Low Carbon Vehicle
Technology Project
www.advantagewm.co.uk
Contents
Foreword 3
Introduction to the Low Carbon
Vehicle Technology Project
4
Partners 4
Batteries and Battery Packs 6
Drive Motors 7
Power Electronics
8
High Voltage Electrical
Distribution Systems
9
Auxiliary Power Units 10
Vehicle Supervisory Control 11
Lightweight Structures 12
Key Technology Achievements
14
Aerodynamic Performance 16
HVAC and System Cooling 18
Reduction of Parasitic Losses
20
Waste Energy Recovery and
Alternative Energy Storage
21
Vehicle Dynamics and
Traction Control 22
Human-Machine
Interface Engineering
23
Vehicle Integration and Validator Platforms
24
Key Contacts
26
02
Foreword
The task facing automotive designers in reducing CO2 emissions
from a new car fleet average of 160 gm/km to 40 gm/km in the
space of a little over two decades is stimulating some of the
biggest technological changes the industry has ever seen.
Engineers must invent technologies that continue to deliver all
the compelling advantages that road vehicles enjoy over other
forms of land transport; convenience, affordability, comfort and
enjoyment, and which have resulted in them enjoying 90% market share for decades.
The cars of the future have to be desirable as well as incredibly efficient.
These changes mean huge opportunities for companies who can offer the best solutions,
and will also open up opportunities for newcomers as the incumbents’ established
advantages are at least partly eroded by the scale of technological change. This includes
companies operating here in the UK, where the automotive sector has enjoyed something
of a renaissance in recent years, and where collaboration between government and
industry has resulted in a focused drive to position the UK as one of the leading nations
where the development of new, low carbon, automotive technologies and businesses
can flourish. The action plan spans many complementary initiatives, and the Low Carbon
Vehicle Technology Project is one of the most important and most successful.
It has brought together high quality partners from industry and academia to concentrate
and accelerate a range of technological developments that help answer key questions
about the best ways of increasing the electrical content of the primary and secondary
power functions of the vehicle, and crucially, has not overlooked the tertiary issues such
as parasitic losses, climate control and dynamics, which are all impacted and provide
further opportunities for efficient innovation.
The results of the project speak for themselves: a rich legacy of ideas and solutions,
implementable devices and development tools, and a much enhanced body of knowledge
here in the UK which is powering our existing investors forward into the low carbon era,
and has the power to increase the attractiveness of the UK to new investors.
Professor Richard Parry–Jones CBE
Co-Chair, Automotive Council UK
03
Introduction to the
Low Carbon Vehicle
Technology Project
The Low Carbon Vehicle Technology Project (LCVTP) is a
major collaboration between leading automotive companies
and research partners aimed at revolutionising the way low
carbon vehicles, including full battery vehicles and hybrid
vehicles, are designed and developed in order to significantly
reduce carbon emissions.
The £29m project, funded by Advantage West Midlands, the
European Regional Development Fund and contribution from
industry partners, brings together world class UK OEMs,
consultancies, suppliers and academic institutions into a
focused collaborative programme to create the required R&D
capability and capacity for the development of key low and
ultra-low carbon vehicle technologies.
The project partners have also worked with other West
Midlands industrial and academic institutions, including a
significant number of local Small and Medium Enterprises
(SMEs) in order to deliver socio-economic improvements
such as improved technical skills, business capability and
new products and processes.
The project aims to accelerate the research and development
of the first low carbon vehicles by four years and to safeguard
over 2,000 jobs in the region’s automotive supply chain as
businesses embrace low carbon opportunities. It is pivotal
to the government’s decision to declare the West Midlands
a Low Carbon Economic Area for advanced automotive
engineering and in making the West Midlands a global centre
of excellence in low carbon vehicle engineering.
Here we highlight the achievements of the active R&D phase
of the project and the business impacts that are now being
felt through embedding of the research outcomes.
John O’Connor
Project Director
04
Coventry University
Coventry University is a modern, forward-looking university whose roots can be traced
back to 1843 to the Coventry College of Design. With a proud tradition as a provider of
high quality education, a focus on multi-disciplinary applied research and links with
leading-edge businesses in a variety of industries, today the University has established
an academic presence regionally, nationally and across the world. Its globally-renowned
automotive design courses regularly produce graduates who go on to leading positions
in the industry, and its vehicle engineering expertise is helping to establish it as a
recognised centre of excellence in research and practice within the field of low
carbon transport.
Jaguar Land Rover
Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) is the UK’s largest automotive manufacturing business, built
around two iconic British car brands with a wonderfully rich heritage and incredibly
powerful consumer appeal and loyalty. As the UK’s largest investor in automotive R&D
and engineering, committing over £1.5 billion a year to product creation, JLR is at the
centre of the UK automotive industry’s drive to deliver technical innovation in all areas of
vehicle development. As the UK’s largest automotive employer, JLR has a world class
team of 20,000 people in the UK, plus 1,000 globally. In addition it supports 140,000 people
through the supply chain, dealer network and wider economy.
MIRA Ltd
MIRA is a world class whole vehicle engineering and consultancy company, with a global
reputation for innovation, testing and design. With 65 years of rich engineering heritage,
MIRA hosts a core of over 500 industry experts, 90km of specialised proving ground and
over 30 major test facilities. This unique offering allows its dedicated staff to carry out
an array of advanced modelling and simulation techniques within the same location,
enabling MIRA to provide smarter solutions to customers’ challenging problems. With
over a decade of experience in the field, MIRA continues to lead the way in low carbon
vehicle engineering and design.
