Volume (9), Issue (4), October, 2015
ISSN 2218 - 6506
Journal of Educational and
Psychological Studies
JEPS
Peer Reviewed Journal
Sultan Qaboos University
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University
2015
Journal of Educational & Psychological Studies
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies (JEPS) is a refereed periodical issued by Sultan
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Prof. Amer Ali Al-Rawas, Chairman
Prof. Maher M. Abu Hilal
Prof. Boualem Belkacemi
Dr. Michel R. Claereboudt
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Prof. Mohammad S. Khan
Prof. Lamk M. Al Lamki
Mr. Ali Al-Hadhrami
Prof. Mohamed Khaoua
Prof. Khaled Day
Editorial Board
Editor
Prof. Abdulqawi S. Al-Zubaidi
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Prof. Ali M. Kadhim
Dr. Ali S. Al Mosawi
Dr. Ali M. Ibrahim
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Dr. Mohamed A. Osman
Dr. Sulyman A. Al Shuaili
Dr. Hussain A. Al Kharusi
Mrs. Intisar Nasser (Editorial Assistant)
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Dr. Ahmad H. Al Rabaani
Dr. Mohamed A. Al Ayasra
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Kong Institute of Education, China
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Saud University, Saudi Arabia
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Academy of Arts, Egypt
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University, Syria
Prof. Ahmad Bustan, Kuwait
University, Kuwait
Prof. AbduRahman Al-Tariri, King
Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Prof. Mohamed Ally, Athabasca
University, Canada
Volume 9, No. 4, October, 2015
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University
2015
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University
2015
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title
Omani Stakeholders’ Preferences for
Educational Placement of Students with
Disabilities
Author
Jalal H. Hussien
Madison Metropolitan School District, Wisconsin, USA
Page
628-644
Abdelhafez Q. Al-Shayeb
Al al-Bayt University, Jordan
Ibrahim Al-Qaryouti
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
The Relation between Omani Students'
Perceptions of the Writing Strategies
and their Writing Performance
Juma B. Busaidi & Dina A. Al-Jamal
Spelling Errors of Omani EFL Students
Sheikha A. Al-Bereiki
Yarmouk University, Jordan
Ministry of Education, Sultanate of Oman
645-659
660-676
Abdo M. Al-Mekhlafi
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
Omani Students’ Application of the
Second Standard for Technology
Coaches in Internship Program
Ahmed Y. Abdelraheem & Talal S. Amir
Academic Delay of Gratification and its
Relationship to Motivational
Determinants, Academic Achievement,
and Study Hours among Omani High
School Students: A Path Analysis
Sabry M. Abd-El-Fattah & Sahar El Shourbagi
Arabic in Foreign Language
Programmes: Difficulties and
Challenges
Fatma Y. Al-Busaidi
Relationship between Social Anxiety
and Parental Authority among College
of Education Students’ at SQU
Hilal Z. Al- Nabhani & Abdulhameed S. Hassan
Mindfulness of Career Counselors
within the Omanis Context
Muna A. Al-Bahrani& Bakkar S. Bakkar
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
677-690
691-700
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
701-717
718-729
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
730-737
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University
(Pages 628-644)
Vol.9 Issue 4, 2015
Omani Stakeholders’ Preferences for Educational Placement of Students with
Disabilities
Jalal H. Hussien*
Madison Metropolitan School
District, Wisconsin, USA
Abdelhafez Q. Al-Shayeb
Ibrahim Al-Qaryouti
Al al-Bayt University,
Jordan
Sultan Qaboos University,
Sultanate of Oman
___________________________________________
Received: 31/3/2015
Revised: 5/5/2015
_____________________________________________
Accepted: 18/5/2015
Abstract: The purpose of the current study was to survey the stakeholders’ opinions of the best
educational placement setting for students with disabilities in the Sultanate of Oman. Two thousand four hundred and thirty stakeholders participated in this study. The findings provided evidence that the majority of the Omani stakeholders prefer educating students with disabilities in
regular schools over separate facilities. In addition, the stakeholders’ preference on the continuum of placement options varied significantly. The results also suggested that the stakeholders’
preference for educating students in the regular school setting versus a separate facility varied
according to the type of disability. Moreover, a significant association between the stakeholders’
role and their preference of educational placement setting for students with disabilities was
found. However, the findings revealed that there was no significant relationship between the
stakeholders’ gender and their educational settings preference. Finally, educational services for
children with disabilities in Oman were discussed and suggestions were provided to improve
these services.
