view of Francis Stoner Saunders that those who pay the
piper call the tune?
17.2 How far would you agree with Coleman's description of CIA cultural activities as a
'liberal conspiracy'?
17.3 What did the CIA hope to achieve through its cultural programmes, and who were
its targets?
17.4 To what extent does covert action create problems for democratic peace theory?
[see last section of this part of the reading list below for this subject]
Books - Core Reading
49
The book that started the argument is -
F.S. Saunders, Who Paid the Piper? The CIA and the Cultural Cold War. E 812.5.S2
D. Caute, The Dancer Defects D 843.C2
R. Jeffreys-Jones, The CIA and American Democracy UB 271.U6
H. Krabbendam and Giles Scott-Smith (eds.), The Cultural Cold War in Western Europe, 19451960 (London: Frank Cass, 2003) [good on Saunders] JE 224.C79
H. Laville, Cold War Women, JD 195.42.L2
H. Laville & H Wilford, The US Government, Citizen Groups and the Cold War JB 2142.U8
W.S. Lucas, Freedom’s War: The US Crusade Against the Soviet Union E 183.8.R9
H. Laville & H Wilford, The US Government, Citizen Groups and the Cold War JB 2142.U8
W.S. Lucas, Freedom’s War: The US Crusade Against the Soviet Union E 183.8.R9
G. Scott-Smith, The Politics of Apolitical Culture: The Congress of Cultural Freedom, the CIA
and Post-War American Hegemony. JE 224.S2
H. Wilford, The Mighty Wurlitzer: How the CIA Played America [critiques Saunders] UB
271.U6
Books - Supplementary Reading
R.J. Aldrich, The Hidden Hand, chapters 5 & 16 E 183.8.G7
V.R. Berghahn, America and the Intellectual Cold Wars in Europe: Shepherd Stone Between
Philanthropy, Academy, and Diplomacy E 183.7.B3
P. Coleman, The Liberal Conspiracy: The Congress for Cultural Freedom and the Struggle for
the Mind of Postwar Europe. D 839.2.C6
R. Helms, A Look Over My Shoulder, UB 271.U6
W. Hixson, Parting the Curtain: Propaganda, Culture, and the Cold War E 812.5.H4
L. Johnson, Strategic Intelligence: Volume III. Covert Action: Behind the Veils of Secret Foreign
Policy esp chapter 6 UB 250.S6385 REF ONLY
J. Kotek, Students and the Cold War. JD 301.K6
C. Meyer, Facing Reality: From World Federalism to the CIA UB 271.U6
S. Mickelson, America's Other Voice: The Story of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty. HD
8561.M42
M. Nelson, War of the Black Heavens: The Battles of Western Broadcasting in the Cold War HD
6300.N3
Karen Paget, Patriotic Betrayal: The Inside Story of the CIA's Secret Campaign to Enroll American
Students in the Crusade Against Communism (Yale 2015)
G.D. Rawnsley, (ed). Cold-War Propaganda in the 1950s D 843.R2
G. Treverton, Covert Action: The Limits of Intervention in the Postwar World UB 271.U6
H. Wilford, The CIA, the British Left and the Cold War: Calling the Tune? JE 242.W4
Articles - Core Reading
Really Important - WS Lucas, 'Revealing the Parameters of Opinion: An Interview with
Frances Stonor Saunders,' Intelligence and National Security 18, 2 (2003): 15-40, for an
interview with Saunders from January 2002.
W.S. Lucas, 'Beyond Freedom, Beyond Control: Approaches to Culture and the State-Private
Network in the Cold War.' Intelligence and National Security 18, 2 (Summer 2003): 53-72.
M. Warner, 'Origins of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, 1949-50.' Studies in Intelligence 38/5
(1995): 89-98.
50
Articles - Supplementary Reading
R.J. Aldrich, 'OSS, CIA and European Unity: The American Committee on United Europe, 19491960', Diplomacy and Statecraft, 8/1 (March 1997): 184-227.