Ricardo plc
Ricardo plc is a global, world class, multi-industry consultancy for engineering,
technology, project innovation and strategy. With almost a century of delivering value,
it employs over 1,600 professional engineers, consultants and staff. Its people are
committed to providing outstanding value through quality engineering solutions focused
on high efficiency, low emission, class-leading product innovation and robust strategic
implementation. Ricardo’s client list includes the world’s major transportation original
equipment manufacturers, supply chain organisations, energy companies, financial
institutions and governments. Guided by corporate values of respect, integrity, creativity
and innovation and passion, Ricardo enables its customers to achieve sustainable growth
and commercial success.
Tata Motors European Technical Centre plc
Tata Motors European Technical Centre plc (TMETC) is a wholly-owned subsidiary of
Tata Motors Ltd. Created in 2005, as a UK-based centre of excellence for automotive
engineering, TMETC provides research and development principally for Tata Motors
but also for selected partners in the automotive industry. More specifically, TMETC has
expertise in product design and styling, electric and hybrid vehicle technology, body
and trim engineering, craftsmanship, systems integration and refinement, electrical
and electronic systems design and development, automated transmissions, vehicle
dynamics, vehicle testing and homologation, programme management and launch
support, as well as manufacturing engineering and pilot production/assembly of low
carbon vehicles.
WMG
An academic department at the University of Warwick, WMG has been an international
role model for how universities and business can successfully work together for over 30
years. It is at the forefront of innovative technology, leading major multi-partner projects
to develop new processes and products which have huge benefit to UK organisations.
These projects have seen WMG working across sectors including automotive, aerospace
and defence, digital, healthcare and rail. World renowned for providing high quality
education programmes, with the latest innovative subjects that meet business and
industry needs, WMG continually adapts courses to ensure they meet academic
standards and provide companies with individuals who will become future leaders.
Zytek Automotive
Zytek Automotive is a specialist powertrain and vehicle engineering company dedicated
to delivering exceptional value to its clients with innovative engineering solutions.
Building on its expertise in the development of engine management control systems,
Zytek Automotive is now designing and manufacturing electric and hybrid powertrains
and ancillary components for many of the leading vehicle manufacturers, where it has
demonstrable experience and a proven track record in solving complex engineering
challenges for production vehicle projects. Zytek Automotive’s success can be attributed
to its highly skilled and committed workforce, its comprehensive in-house test and
development facilities, and its electronics and electric traction motor production facilities
– a feature unique to Zytek amongst automotive design consultancies.
05
Batteries and Battery Packs
Lead Partner
Tata Motors European Technical Centre
(TMETC)
Supporting Expertise
Cranfield University, Jaguar Land Rover,
Ricardo, University of Glamorgan, WMG
The development of high performance battery modules, packs and cells continues to be a priority for the next
generation of low carbon vehicles. To this end we have developed a suite of tools for appraising and designing new
battery systems and related hardware, greatly reducing R&D lead times.
Achievements include:
• Innovative design concepts for battery modules and battery packs
• New testing methodologies for appraising battery cells and modules
• A comprehensive database of commercially available battery products
• An integrated computer simulation model with the capability to predict battery performance characteristics
in a wide range of vehicle applications
• A new library of finite element models enabling structural and safety analysis of battery modules
and battery packs
• A validated lower-cost Battery Management System (BMS) concept utilising new algorithms for energy
balancing and new hardware
• Guidelines to improve design-for-assembly aspects of battery modules
• Guidelines for the recycling of battery products to reduce their overall carbon footprint
• An advanced battery cycler capable of replicating harsh operating environments
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
Tata Motors European Technical Centre (TMETC) has developed a flexible, scalable module suitable to produce
battery packs for each of the target Generic Technology Validator (GTV) platforms. This module has been fully
validated during the programme and design iterations have been established.
Based on a reduced electrochemical approach, TMETC has also developed a brand new process to model the
heat generated from batteries for any drive cycle using estimated voltage. This has been validated for a tested
load cycle, and is being utilised by TMETC in the design of state of the art BMS and predictive vehicle drive
cycle models.
Ricardo has developed new analysis techniques for determining the physical strength of battery modules and
their components in resisting both normal and abuse case loads. These new techniques will be an important
addition to Ricardo’s engineering services portfolio.
Given the extensive range of battery cell technologies and suppliers, one of the key challenges facing the industrial
partners is selection of the most suitable cells for their specific applications. To support this, WMG has built a new
state of the art lithium ion battery testing facility allowing performance and characterisation testing of a variety of
battery cell technologies.
06
Drive Motors
Lead Partner
Zytek Automotive
Supporting Expertise
Jaguar Land Rover, MIRA, Ricardo,
Tata Motors European Technical Centre
(TMETC), WMG
Electric and hybrid vehicles demand efficient, torque and power dense, and low-cost drive motors. Project
research encompassed several key areas relating to drive motors including: a review of state of the art traction
motor technology, an assessment of vehicle drivetrain architectures, a comparison of typical OEM requirements
for traction motors and an investigation into techniques for simplifying the process of selecting a traction motor
for a particular vehicle application.