Keywords: Educational placement, inclusive classrooms, students with disabilities, Sultanate of
Oman.
‫املكان الرتبوي املفضّل لتعليه الطلبة ذوي اإلعاقة من وجوة نظر‬
‫أصخاب العالقة يف سلطنة عمان‬
‫إبراهيه القريوتي‬
‫عبد احلافظ قاسه الشايب‬
*‫جالل حاج حسني‬
‫ سلطنة عنان‬،‫جامعة السلطان قابوس‬
‫ األردن‬،‫جامعة آل البيت‬
،‫ والية وسكانسن‬،‫منطقة مادسن التعلينية‬
‫الواليات املتخدة االمريكية‬
_____________________________________________
‫ ٍدفت الدزاسة احلالًة إىل استطالع آزاء ذوٍ العالقة حىل املهاٌ الرتبىٍ املفضّل لديَه لتعلًه الطلبة‬:‫مستخلص‬
‫ وقد‬.‫ مصازنًا ومصازنة مً ذوٍ العالقة‬2430 ‫ حًث اشتنلت عًّية الدزاسة على‬،ٌ‫ذوٍ اإلعاقة يف سلطية عُنا‬
ٌ‫أشازت اليتائج إىل أٌ معظه املصازنني يف الدزاسة مً ذوٍ العالقة يعتكدوٌ أٌ مدازس التعلًه العاو ٌٍ املها‬
‫ وأسفست اليتائج عً وجىد فسوم جىٍسية بني آزاء‬. ‫األفضل لتعلًه الطلبة ذوٍ اإلعاقة مكازىة يف البًئاتِ الرتبىيَّة‬
‫ وتبًًّ أيضاً أٌ تفضًل املصازنني ملدازس التعلًه العاو مكابل‬.‫املصازنني فًنا يتعلل ب البًئاتِ الرتبىيَّة اليت يفضلىىَا‬
‫ تبًًّ وجىد عالقة بني‬،‫ باإلضافة إىل ذلو‬.‫البًئاتِ الرتبىيَّة التعلًه الطلبة ذوٍ اإلعاقة خيتلف باختالف ىىع اإلعاقة‬
‫ بًينا مل تسفس اليتائج عً وجىد‬،‫متغًّس دوز املصازنني وآزائَه يف املهاٌ الرتبىٍ املفضّل لتعلًه الطلبة ذوٍ اإلعاقة‬
‫ واىتَت الدزاسة‬.‫عالقة بني متغًّس جيس املصازنني وآزائَه يف املهاٌ الرتبىٍ املفضّل لتعلًه الطلبة ذوٍ اإلعاقة‬
‫مبياقصة اخلدمات الرتبىية املكدّمة للطلبة ذوٍ اإلعاقة مع عدد مً التىصًات املتعلكة بتحسني ٍره اخلدمات يف سلطية‬
.ٌ‫عُنا‬
.ٌ‫ سلطية عُنا‬،‫ذوٍ اإلعاقة‬
‫ الطلبة‬،‫ الصفىف الصاملة‬،ٍ‫ املهاٌ الرتبى‬:‫الهلنات املفتاحًة‬
628
Omani Stakeholders’ Preferences for Educational Placement of Students with Disabilities
Jalal Hussien & et al.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
specifically the current study aimed to answer the following questions:
Special education services are relatively new
in the Sultanate of Oman. In 2008, the Sultanate signed the International Agreement on
the Rights of Persons with Disabilities for
Education in an Inclusive Educational Setting
(Ministry of Education, 2008). Inclusive education refers to teaching students with disabilities in their neighborhood school within
the regular classroom with their peers without disabilities (Rafferty, Boettcher, & Griffin,
2001). The Ministry of Education provides
educational services for students with disabilities in special education classes in many
public schools as well as in special education
schools (Al-Balushi, Al-Badi, & Ali, 2011;
Weber, 2012).