J. Kotek, 'Youth Organizations as a Battlefield in the Cold War.' Intelligence and National
Security 18/2 (Summer 2003): 168-191.
H. Laville, 'The Committee of Correspondence: CIA Funding of Women's Groups, 1952-1967.'
INS 12/1 (Jan. 1997): 104-121.
W.S. Lucas, 'Campaigns of Truth: The Psychological Strategy Board and American Ideology,
1951-1953.' International History Review 18/2 (1996): 253-394.
W.S. Lucas, 'Master and Servant? The US Government and the Founding of the British
Association for American Studies,' European Journal of American Culture (2002)
W.S. Lucas, 'Mobilising Culture: The CIA and State-Private Networks in the Early Cold War' in
D. Carter and R. Clifton (eds.), Global Horizons (London: Macmillan, 2002) NIL
W.S. Lucas, 'Beyond Diplomatic History: Propaganda, Ideology, and US Foreign Policy,' in G.
Rawnsley (ed.), Cold War Propaganda in the 1950s D 843.R2
W.S. Lucas, 'Negotiating Freedom', Libertas, online at http://www.libertas.bham.ac.uk/publications/articles/Negotiating%20Freedom.pdf
J.P.C. Matthews, 'The West's Secret Marshall Plan for the Mind.' IJICI 16/3 (Fall 2003): 409-427.
K. Paget, 'From Stockholm to Leiden: The CIA's Role in the Formation of the International
Student Conference.' INS 18/2 (2003): 134-167.
S.J. Parry-Giles, 'The Eisenhower Administration's Conceptualization of the USIA: The
Development of Overt and Covert Propaganda Strategies.' Presidential Studies Quarterly 24
(Spring 1994): 263-276.
E. Pullin, 'Money Does Not Make Any Difference to the Opinions That We Hold' : India, the
CIA, and the Congress for Cultural Freedom, 1951-58’, INS 26/2-3 (2011): 377-398
Tony Shaw, ‘The Politics of Cold War Culture’, Journal of Cold War Studies, 3/3 (2001): 59-76.
Edward Said, 'Hey Mister, You Want to Buy a Dirty Book?', [a really fun review of Saunders by
the instigator of Orientalism] London Review of Books, 30 Sept 1999, 21/19.
G. Scott-Smith, ''The Masterpieces of the Twentieth Century' Festival and the Congress for
Cultural Freedom: Origins and Consolidation, 1947-52.' INS 15/1 (2000): 121-168.
G. Scott-Smith, ' "A Radical Democratic Political Offensive": Melvin J. Lasky, Der Monat, and
the Congress of Cultural Freedom.' Journal of Contemporary History 35/2 (Apr. 2000): 263-280.
M. Warner, 'Sophisticated Spies: CIA's Links to Liberal Anti-Communists, 1949-1967.' IJICI 9/4
(1996/97): 425-433.
Or if you don't like Cold War history – then try the debate over Covert
Action and Democratic Peace Theory William Avilés, 'The Democratic-Peace Thesis and U.S. Relations with Colombia and
Venezuela', Latin American Perspectives, 32/3 (2005): 33-59.
W.J. Daugherty, ‘Covert Action: Strengths and Weaknesses’, in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford
Handbook of National Security Intelligence
A.B. Downes and M.L. Lilley, ‘Overt Peace, Covert War?: Covert Intervention and the
Democratic Peace’, Security Studies, 19/2 (2010): 266–306.
Tarak Barkawi and Mark Laffey, "The Imperial Peace: Democracy, Force, and Globalization,"
European Journal of International Relations 5/4 (1999).
51
T. Barkawi, ‘War inside the Free World: The Democratic Peace and the Cold War in the Third
World” in Tarak Barkawi and Mark Laffey (eds.) Democracy, Liberalism, and War: The
Democratic Peace Debate (Lynne Rienner, 2001), pp.107-128 – see web-site.