Achievements include:
• Development of a motor selection tool that evaluates various vehicle performance requirements and other
criteria and computes the power and torque requirements for suitable traction motors
• Design of a searchable database of commercially available traction motors that may be used to compare
different manufacturers’ machines satisfying specific criteria
• A review of OEM, safety and legislative standards specifically relating to traction motors
• Design, development and manufacture of a concept external rotor starter-generator machine, designed for
integration with a small IC engine for vehicle Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) applications
• Design, development and manufacture of a concept high-power, high-torque traction machine for
performance vehicle applications
• An analysis of traction motor designs used in current hybrid and electric vehicles based on product teardown
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
The Motor Selection Tool (MST) is already proving valuable to engineers at Jaguar Land Rover, MIRA, Ricardo,
Tata Motors European Technical Centre (TMETC) and Zytek Automotive. The user is prompted to specify a range
of vehicle performance criteria which are then used to compute motor torque and power requirements. As an
additional feature, the MST provides links into a large database of commercially-available machines and makes
recommendations of suitable ‘best-fit’ off the shelf products. A further benefit is the support for conducting
‘what if’ scenario analyses in order to quickly identify an optimal motor solution for a particular application. This
process is usually lengthy and labour intensive, requiring highly skilled personnel. Using the MST therefore
provides significant commercial benefits.
Ricardo and Zytek have designed, developed, manufactured and tested an external-rotor starter-generator
concept which is intended for use with a production combustion engine to create a compact APU or range
extender. The design activity included full integration of the starter-generator with the combustion engine to
achieve a compact yet weight-efficient system negating the need for a flexible coupling.
07
Power Electronics
Lead Partner
WMG
Supporting Expertise
Ricardo, Tata Motors European Technical
Centre (TMETC), Zytek Automotive
Robust and efficient power electronics with high power densities are an essential enabling technology for low
carbon vehicles. Our research has focused on fundamental thermal and mechanical issues related to power
electronics in harsh automotive environments; looking at issues surrounding the design and manufacture of
main drive and peripheral converters, as well as existing and new semiconductor materials including silicon
carbide and gallium nitride.
Achievements include:
• The comprehensive development of a hybrid electric vehicle systems architecture
• A comprehensive study of communication protocols and diagnostic routines in hierarchical structures
• An investigation into drive cycles and vibration profiles
• An innovative computer simulation tool for analysing the electro-thermal behaviour of Insulated Gate Bipolar
Transistors (IGBTs) and diodes
• A conceptual design for a new power electronics vehicle system
• A new conceptual design for an inverter
• A new conceptual design for a DC to DC convertor considering alternative topologies, their advantages and
disadvantages, efficiencies and requirement specifications
• A new conceptual design for a battery charging system considering electrical and geographic requirements,
power ranges, intelligent charging and security
• A new clean room facility for device manufacture
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
A new inverter has been developed to work in conjunction with the electric machine validation unit developed
by the project. Zytek Automotive is planning to adopt the technology and manufacturing techniques in a new
range of inverters that will meet demanding customer requirements. As a world-class supplier of electric drive
systems it is critical for Zytek Automotive to demonstrate a full capability to their customers across the world.
Ricardo has successfully designed and tested a more efficient version of one of their current range of DC-DC
converters. Ricardo will utilise the knowledge gained from the development of this new product within their
consultancy services.
Tata Motors European Technical Centre (TMETC) has continued to develop the hybrid electric vehicle systems
architecture further (including its development process) and has begun immediate application on new low
carbon vehicle developments.
08
High Voltage Electrical Distribution
Systems (HVEDS)
Lead Partner
Tata Motors European Technical Centre
(TMETC)
Supporting Expertise
Jaguar Land Rover, Ricardo, WMG,
Zytek Automotive
The new generation of electric and hybrid vehicles demand a lightweight, flexible and safe system for distributing
high voltages around the vehicle. Our work in this area centred on enabling technologies to produce a generic,
safe, scalable, lightweight and low cost HVEDS that is standards compliant.
Achievements include:
• A comprehensive design guidebook covering the major aspects of high voltage distribution systems and
related automotive standards
• An investigation into past and projected industry trends in this field
• A study into charging system interfaces and cables
• A proposal for optimising the system design architecture
• A computer simulation model to enable the virtual testing of new high voltage electrical system concepts
• A study considering manufacturing, assembly, safety, servicing and recycling aspects
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
Tata Motors European Technical Centre (TMETC) developed the concept for a design guidebook and coordinated
input from project partners. The guidebook emphasises the combined research by demonstrating the relevance
of the combined material to the HVEDS requirements. A comprehensive case study is included to give an
example of applied methods and techniques and how to apply this to achieve a realistic electric vehicle design.
A new cable-sizing tool has been developed by Ricardo to allow initial high voltage cable cross-sectional areas to
be estimated, based on system voltage and power ratings. Parameters were derived from thermal models and
validated using experimental data. The application of this tool is part of the case study within the guidebook. This
innovative free-standing tool will be used by Ricardo in conjunction with their cable database.
09
Auxiliary Power Units
Lead partner
Ricardo
Supporting Expertise
Coventry University, Jaguar Land Rover,
MIRA, Tata Motors European Technical
Centre (TMETC), WMG
The range of electric vehicles is often limited by the useable energy capacity of the onboard batteries. Range can
be extended by carrying an onboard charging source known as an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU). Our focus was on
optimising current APU technology and developing new ideas for the next generation of Range Extended Electric
Vehicles (REEV).
Achievements include:
• A roadmap of current and future auxiliary power unit technologies
• A technical requirements specification for an APU
• A packaging study integrating the APU into an LCVTP GTV vehicle, including studies to optimise the NVH
characteristics
• An analytical study of the benefits of REEV compared to other architectures
• Testing and analysis to inform and validate future APU design
• Testing and analysis to optimise APU after treatment to achieve legislated emissions levels
• APU hardware to demonstrate a new APU utilising a state of the art volume production gasoline engine and a
Ricardo designed bespoke generator in a REEV GTV vehicle
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
Working together, the project partners undertook the major task of designing, building, testing and validating a
new auxiliary power unit which utilised a state of the art volume production gasoline engine. They also worked
closely with the drive motors team to integrate a bespoke design APU generator.