Oman has been in the process of reforming its
educational system and significant efforts
have been made towards achieving this goal
(Haj Hussien & Al-Qaryouti, 2014). The Ministry of Education in Oman aims to create inclusive schools (Ministry of Education, 2008).
The previous literature consistently showed
that the attitudes of the principals (Balboni &
Pedrabissi, 2000; Dyson, Howes, & Roberts,
2004; Kugelmass & Ainscow,2004; Semmel,
1986; Villa, Thousand, Meyers, & Navin,
1996), teachers (Ahsan, Sharma & Deppeler,
2012; Avramidis, Balyliss, & Burden, 2000;
Avramidis & Norwich, 2002; Emam & Hassan, 2011; Haj Hussien & Al-Qaryouti, 2014;
Sari, Celikoz, & Secer, 2009), parents (Gilmore, Campbell, & Cuskelly, 2003; Grove &
Fisher, 1999; Tafa & Manolitsis, 2003), and
students (Gannon & McGilloway, 2009;
Georgiadi, Kalyva, Kourkoutas, & Tsakiris,
2012; Haj Hussien & Al-Qaryouti, 2015; Miller, Garriott, & Mershon, 2005; Morin, Crocker, Beaulieu-Bergeron, & Caron, 2013; Panagiotou et al., 2008; Papaioannou, Evaggelinou,
& Block, 2014; Patel & Rose, 2014) play a major role in developing and implementing inclusive education successfully.
1.
Is the stakeholders’ gender associated
with their preference of educational
placement setting for students with disabilities?
2.
Is the stakeholders’ role associated with
their preference of educational placement setting for students with disabilities?
3.
What is the pattern of the stakeholders’
preference of educational placement settings for students with disabilities?
4.
Do the differences between percentages
of each category of stakeholders’ responses on each pair of educational
placement for students with disabilities
differ significantly?
5.
What is the stakeholders’ educational
placement preference (separate facilities
vs. regular school) for students with disabilities?
6.
What is the stakeholders’ educational
placement preference (separate facilities
vs. regular school) for each type of disability?
7.
Does the stakeholders’ educational
placement preference for students with
disabilities differ significantly according
to the student’s type of disability?
Context of the study
The Ministry of Education in Oman aims to
create inclusive schools (Ministry of Education, 2008). Currently a total of 5,325 individuals with disabilities are receiving services in
Oman. These services are provided by the
Ministry of Education, and the Ministry of
Social Development. The Ministry of Education provides educational services in special
education classes in 155 public schools for a
total of 1,565 students; 1,262 students with intellectual disabilities and 303 students with
hearing impairments (Ministry of Education,
2015). The number of students with disabilities enrolled in special education classes in
public school has increased steadily over the
last ten school years.
Teachers, parents, students, and administrators are the critical stakeholders and play a
vital role in creating inclusive schools; considering their opinions is critical to the success of systematic school reform (Hunt &
McDonnell, 2007; Wang, 2009). The purpose
of the current study was to survey the Omani
stakeholders’ opinions of the best educational
placement for students with disabilities. More
629
2015
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Variables
students in the three special education
schools; 192 students enrolled in the Hope
School for Students with Hearing Disability,
213 students enrolled in the School of Intellectual Disability, and 137 students enrolled
in Omar Ben Alkatab for Students with Visual Impairments (Ministry of Education, 2015).
Stakeholders: This variable involved regular
teachers, special education teachers, social
workers, principals, parents of students with
disabilities, parents of students without disabilities, and students.
Gender: This variable involved males and females.