Christopher I. Clement, Enmity over Amity: US Belligerence toward Latin American Elected
Governments, Presented at the International Studies Association 2008 Annual Conference – see
web-site.
David P. Forsythe, 'Democracy, War, and Covert Action', Journal of Peace Research, 29/4
(1992): 385-395.
P. James and G.E. Mitchell II, ‘Targets of Covert Pressure: The Hidden Victims of The
Democratic Peace’, International Interactions, 21/1 (1995) 85-107.
J. Kim, 'Democratic Peace and Covert War: A Case Study of the U.S. Covert War in Chile;,
Journal of International and Area Studies, 12/1, (2005): 25-47 - see web-site.
Mary Lauren Lilley and Alexander B. Downes, 'Covert Action, Democratic Peace, And The Cold
War', Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, San
Francisco, CA, March 26-29, 2008. [On module web site]
Sebastian Rosato, 'The Flawed Logic of Democratic Peace Theory', American Political Science
Review, 97/4 (November 2003).
18 Intelligence and Deception D-Day case study
Seminar paper questions
18.1 Why was the D-Day Deception campaign so successful?
18.2 What role does intelligence play in a campaign of military deception?
Books - Core Reading
C. Andrew, The Defence of the Realm, MI5, pp.287-300 UB 271.G7
J.C. Masterman, The Double-Cross System in the War of 1939-1945 D 810.S7
Books - Supplementary Reading
M. Barbier, D-Day Deception: Operation Fortitude and the Normandy Invasion
(Praeger Security International) 2007
J. Bowyer Bell & Barton Whaley Cheating and Deception BJ 1421.B69
C. Cruickshank, Deception in World War II. D 744.C7
M. Handel (ed.) Strategic Deception in the Second World War D 810.S7
T. Harris, Garbo: The Spy Who Saved D-Day D 810.S8
R. Hesketh, Fortitude: The D-Day Deception Campaign UB 271.G7
T. Holt, The Deceivers: Allied Military Deception in the Second World War D 744.H64
M. Howard, Strategic Deception. Vol. 5 of FH Hinsley, et. al. British Intelligence in the Second
World War: Its Influence on Strategy and Operations. D 810.S7
J. Levine, Operation Fortitude, D 756.5.N6
B. MacIntyre, Doublecross D 810.S7 M244
52
R. Miller, Codename TRICYCLE D 810.S8
C. Moran, Classified, ch.7. JN329.S4 M67
ES Montagu, Beyond Top Secret Ultra. D 810.C88
J. Pujol, with Nigel West. Garbo . D 810.S8
N. Rankin, Genius for Deception, U 165.R3
M. Seaman, Garbo: The spy who saved D-Day D 810.S8
D. Wheatley, The Deception Planners: My Secret War. NIL
Articles - Core Reading
Bowyer J. Bell, 'Toward a Theory of Deception,' IJICI 16/2 (2003): 244-279.
B. Whaley, 'Towards a general theory of deception', Journal of Strategic Studies, 5/1 (1982): 17892.
Whaley, B. & Jeffrey Busby, 'Detecting deception: Practice, practitioners, and theory', Trends in
Organized Crime, 6/1 (2000): 73-105
J. Ferris, 'The Intelligence-Deception Complex: An Anatomy.' INS 4/4 (1989): 719-734.
J. Ferris, ''FORTITUDE' in Context: The Evolution of British Military Deception in Two World
Wars, 1914-1945.' In Paradoxes of Strategic Intelligence: Essays in Honor of Michael I. Handel,
eds. Richard K. Betts and Thomas G. Mahnken, 117-165. UB 250.P34
Articles - Supplementary Reading
R. Bennett, 'Fortitude, Ultra and the 'Need to Know.'' INS 4/3 (1989): 482-502.
T.L. Cubbage, II. 'The Success of Operation Fortitude: Hesketh's History of Strategic Deception.'
INS 2/3 (1987): 327-346.