Tata Motors European Technical Centre (TMETC) and Ricardo used simulation software to evaluate the potential
efficiency benefit of using Atkinson & Miller cycle engines for APU applications; the TMETC analysis was
validated by converting an existing Otto cycle engine to Atkinson cycle operation for objective measurements
at MIRA. Computer simulation models were also used to investigate the benefit of a wide range of other base
engine modifications for the specific APU duty cycle. The results will be used to inform the design of future
APU engines.
Ricardo and MIRA worked together testing and developing the APU hardware and operating strategies, in
upgraded testing facilities. Coventry University provided support on the emissions data analysis and studied the
optimum requirements for after treatment in a range-extended electric vehicle application. Ricardo integrated
the new APU into a current-production Jaguar Land Rover validation vehicle.
The knowledge gained will aid the specification and design of more efficient, compact, quieter and cost
effective APUs for competitive low carbon range extended electric vehicles. The results from undertaking this
challenging task are already being utilised in future advanced vehicle engineering programmes.
10
Vehicle Supervisory Control
Lead Partner
Jaguar Land Rover
Supporting Expertise
Coventry University, Cranfield University,
MIRA, Ricardo, Tata Motors European
Technical Centre (TMETC), WMG
The electrification of cars is driving the development of new complex control strategies, hardware and software.
Our focus was a holistic approach to modelling, designing and testing control systems.
Achievements include:
• A comprehensive study of safety protocols for vehicle control systems
• A diagnostic strategy for hybrid and electric vehicle (HEV/EV) control systems
• Technical specification, design and build of supervisory controller suitable for use in safety
critical applications
• A suite of computer simulation models to appraise vehicle and sub-system controllers
• A proposal for a generic hybrid control architecture including control algorithms for optimising vehicle
performance, energy management and driveability
• A basic implementation of the Vehicle Supervisory Controller (VSC) architecture was developed and deployed
on Tata Vista EVX and Jaguar XJ demonstrator vehicles
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
Jaguar Land Rover has utilised the tools above to develop a Next Generation Control Architecture (NGCA) and
control strategies for hybrid electric vehicles. The NGCA can be transferred into different vehicle platforms and
derivatives through prototype vehicle builds to series production, resulting in major savings in both cost and time.
Ricardo has designed a new supervisory controller using a 32-bit processor with an integrated safety feature.
Low level software and a high level design environment have also been developed to allow integration with the
high level control algorithms developed in modelling environments. These products will be a valuable addition to
Ricardo’s capabilities.
WMG led the collaborative development of a standardised HEV systems modelling framework based on
WARPSTAR 2+ (WARwick Powertrain Simulation Tool for ARchitectures). Project partners developed a library
of new powertrain and electric machine models in the DYMOLA environment. This will greatly reduce the time
required to develop complex vehicle level models.
Tata Motors European Technical Centre (TMETC) has applied the new architecture to the Tata Vista EVX
vehicle; initially for development, but with a view to a production unit. TMETC has also applied a generic control
architecture to their current hybrid programmes.
WMG and MIRA have developed the concept of a Hybrid System Safety Monitor. Diagnostic strategies and
algorithms were developed through Hardware-in-Loop (HiL) testing with simulation models and then applied
and correlated on a running Range Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV). TMETC is looking to apply this learning to
future production vehicle programmes.
11
Lightweight Structures
Lead Partner
WMG
Supporting Expertise
Alpha Adhesives, Coventry University,
GRM, IDC, Jaguar Land Rover, MIRA,
Ricardo, SPMJ Technology Ltd, Tata
Motors European Technical Centre
(TMETC)
The new architecture associated with hybrid and electric vehicles offers considerable opportunities for reducing
overall vehicle weight and improving fuel economy, whilst maintaining desired levels of vehicle performance
targets. With this in mind the project has researched, developed and proven innovative materials and process
solutions for structural applications. These materials and process solutions will contribute to a significant
reduction in the overall environmental impact of future vehicles.
Following an in-depth study into the current state of the art for automotive materials, two materials and process
technologies were identified for further research that could offer lightweight solutions.
• A rapid stamp-forming process for thermoplastic composites that offers up to 50% weight save over
conventional materials:
°° Fully defined high volume production route, suitable for deployment in existing stamped metal
supply chain
°° Validated in the production of two demonstrator components (structural seat back and front
longitudinal component)
°° Benchmarked against conventional metallic material production routes in terms of cost, performance,
environmental impact and volume production considerations
°° Robust modelling capability proven, allowing accurate performance predictions by automotive engineers
°° Effective and industrially-relevant joining approach formulated to allow the incorporation of structural
elements manufactured from alternative materials into existing Body In White (BIW) structures
12
• Hot-forming of Ultra High Strength (UHSS) boron steels:
°° Implementation of the hot-forming process in conjunction with
project partners
°° Production of UHSS demonstrator components (front
longitudinal section)
°° Evaluation of resultant UHSS mechanical properties
Research was also conducted in the following areas:
• A study into, and identification of, lightweight vehicle glazing
system opportunities
• Environmental impact assessment:
°° Creation of a rapid, easy to use tool for calculating vehicle life-cycle
CO2 performance
°° A complete ‘top down’ life-cycle CO2 review of the LCVTP vehicle
incorporating technologies identified and developed during the project
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
Alpha Adhesives, working closely with Tata Motors European Technical
Centre (TMETC) and WMG, has developed advanced adhesives specifically
designed for applications within next generation vehicles including the
effective structural joining of alternative and conventional materials.