The Ministry of Social Development provides services for a total of 3,218 individuals
with disabilities; among them 2,180 individuals are enrolled in 25 governmental centers,
605 individuals with disabilities are enrolled
in 13 private centers, and 433 individuals
with disabilities are enrolled in 10 nonprofit
associations’ centers (Ministry of Social Development, 2015).
Educational placement: This variable involved separate facilities, self-contained class,
resource room, and general education classroom.
Types of disabilities: This variable involved
intellectual disability, autism, emotional and
behavioral disability, hearing impairment,
other health impairment, specific learning disability, vision impairment, speech and language disability, & physical disability.
Method
Participants
A total of 3,000 questionnaires were sent to
the administrators of the public schools in
Sultanate Oman in various provinces; 2,430
stakeholders (1,211 males & 1,219 females),
representing all grade levels, volunteered to
complete the questionnaires. The sample involved 703 regular teachers (359 males & 344
females), 225 special education teachers (36
males & 189 females), 160 social workers (64
males & 96 females), 318 principals (169
males & 149 females), 234 parents of students
with disabilities (143 males & 91 females), 386
parents of students without disabilities (244
males & 142 females), and 404 students (196
males & 208 females). Table 1 shows the distribution of the participants according to
province by stakeholders.
Province
Muscat
Al Batinah Janoob
Al Batinah Shamal
Al Dakhiliyah
Ash Sharqiyah Janoob
Ash Sharqiyah Shamal
Al Burimi
Al Dhirah
Dhofar
Al Wusta
Musandam
Total
Stakeholder’s Opinion of the Best Placement
for Students with Disabilities Questionnaire:
The authors developed this questionnaire to
identify the stakeholders’ opinions of the best
educational placement for students with disabilities. This questionnaire developed by the
authors was based on the special education
services continuum from the most segregated
environment to the most inclusive. A continuum of placement options available for students with disabilities is necessary to meet the
needs of all special education students
(Kauffman, Bantz, & McCullough, 2002). The
placements from the most segregated to the
most inclusive are the following: a) separate
facilities, b) self-contained class, c) resource
room, and d) general education.
Table 1
Participants’ distribution according to province by stakeholders
Stakeholders
Regular
Special
Social
Principal
Parents of
Parents of stuteacher
education
worker
students
dents without
teacher
with disadisabilities
bilities
404
179
33
48
168
76
56
12
7
30
15
36
78
8
8
48
18
78
21
4
3
15
17
31
5
9
1
10
5
6
Student
Total
93
46
85
31
5
1001
202
323
122
41
26
4
7
28
2
28
25
120
16
12
59
11
15
703
1
3
4
1
0
225
8
7
61
10
15
160
16
12
83
8
20
318
3
4
0
2
0
234
14
23
60
13
21
386
12
15
60
14
18
404
70
76
327
59
89
2430
630
Omani Stakeholders’ Preferences for Educational Placement of Students with Disabilities
Jalal Hussien & et al.
The questionnaire included the following ten
questions:
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Procedure: The purpose of the study was explained to the participants with the emphasis
on the importance of them expressing their
personal opinion while considering that there
are no right or wrong responses. Finally, the
participants were asked to select the best educational placement among the four placements
options by marking their selection with a tick
().
1. In your opinion what is the best educational placement for students with intellectual
disabilities?
2. In your opinion what is the best educational placement for students with autism?
3. In your opinion what is the best educational placement for students with emotional
and behavioral disabilities?
Results
6. In your opinion what is the best educational placement for students with specific
learning disabilities?
The purpose of the current study was to survey the stakeholders’ opinions of the best educational placement setting for students with
disabilities in the Sultanate of Oman. Two
thousand four hundred and thirty stakeholders participated in the study. Frequencies and
percentages, a chi-square test of independence
and a chi-square test of goodness of fit were
performed to answer the questions of the
study. Each research question and its findings
are presented below.
7. In your opinion what is the best educational placement for students with a visual impairment?
Question 1: What is the pattern of the stakeholders’ preference of educational placement
settings for students with disabilities?