D.C. Daniela & K.L. Herbigb, 'Propositions on military deception', Journal of Strategic Studies,
5/1 (1982): 155-77.
M.I. Handel, 'Introduction: Strategic and Operational Deception in Historical Perspective,' INS
2/3 (July 1987) - [special issue on deception]
Michael Handel, 'Intelligence and the Problem of Strategic Surprise,' Journal of Strategic Studies
7/3 (1984): 229-81.
Richard J. Hueur, 'Strategic Deception and Counter-Deception', International Studies Quarterly
25/2 (1981): 294-327.
K.J. Müller, 'A German Perspective on Allied Deception Operations in the Second World War.'
INS 2/3 (1987): 301-26.
B. Whaley and J Busby, 'Detecting Deception: Practice, Practitioners, and Theory,' in R. Godson
& J. Wirtz (eds.), Strategic Denial and Deception: The Twenty-First Century
19 Intelligence for Peace:
NGOs, Peacemaking and Peacekeeping
Seminar paper questions
19.1 Does intelligence-gathering produce a safer and more stable world? Or does it
provoke neighbours, while encouraging policy-makers in the belief that they are
omniscient ?
53
19.2 Is a permanent UN intelligence agency desirable? If so, is it feasible?
19.3 What kinds of intelligence support is required for peacekeeping operations?
19.4 Examine the role of intelligence officers as clandestine peace brokers? What
advantages and disadvantages do they carry?
Books - Core Reading
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Chs. 28 & 29 UB 250.S6
Ben de Jong et al (eds.) Peacekeeping Intelligence: Emerging Concepts for the Future UB 250.P3
David Carment & Martin Rudner, eds., Peacekeeping Intelligence: New Players, Extended
Boundaries L UB 250.P4
Books - Supplemetary Reading
H Carmel (ed.), Intelligence for Peace UB 250.I6
Klass van Walraven (ed), Early Warning and Conflict Prevention JZ6368.E18
Cees Wiebes. Intelligence and The War in Bosnia 1992-1995 DR 1313.7.M54.W5
Articles - Core Reading
W. Dorn, ‘United Nations Peacekeeping Intelligence’ in Loch Johnson (ed.) The Oxford
Handbook of National Security Intelligence
Bassey Ekpe, 'The Intelligence Assets of the United Nations: Sources, Methods, and
Implications', IJICI 20/3 (2007): 377 - 400.
Paul Johnston, 'No Cloak and Dagger Required: Intelligence Support to UN Peacekeeping,' INS,
12/4 (1997).
L. Nathan, ‘The Intelligence Requirement of International Mediation’, INS, 29/2 (2014): 208-227.
T. Quiggen, 'Response to 'No Cloak and Dagger', INS 13/4 (Winter 1998): 203-8.
P. Shetler-Jones, 'Intelligence in Integrated UN Peacekeeping Missions: The Joint Mission
Analysis Centre', International Peacekeeping 15/4 (2008): 517-527.
On peace-brokers see –
A. Mumford, ‘Covert Peacemaking : Clandestine Negotiations and Backchannels with the
Provisional IRA during the Early 'Troubles', 1972-76’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth
History 39/4 (2011): 633-648.
L.Scott, 'Secret Intelligence, Covert Action and Clandestine Diplomacy', INS 19/2 (2004) 322-34.
S. Shpiro, 'The CIA as Middle East Peace Broker?', Survival 45/2, (2003): 91-112.
John D. Stempel, 'Covert Action and Diplomacy,' IJICI 20/1 (2007): 122-135.
Articles - Supplementary Reading
D.A. Charters, 'Out of the Closet: Intelligence Support for UN Peacekeeping', in DA Charters (ed.)