TMETC and WMG have developed an innovative seat back structure using
rapid-stamp formed thermoplastic composites that has been proven to
relevant international standards. From the results of this study, engineers
have now created a full seat specification that offers a weight saving in excess
of 40% as compared to traditional steel-based structures.
TMETC and WMG have developed a structural element (longitudinal beam)
that provides a 20% weight saving when compared to aluminium and around
50% saving when compared to steel. The new tooling was designed to work
with both existing metal stamping equipment and within a new composite
forming process.
• A detailed predictive design study into the design opportunities afforded
by future hybrid and electric lightweight vehicle architectures
13
Key Technology Achievements
“The LCA studies
have shown that
the LCVTP low
carbon technologies
can significantly
reduce the life cycle
CO2 emissions of
passenger cars”
Batteries
Auxiliary Power Unit
Dynamics and Control
Material Joining
Lighter, flexible, and more
energy efficient battery
modules and packs
validated using a suite of
sophisticated software tools
and state of the art testing
equipment, together with a
new Battery Management
System (BMS).
A completely new APU
designed, built and tested
by the project partners, fully
validated on a dynamometer
and integrated into an
existing vehicle package.
New designs for vehicle
control systems, with
improved electronics
hardware and fastresponse software.
Significant improvements
in regenerative braking,
power electronics,
high-voltage cabling
and energy storage and
recovery systems.
A range of new advanced
adhesives specifically
designed for applications
within next generation
vehicles including the
bonding of aluminium
to composites, steel to
composites, composites to
composites and aluminium
to steel.
The Life Cycle CO2 Assessment of LCVTP Technologies
The many technologies developed by the Low Carbon Vehicle
Technology project are aimed at reducing the in-use carbon
emissions of future vehicles. But tailpipe emissions alone do
not necessarily tell the whole story, and so the project has also
considered how these technologies compare on a life cycle basis.
Working with JLR, WMG and SPMJ Technology Ltd, Ricardo has
applied Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) techniques to understand
the potential life cycle CO2 footprint of a future vehicle using
LCVTP technologies and components. This analysis has
considered the carbon emissions from production of the vehicle,
the production and use of fuel during the life of the vehicle, and
from final disposal of the vehicle. For plug-in electric vehicles
the CO2 produced from generation of the electric power has also
been considered.
14
The life cycle CO2 study has shown that the LCVTP low carbon
technologies can significantly reduce the life cycle CO2
emissions of future passenger cars. Furthermore, as the carbon
intensity of the electricity grid reduces in the future as expected,
the benefit of the LCVTP technologies will further increase.
The project team have also developed easy-to-use tools,
suitable for non-expert users, to enable a life cycle approach to
be adopted throughout the design and development process of
future low carbon vehicles. These tools will allow the partner
organisations to conduct rapid life cycle assessments, so that
design engineers can carry out initial assessments before the
release of components to vehicle programmes.
Aerodynamic
Improvements
New body and wheel
features were developed
and tested in a range of
conditions, resulting in a
significant reduction in
overall vehicle drag.
Efficient Passenger
Comfort and Information
Systems
New efficient ways for
heating and cooling
the vehicle cabin were
developed and tested,
resulting in a saving of
energy. New ways of
presenting information to
encourage energy efficient
driving were developed and
successfully trialled on a
driving simulator.
Carbon Emissions Life
Cycle Assessment
A suite of new tools for
assessing the total carbon
footprint of a vehicle
over its lifetime, capable
of providing valuable
knowledge to vehicle
designers, engineers,
manufacturers, owners,
operators, policy making
bodies and recycling
agencies.
Lightweighting
Energy Efficiency
A highly innovative
seat-frame design using
rapid-stamp formed
thermoplastic composites
resulting in a weight saving
of 40%. A new design for
a longitudinal beam that
provides a 20% weightsaving when compared to
aluminium and 60% weightsaving when compared to
steel. The designs have
been validated using newly
developed virtual and
physical testing methods.
Analytical tools and
practical solutions have
been developed to reduce
energy losses through
driveline systems,
alongside empirical
validation of waste energy
recovery and conversion
techniques that could
be utilised to maximise
onboard energy efficiency
to increase electrical
range and/or reduce
tailpipe emissions in
REEV applications.
15
Aerodynamic Performance
Lead Partner
Coventry University
Supporting Expertise
Jaguar Land Rover, MIRA, Ricardo,
Tata Motors European Technical Centre
(TMETC)
The energy losses produced by aerodynamic drag are widely recognised as an area where improvement will lead
to efficiency gains in vehicles at potentially modest cost. As such, it is an essential component of the overall drive
towards the adoption of low carbon technology within the automotive industry. The project took an integrated
approach to this problem, adapting automotive design processes and technologies to the design, manufacture
and test of innovative vehicle body forms and devices.
Achievements include:
• Comprehensive technology benchmarking study
• Conceptual designs for body devices to reduce vehicle drag
• Computer simulation model validated through wind-tunnel testing of concept vehicles fitted with
aerodynamic features and devices
• Use of model scale and full scale tunnels for the development of aerodynamic concepts and to
carry out correlation
• Validated results of fixed ground wind tunnel testing by testing at a moving ground facility
16
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
Open source Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software was used
for aerodynamic investigations, and many simulations were carried out,
providing directions and correlation data for wind tunnel testing.