Intelligence. and Peacekeeping. Clementsport, NS: Canadian Peacekeeping
S. Chesterman, ‘Does the UN have intelligence?’, Survival, 48/3 (2006): 149-64.
S. Chesterman, 'Shared Secrets: Intelligence And Collective Security', Lowy Institute, Paper 10
(2006) available at http://iilj.org/research/documents/chesterman_shared_secrets_2006.pdf
54
William E. Demars, 'Hazardous Partnership: NGOs and United States Intelligence in Small Wars',
IJICI 14/2 (2001) pp.193-222.
A. Walter Dorn and David J.H. Bell, 'Intelligence and Peacekeeping: The UN Operation in the
Congo 1960-64', International Peacekeeping 2/1 (1995) pp.11-33.
A Walter Dorn, 'The Cloak and the Blue Beret: Limitations on Intelligence in UN Peacekeeping.
IJICI Vol. 12, 1998 also at - http://www.rmc.ca/academic/gradrech/dorn9_e.html
A.W. Dorn, ‘Intelligence-led Peacekeeping: The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti
(MINUSTAH), 2006-07’, INS 24/6 (2009): 805-835.
Pär Eriksson, 'Intelligence in peacekeeping operations', IJICI 10/1 (1997) pp.1-18.
Anna Fitzgerald, 'Linkages Between SSR and Peacekeeping Intelligence', Journal of Security
Sector Management, 1/3 (2003): 1-8.
D. Hannay, ‘Intelligence and International Agencies’, in Shukman (ed.), Agents for
Change, Intelligence services in the 21st century, 179.ff.
P.M. Norheim-Martinsen & J. Aasland Ravndal, 'Towards Intelligence-Driven Peace Operations?
The Evolution of UN and EU Intelligence Structures', International Peacekeeping, 18/4 (2011):
454-467.
M. Ramjoué, 'Improving UN Intelligence through Civil–Military Collaboration: Lessons from the
Joint Mission Analysis Centres', International Peacekeeping 18/4 (2011): 468-484.
Sir David Ramsbotham, 'Analysis and Assessment for Peacekeeping Operations, INS 10/4 (1995)
pp.162-75.
Martin Rudner, 'The Future of Canada's Defence Intelligence', IJICI 15/4 (2002) pp.540-564.
P. Shetler-Jones, 'Intelligence in Integrated UN Peacekeeping Missions: The Joint Mission
Analysis Centre', International Peacekeeping, 15/4 (2008): 517-27.
H. Smith, 'Intelligence and UN Peacekeeping', Survival, 36/3 (1994): 174-92.
R.D. Steele, 'Peacekeeping Intelligence and Information Peacekeeping', IJICI 19/3 (2006):519-37
A. Waller & D. Bell, 'Intelligence and Peacekeeping: The UN Operation in the Congo, 1960-64',
International Peacekeeping, 2/1 (1999).
P. Wilson, 'The contribution of intelligence services to security sector reform', Conflict, Security
and Development 5/1 (2005): 87-107.
M. Zenko & R.R. Friedman, ‘UN Early Warning for Preventing Conflict’, International
Peacekeeping, 18/1 (2011): 21-37.
Especially for Assessed Essay 19.1 - stability and risk
*M. Herman, Intelligence Service in the Information Age, Ch.9, UB 250.H47
R. Jeffreys-Jones, Cloak and Dollar: A History of American Secret Intelligence UB 271.U6
J. Rusbridger, The Intelligence Game, UB 270.R87
S. Sagan, The Limits of Safety, [use section on Alaskan U-2 sniffer flight of 1962] U 264.3.S24
F: THE FUTURE OF INTELLIGENCE
55
20 What is to be done?
Reforming Intelligence in a Globalising World
Seminar paper questions
20.1 What sort of challenges does globalization offer to secret services?
20.2 Examine the contention that present day secret services remain locked in obsolete
Cold War bureaucratic forms and have not yet addressed the perils of globalisation.
20.3 Why did the United States encountered such difficulty in reforming its intelligence
community to meet new challenges after 2001?
20.4 'Only the privatisation of intelligence will permit secret services to achieve the
fluidity required to deal with the transnational challenges the globalisation has helped to
create'. Discuss.
A. GLOBALISATION ISSUES
Books - Core Reading
Andrew, Aldrich & Wark (eds), Secret Intelligence Ch.30 UB 250.S6
TC Bruneau & S Boraz, Reforming Intelligence UB 250.R4 <e>book
S Tsang (ed.), Intelligence and Human Rights in the Era of Global Terrorism JE 300.T3.I6
G. Treverton, Intelligence for an Age of Terror JK468.I6 T723 Ch.2
Books - Supplementary Reading
G. Adams, Buying National Security, JE 215.42.A3
B.J. Barber, Jihad vs McWorld JE 213.B2
B.J. Barber, Fear's Empire: War Terrorism and Democracy JE 242.B2
Deborah G. Barger RAND Toward a Revolution in Intelligence Affairs Available at http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR242.pdf NIL
Simon Chesterman, One Nation under Surveillance HD 5011.C4
H Friman & P Andreas (eds) The Illicit Global Economy and State Power HY 100.I5
H.R Friman, Narcodiplomacy, HV5801.F75
Roger Scruton, The West and the Rest JE 210.S2
B Schneier, Beyond Fear JE 242.S2
F Varese, The Russian Mafia HF 3103.1.V2
Articles - Core Reading
56
Wilhelm Agrell, 'The Next 100 Years? Reflections on the Future of Intelligence, INS 27/1 (2012):
118-132.
Sir David Omand, 'Into the Future: A Comment on Agrell and Warner', INS 27/1 (2012): 154-6.
R.J. Aldrich, 'Beyond the Vigilant State? Globalization and Intelligence', Review of International
Studies, 35/4 (2009).
Zygmunt Bauman, 'Reconnaissance Wars of the Planetary Frontierland', Theory, Culture &
Society 19/4 (2002): 81–90.
Myriam Dunn Cavelty and Victor Mauer, ‘Postmodern Intelligence: Strategic Warning in an Age
of Reflexive Intelligence’, Security Dialogue, 40/2 (2009): 123-144.
Stevyn Gibson, 'In the Eye of the Perfect Storm: Re-imagining Reforming and Refocusing
Intelligence for Risk, Globalisation and Changing Societal Expectation', Risk Management 7/4
(2005): 23-41.
Flemming Splidsboel Hansen, 'An Argument for Reflexivity in Intelligence Work', INS 27/3
(2012): 349-370.
W.J. Lahneman, ‘The Need for a New Intelligence Paradigm’, IJICI 23/2 (2010): 201-25.
W.J. Lahneman, ‘‘Is a Revolution in Intelligence Affairs Occurring?,’’ IJICI 20/1, (2007): 1–17.
P. Maddrell, 'Failing Intelligence: U.S. Intelligence in the Age of Transnational Threats', IJICI
22/2 (2009): 195-220.
K.A. O'Brien,. Managing national security and law enforcement intelligence in a globalised
world. Review of International Studies, 35 (2009): 903-915.
Z. Shiraz & R. Aldrich, ‘Globalization’ in R. Dover, M. Goodman and C. Hillebrand, Routledge
Companion to Intelligence Studies, pp.264-74.
M. Warner, 'Reflections on Technology and Intelligence Systems', INS 27/1 (2012): 133-153.
Articles - Supplementary Reading
W.J. Lahneman, ‘The Need for a New Intelligence Paradigm’, IJICI 23/2 (2010): 201-25.
Peter Gill, 'Not Just Joining the Dots But Crossing the Borders and Bridging the Voids:
Constructing Security Networks after 11 September 2001', Policing & Society, 16, 1 (March
2006): 27-49
Gregory F. Treverton, “Intelligence and the Market State,” Studies in Intelligence, No. 10
(Winter-Spring 2001)
Welsey K. Wark, 'Learning to Live with Intelligence', INS 18/4 (Winter 2003) pp.1-14.