MIRA has further developed its capability in Large Volume Airflow
Visualization (LVAV) techniques. The advantages of LVAV over current
techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), is that it covers a large
three-dimensional volume rather than a slice of the flow, whilst still offering
accurate, transient, 3D position and velocity data capture. Rapid postprocessing of the data provides engineers with a detailed insight into the flow
structure; something which usually takes much longer when using traditional
CFD methods.
Base pressures were a key area of research and development, and several
concepts were tested, leading to significant reductions in drag. Drag
reduction from wheel, and wheel arch modifications, was also investigated at
model and full scale levels, as well as in fixed and moving ground tests.
Ricardo has performed a sensitivity analysis of aerodynamic drag over
various drive cycles. This analysis has helped the investigation and evaluation
of a range of state of the art passive and active devices and concepts used
to improve aerodynamic performance. Ricardo used the vehicle fuel
consumption and electric range model (called ‘VSIM’ and developed in Matlab
Simulink) used in other areas of the project to quantify the electric energy
consumption, regenerative braking and electric vehicle range over real world
and legislative drive cycles (Artemis and NEDC).
The results are being considered by Jaguar Land Rover and Tata Motors
European Technical Centre (TMETC) for incorporation into new vehicle wheel
and wheel bay designs.
For Coventry University, the knowledge and experience gained through this
workstream, in addition to its existing design, simulation and prototyping
assets, has provided a step change in its engineering capabilities and
expertise. It can now offer a comprehensive aerodynamics service from
design critique to a managed test programme.
17
High Efficiency Heating, Ventilation and
Air-Conditioning (HVAC) and System Cooling
Leading Partner
Jaguar Land Rover
Supporting Expertise
Coventry University, MIRA, Ricardo,
Tata Motors European Technical Centre
(TMETC), WMG
The cooling requirements for hybrid and electric vehicles present different challenges from those of
conventionally powered vehicles. Batteries and circuitry can generate a large amount of heat which needs
to be dissipated, and many components are susceptible to failure if the temperature of their immediate
environment falls outside a relatively narrow band. Low carbon vehicle HVAC and cooling systems therefore
need to be designed not only to meet the expectations of the user, but also to promote efficiency through
reduced energy wastage.
Maintaining a comfortable temperature within a vehicle cabin without placing a heavy load on the battery is
becoming a significant factor in hybrid electric vehicle design.
Achievements include:
• Validated concepts for cooling major functional systems in low carbon vehicles including engines, power
electronics, control units, machines and batteries
• Validated control algorithms for cooling and heating systems
• A new design proposal for an electric air-conditioning system
• Concepts to improve cabin heating and cooling efficiency in electric vehicles whilst maintaining thermal
comfort for occupants, thus reducing energy wastage
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Business Impact – New Products and Processes
MIRA used to gauge thermal comfort either by in-vehicle temperature
measurement or by using proprietary temperature predicting software.
However, human comfort is influenced by a number of factors including
air flow, solar load, humidity, clothing and metabolism. The project team
incorporated a human manikin, with a representative physiological model
behind it, into their existing heat transfer analysis software. This is a huge
step forward for thermal prediction as it enables MIRA to evaluate the impact
of a range of factors on human comfort, rather than just focusing simply on
temperature measurements.
Jaguar Land Rover is utilising the project results to accelerate research
into new high efficiency electric air-conditioning systems and to establish
investigation into heating technologies designed to compensate for the lack
of waste heat from an internal combustion engine. This work will provide the
foundations of enabling technologies allowing future development of vehicles
that utilise high efficiency propulsion.
Coventry University’s COGENT team have been working with Jaguar
Land Rover to expand its work on the management of human thermal
environments. This has moved academic knowledge forward including
proposals for better sensing techniques in-vehicle, allowing a more effective
measurement of thermal comfort. Jaguar Land Rover and COGENT’s work
has also included investigation into using existing components to implement
an algorithm designed to keep conditioned air in the cabin while minimising
the build-up of CO2.
WMG and Tata Motors European Technical Centre (TMETC) have worked
together to develop cooling control systems that can improve the efficiency
of cooling systems used to control the temperature of various elements of
electric and hybrid electric vehicles. The work done as part of this project has
served to accelerate the development of electric vehicles while establishing a
greater expertise in the West Midlands.
Ricardo has developed a thermo-hydraulic model of the cooling circuit and
air conditioning of the EV and REEV and developed a model for the prediction
of the impact on vehicle range by the loads placed on the vehicle’s power
train due to powertrain and cabin cooling and heating. This puts Ricardo in an
excellent position as a partner to OEMs developing low carbon vehicles.
Ricardo and MIRA have worked together to develop, assess and validate
proposals for ways to control the heat lost and energy gained by the cabin
of a vehicle. Both partners are now better placed to provide expert advice to
vehicle OEMs.
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Reduction of Parasitic Losses
Lead Partner
Ricardo
Supporting Expertise
Coventry University, Jaguar Land Rover,
WMG
Many conventional systems within vehicles offer renewed opportunities for reducing parasitic energy wastage,
namely through driveline and transmission (friction reduction through fast warm up, bearing and bearing
surface technologies and advanced lubricants), and chassis (reduced rolling resistance through low rolling
resistance tyres, steering/suspension geometry, low drag brake callipers, electric power steering). However
there is room for improvement in these areas.
Achievements include:
• A fully correlated, integrated CAE model that can simulate parasitic losses at vehicle, subsystem and
component level
• A sensitivity study approach to identify the major systems and components contributing to parasitic losses for
both a convention internal combustion and electrically powered passenger car
• A comprehensive meta-study of research into parasitic loss reducing technologies
• Evaluation of a number of production feasible parasitic loss reducing technologies using the simulation
model. The study demonstrated that the cumulative improvements to the gearbox, driveline, tyres and
low voltage electrical system are comparable to those that could be realised through aerodynamic
improvements alone
• Gearbox and low voltage electrical efficiency measurements to assist with simulation model validation
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
The project partners have jointly developed a new analytical tool for predicting fuel economy and electric vehicle
range which can also identify the relative efficiency and loss contribution of individual components and systems.