B. POST 9/11 EFFORTS AT REFORM in the USA
Books - Core Reading
R. Dover and M. Goodman (eds.) Spinning Intelligence JD 305.S74
William E Odom, Fixing Intelligence: For a More Secure America. JC 704.2.O33
Anonymous, [Michael Scheuer], Imperial Hubris JE 300.T3.S2
R. Posner, Preventing Surprise Attacks: Intelligence Reform in the Wake of 9/11 UB 250.P6
J Sims & B Gerber, Transforming US Intelligence UB 250.T7
*WK Wark, Twenty-first Century Intelligence JC 842.T9
Books - Supplementary Reading
R. Baer, See No Evil: The True Story of a Groundsoldier in the CIA’s Counter-Terrorism Wars
JC 701.42.B2 .
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L.K. Johnson, The Threat on the Horizon, <e>book and JK 468.I6 J67
William J. Lahneman, Keeping U.S. Intelligence Effective: The Need for a Revolution in Intelligence
Affairs (Scarecrow 2011)
Paul Pillar, Intelligence and U.S. Foreign Policy: Iraq, 9/11 and Misguided Reform JK468.I6 P55
R Posner, Uncertain Shield: the US Intelligence System in the Throes of Reform UB 271.U6
Thomas Quiggin, Seeing the Invisible: National Security Intelligence in an Uncertain Age
<e>book
A. J. Rossmiller: Still Broken: A Recruit's Inside Account of Intelligence Failures, From Baghdad
to the Pentagon JC 842.R6
R. Russell, Sharpening Strategic Intelligence Why the CIA Gets It Wrong and What Needs to Be
Done to Get It Right, UB 271.U6
K. Williams & D. Deletant, Security Intelligence Services in New Democracies: The Czech
Republic, Slovakia and Romania, UB 250.W4
Articles - Core Reading
RK Betts, ‘Fixing Intelligence’ Foreign Affairs, 81 (January/February 2002)
RK Betts, 'The New Politics of Intelligence: Will Reforms Work This Time?' Foreign Affairs,
83/3 (May/June 2004)
C. Cogan, 'Hunters not Gatherers: Intelligence in the 21st Century' Ch.11. In LV Scott and PD
Jackson (eds.) Understanding Intelligence in the 21st Century [this book is also Intelligence and
National Security, 20/1 (2004)] UB 250.U53
G. Hastedt, 'Foreign policy by commission: Reforming the intelligence community', INS 22/4
(2007): 443-472.
A.S. Hulnick, ‘Intelligence Reform 2007: Fix or Fizzle?’ IJICI 20/4 (2007): 567-582.
A.S. Hulnick, 'Intelligence Reform 2008: Where to from Here?', IJICI 21/4 (2008): 621-634.
Articles - Supplementary Reading
W. Daugherty, 'Review Essay: Gregory F. Treverton, Intelligence for an Age of Terror', INS 27/3
(2012): 423-429.
H Fessenden, 'The Limits of Intelligence Reform', Foreign Affairs 84 (November- December
2005): 106-20
M. Herman, 'The Future of Intelligence After September 11', International Relations, 16/2
(August 2002)
Richards J. Heuer, 'Limits of Intelligence Analysis', Orbis 49/1 (Winter 2005)
Arthur S. Hulnick, 'Intelligence Reform 2007: Fix or Fizzle?', IJICI 20/4 (2007): 567-582.
W. Rees & R.J. Aldrich, 'Contending Cultures of Counter-Terrorism: Transatlantic Convergence
or Divergence', International Affairs 81/5 (October 2005)
P.R. Neumann and M. L. R. Smith, 'Missing the Plot? Intelligence and Discourse Failure' Orbis
49/1 (Winter 2005)
C. PRIVATISATION OF INTELLIGENCE
Books – Core Reading
G. Adams, Buying National Security, JE 215.42.A3
RY Pelton, Licensed to Kill JC 704.2.P3
Priest, D & Arkin, Top Secret America HV6432.P73
J Scahill, Blackwater the rise of the world's most powerful mercenary army JC 704.2.S2
T. Shorrock, Spies for Hire UB 271.U6
Adam White, The Politics of Private Security HF 3711.W4
58
Books - Supplementary Reading
S. Chesterman, and A. Fisher, (eds) Private Security, Public Order: The Outsourcing of Public
Services and its Limits, KM 614.C43
Shawn Engbrecht, America’s Covert Warriors: Inside the World of Private Military
Contractors Potomac 2009
Melvin A. Goodman, National Insecurity, City Lights 2013
P. W. Singer, Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry, HD9743.A2 S56
and HP 957.S4
Articles - Core Reading
S. Chesterman, ‘‘We Can’t Spy... If We Can’t Buy!’: The Privatisation of Intelligence and the
Limits of Outsourcing ‘Inherently Governmental Functions’’, The European Journal of
International Law 19/5 (2008): 1055-74.
P.R. Keefe, ‘Privatized Spying: The Emerging Intelligence Industry’, in Loch Johnson (ed.) The
Oxford Handbook of National Security Intelligence UB 250.O9
J.D. Michaels, ‘All the President's Spies: Private-Public Intelligence Partnerships in the War on
Terror’, 96 Cal. L. Rev. 901 (2008).
A. Martin & P. Wilson, 'The Value of Non-Governmental Intelligence: Widening the Field', INS,
23/6 (2008): 767-776.
Articles - Supplementary Reading
T.C. Bruneau, ‘Contracting Out Security’, Journal of Strategic Studies (2012 iFirst) pp.1-28
R.S. Cohen, ‘Putting a Human and Historical Face on Intelligence Contracting’, Orbis 54/2
(2010): 232-251
L. Dickinson, ‘Outsourcing Covert Activities’, Journal of National Security Law & Policy 5/2
(2012): 521-37
M. Hansen, ‘Intelligence Contracting: On the Motivations, Interests and Capabilities of Core
Personnel Contractors in the US Intelligence Community’, INS (2012):1-24
A. Hulnick, ‘Risky Business. Private Sector Intelligence in the United States’, Harvard
International Review 24/3 (2002) pp.68-72.
A. Hulnick, ‘The Uneasy Relationship Between Intelligence and Private Industry’, IJICI 9/1
(1996) pp.17-31.
I. Kierpaul, ‘The Mad Scramble of Congress, Lawyers, and Law Students After Abu Ghraib: The
Rush to Bring Private Military Contractors to Justice’ University of Toledo Law Review 39/2
(2008): 407-42.
W.J. Lahneman, ‘Outsourcing the IC’s Stovepipes?’, IJICI 16/4 (2003): 573-93.
J.D. Michaels, ‘All the President’s Spies: Private-Public Intelligence Partnerships in the War on
Terror’, California Law Review 96/4 (2008): 901-66.
J.D. Michaels, ‘Beyond Accountability: The Constitutional, Democratic, and Strategic Problems
With Privatising War’, Washington Law Review 82/3 (2004) pp.1001-127.
A. Rathmell, ‘ Privatising Intelligence’, Cambridge Review of International Affairs 11/2 (1998):
199-211.
L.S. Schooner, ‘Contractor Atrocities at Abu Ghraib: Compromised Accountability in a
Streamlined, Outsourced Government’, Stanford Law & Policy Review 16/2 (2005): 549-72
D. Van Puyvelde, ‘ Intelligence Accountability and the Role of Public Interest Groups in the US’,
INS 28/1(2012): 1-20.
Richard R. Valcourt, 'Controlling U.S. Hired Hands.' IJICI 2/2 (1988): 163-178.
G.J. Voelz, ‘Contractors and Intelligence: The Private Sector in the Intelligence Community’,
IJICI 22/4 (2009): 586-613.
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THE VIGILANT STATE: THE POLITICS OF INTELLIGENCE AND SECRECY