This enables advanced lower friction and electrical energy technologies to be evaluated using simulation tools
instead of the more traditional and costly testing route. The energy flows and losses can be easily be mapped and
the model adapted for a variety of vehicle and powertrain configurations.
Coventry University, along with Jaguar Land Rover and Ricardo, has conducted benchmarking of low voltage
electrical loads on a suite of recent EV and hybrid vehicles against similar conventional vehicles. The University
has supported detailed simulation of the efficiency sensitivity to the power demands of the low voltage electrical
system. The work has led to a greater understanding of low voltage systems and their overall impact on vehicle
efficiency, enhancing Coventry University’s capability to further investigate and develop technologies identified
as a means to improve low carbon vehicles.
The parasitic loss technology database will assist the project partners to continue to improve vehicle efficiencies
via the implementation of advanced low friction and energy loss components and systems, whilst respecting the
economic and logistics constraints.
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Waste Energy Recovery and Alternative
Energy Storage
Lead Partner
Ricardo
Supporting Expertise
Coventry University, Jaguar Land Rover,
WMG
If waste heat, kinetic or potential energy in vehicle powertrains can be accessed and suitably stored until needed,
then large efficiency gains leading to a significant reduction in tailpipe CO2 emissions are possible.
Methods of energy recovery include exhaust heat extraction for warm up (cabin, engine, battery and electronic
systems), the use of the organic Rankine cycle, thermoelectric generator using thermoelectric materials
(Seebeck effect), electrical turbocompound, thermo-voltaic heat-pumps and chemical reactions. Intrinsically
linked with this challenge is the identification and development of storage technologies to hold collected energy.
Both recovery and storage technologies have challenges that must be overcome to facilitate mainstream
application. If cost effective solutions can be established then such technology is likely to be a critical element in
future low carbon vehicles.
Achievements include:
• A technology survey indicating state of the art developments in energy recovery, waste heat recovery (from
high grade and low grade heat) in the form of ‘Heat to Power’ or ‘Heat to Cool’ systems
• A suite of validated computer simulation models capable of analysing energy flows and assessing which
amount of energy (thermal/mechanical/electric) can be recovered and/or stored over different real world
and legislative drive cycles
• System and sub-system FMEAs indicating good design practices
• Data from practical tests on selected systems
• Material characteristic data from Thermolectric Generator and Phase Change Material test rigs
• Simulation study into ‘Heat to Cool’ (absorption, adsorption) for Range Extended Electric Vehicle (REEV)
applications
• Assessment of magneto caloric heating and cooling for EV and REEV applications - linked with high efficiency
HVAC systems
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
The project partners have jointly developed a system models for determining energy recovery opportunities
from electric vehicles and REEV. Where applicable the system models have been integrated into the project
vehicle model to assess the fuel consumption/energy benefit of the system.
The project partners have generated material parameter data from the hardware test rigs to enhance the
accuracy of the modelled systems and understanding of material behaviour.
21
Vehicle Dynamics and Traction Control
Lead Partner
Jaguar Land Rover
Supporting Expertise
Coventry University, Cranfield University,
MIRA, Ricardo, Tata Motors European
Technical Centre (TMETC) and WMG
Here we have focused on combining regenerative and friction braking technology to ensure maximum energy
recovery whilst ensuring safety (vehicle stability and traction).
Achievements include:
• A comprehensive state of the art technology analysis which included a hybrid/electric vehicle
benchmarking programme
• Analysis of current braking legislation requirements and the implications upon design for hybrid/electric vehicles
• A suite of hydraulic braking models able to simulate a range of modulator and braking system architectures
and indicate how to control the creation of hydraulic pressure via an electronic demand
• A vehicle handling simulation toolset which models the vehicle and regenerative braking dynamics for
various hybrid/electric vehicle and brake system architectures
• Research into brake blending and vehicle stability control algorithms utilising the CAE toolsets that were
developed in the project
• A working prototype rheostatic braking system that is able to dissipate large amounts of braking power
independent of the foundation braking and high voltage battery systems
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
The partners have jointly developed a new brake resizing investigation tool which enables the designer to quickly
resize the friction brake package and combine with a regenerative brake system on an existing vehicle platform.
Tata Motors European Technical Centre (TMETC) utilised this tool to evaluate brake energy capture potential over
standard drive cycles.
MIRA can now offer consultancy related to legislative requirements for regenerative braking systems, and with
TMETC, have attained knowledge of state of the art bespoke benchmarking procedures.
Coventry University has developed a sophisticated brake torque apportionment controller, responsible for
governing the regenerative and friction torques sources.
Cranfield University has developed a brake vacuum booster testing rig to help validate their detailed modelling
and simulation activities of the friction brake system.
WMG has developed a reduced 1st order hydraulic brakes model library. This framework has been used
extensively in the model-based development of complex regenerative brake control systems and their evaluation
in terms of overall energy recovery and impact on vehicle dynamics.
All models are real-time capable and have been successfully implemented on an IPG Automotive XPack4
Hardware-in-Loop (HiL) platform, to perform real-time validation and verification of control systems, and to study
the impact of signal propagation delays over Controller Area Network (CAN) and FlexRay communication networks.
Ricardo has investigated the application of the IPG carmaker ABS algorithm with respect to its application as a
basis for investigating the interaction between regenerative braking and stability control systems.
22
Human-Machine Interface Engineering
Lead Partner
WMG
Supporting Expertise
Coventry University, Jaguar Land Rover,
Tata Motors European Technical Centre
(TMETC)
To aid customer acceptance, and improve the user experience of future low carbon vehicles, it is vital to consider
the Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI) from a user-centred perspective. Specifically, this means understanding
the interaction between the driver/passenger and the vehicle, and designing the user interface to maximise
usability, satisfaction and enjoyment.
Advances in technology are creating additional issues such as novel starting/stopping procedures, or
communicating the effect that driving style has on the potential mileage range. Project teams focused on
developing new techniques for trialling and evaluating new concepts and HMI issues within hybrid electric and
pure electric vehicles.
Achievements include:
• A comprehensive review of methods and technologies used to aid driver interaction
• A quantitative and qualitative analysis of driver feedback relating to HMI issues
• The development of new methodologies for capturing voice-of-the customer feedback from low carbon
vehicle drivers
• A range of conceptual HMI solutions trialled on a driving simulator
Business Impact – New Products and Processes
Jaguar Land Rover has produced a set of standards covering HMI aspects relating to hybrid electric vehicles to
ensure consistency across platforms and brands, utilising the results relating to hybrid electric vehicle issues
including: charging port design and location, touchscreen characteristics, instrument cluster content, warning
messages and the breadth and depth of information presented in different vehicle power modes.
Tata Motors European Technical Centre (TMETC) has developed driver information methods for electric vehicles
to address the challenge of range anxiety. The results of work into remote feedback and range information have
been used to develop electric vehicle driver information management systems. The expertise gained here is also
being used in the development of future cross-platform infotainment systems.
23
Vehicle Integration and Validator Platforms
Lead Partner
Ricardo
Supporting Expertise
Jaguar Land Rover
There are a number of major challenges in designing, testing and manufacturing high volume passenger
vehicles incorporating emerging technologies.
Three vehicle teams, with expertise from all partners, undertook the challenge, both virtually and physically, to
prove out the technologies and processes developed across the project.
Achievements include:
• A set of vehicle, system and technology targets for a large saloon concept vehicle
• A set of vehicle, system and technology targets for a sports utility concept vehicle
• A set of vehicle, system and technology targets for a small size but high occupancy hybrid electric
concept vehicle
• A suite of new design, information sharing and target setting processes that integrate the
complexities of hybrid vehicle development
• Three virtual validation platforms
• A physical sports-utility validation vehicle in two variants; all-electric propulsion and
hybrid-electric propulsion
• A safety integration strategy incorporating a whole vehicle FMEA
• A new systems engineering methodology
• A set of new vehicle architecture concepts
• A real world pure electric vehicle drive cycle has been developed from logged Vista EV data
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Business Impact – New Products and Processes
For Tata Motors European Technical Centre (TMETC) the objective of
this work package was to develop a novel concept based on a vehicle to
match the optimum segment identified for an EV and a Range Extended
Electric Vehicle (REEV) that has, amongst its objectives, leadership in both
aerodynamic performance and occupant package. This concept was the
source of targets to the technology workstreams to investigate the maturity
of the required technologies and their ability to meet the requirements.
Concept development and validation were undertaken primarily in a
virtual environment.
goal to create a REEV architecture incorporating an advanced auxiliary
power unit (a gasoline engine integrated with a generator) developed within
the project has been achieved. The inherent flexibility in the mechanical
and electrical architecture will provide the basis for ongoing research
and development such as enhanced control strategies for HVAC and other
systems to further optimise comfort and energy efficiency.
Following completion of its work within the project, Ricardo will continue
to evolve the electric vehicle technology demonstration platform through
further technological stages to realise the breadth and depth of research and
development that Ricardo is investing in within this field.
Vehicle usage data from Vista EVs participating in the CABLED (Coventry
And Birmingham Low Emission Demonstration) Programme was analysed
to develop a real world electric vehicle drive cycle used to support vehicle
performance target setting. This learning is being implemented on future low
carbon vehicle and technology programmes within TMETC.
Ricardo has built and developed two variants of a technology demonstration
platform, developed through three key stages of work within the project.
Initially, the technology demonstration platform provided technical and
physical targets which have been adopted by some of the project activities
to provide a focal point for technology development. As a result, the ultimate
25
Key Contacts
Coventry University
Mike Dickison
Commercial Director
Faculty of Engineering & Computing
[email protected]
www.coventry.ac.uk
Jaguar Land Rover
Mike Richardson
Manager Advanced Hybrids
[email protected]
www.jaguarlandrover.com
MIRA
Lisa Bingley
Project Manager
[email protected]
www.mira.co.uk
Ricardo plc
Corin Wren
Programme Manager
[email protected]
www.ricardo.com
Tata Motors European Technical Centre
Johnathan Breddy
Project Manager
[email protected]
www.tatamotors.com
WMG
Alan Curtis
Chief Executive Officer, High Value Manufacturing Catapult
[email protected]
www.wmg.warwick.ac.uk
Zytek Automotive
Aiden Gregory
Technical Director
[email protected]
www.zytekautomotive.co.uk
26
The information contained in this brochure was correct at the time of going to print.
For updates and latest information, please check our website
www.warwick.ac.uk/go/wmglowcarbon
Printed on 100% recycled paper
Photography by Michelle Tennison: www.tennisons.co.uk
Design by DC Group: www.dcgroup.uk.net
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Low Carbon Vehicle Technology Project www.advantagewm.co.uk