8. In your opinion what is the best educational placement for students with speech and
language disabilities?
The frequencies and percentages of stakeholders’ responses on educational placement preference were calculated and are presented in
Table 3. In addition, a chi-square test of goodness of fit was performed to determine whether the four educational settings (separate facilities, self-contained class, resource room, and
general education) for students with disabilities were equally selected by the stakeholders.
The findings showed that the stakeholders’
selection of the four educational placement
settings for students with disabilities were not
equally distributed in the population, χ2 (3, 2240)
= 541.95, p < 0.000. The results shown in Table
2 indicate that 43.3%, 29%, 12%, and 15.8% of
the stakeholders selected separate setting, selfcontained, resource room, and general education, respectively, as the best educational settings for educating students with disabilities.
4. In your opinion what is the best educational placement for students with a hearing
impairment?
5. In your opinion what is the best educational placement for students with other health
impairments?
9. In your opinion what is the best educational placement for students with physical
disabilities?
10. In your opinion what is the best educational placement for students with disabilities?
Each question was followed by the four educational placements:
 ( ) Full-time outside the regular school
 ( ) Full-time in special education classrooms in the regular school
 ( ) Part-time in the regular classroom
with part-time in a resource room
 ( ) Full-time in the regular classroom
with other support services provided
there
The questionnaire was examined by 4 experts,
comprising of two experts in measurement
and psychometric theory and two experts in
special education. The four experts agreed that
the questionnaire was written in clear and
precise language as well as measuring what it
intended to measure.
631
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Gender
Male
Female
Total
Total
Table 2
Educational placement preference by the role of the stakeholder and gender
Educational Setting Preference
Stakeholder
Descriptive measure
Separate
SelfResource
facilities
contained
room
class
Regular Teacher
Count
149
108
34
% within Source
46.4%
33.6%
10.6%
Special EducaCount
18
7
9
tion Teacher
% within Source
50.0%
19.4%
25.0%
Social Worker
Count
17
22
3
% within Source
29.8%
38.6%
5.3%
Principal
Count
63
40
24
% within Source
42.0%
26.7%
16.0%
Parents of stuCount
45
28
19
dents with dis% within Source
34.9%
21.7%
14.7%
abilities
Parents of stuCount
98
53
40
dents without
% within Source
42.4%
22.9%
17.3%
disabilities
Student
Count
99
41
17
% within Source
51.0%
21.1%
8.8%
Total
Count
489
299
146
% within Source
43.7%
26.7%
13.1%
Regular Teacher
Count
154
102
28
% within Source
49.8%
33.0%
9.1%
Special EducaCount
76
45
25
tion Teacher
% within Source
40.4%
23.9%
13.3%
Social Worker
Count
30
52
5
% within Source
33.3%
57.8%
5.6%
Principal
Count
50
54
12
% within Source
35.5%
38.3%
8.5%
Parents of stuCount
32
25
7
dents with dis% within Source
40.5%
31.6%
8.9%
abilities
Parents of stuCount
56
31
15
dents without
% within Source
43.1%
23.8%
11.5%
disabilities
Student
Count
82
42
30
% within Source
44.3%
22.7%
16.2%
Total
Count
480
351
122
% within Source
42.8%
31.3%
10.9%
Regular Teacher
Count
303
210
62
% within Source
48.1%
33.3%
9.8%
Special EducaCount
94
52
34
tion Teacher
% within Source
42.0%
23.2%
15.2%
Social Worker
Count
47
74
8
% within Source
32.0%
50.3%
5.4%
Principal
Count
113
94
36
% within Source
38.8%
32.3%
12.4%
Parents of stuCount
77
53
26
dents with dis% within Source
37.0%
25.5%
12.5%
abilities
Parents of stuCount
154
84
55
dents without
% within Source
42.7%
23.3%
15.2%
disabilities
Student
Count
181
83
47
% within Source
47.8%
21.9%
12.4%
Count
969
650
268
% within Source
43.3%
29.0%
12.0%
632
2015
General
education
Total
30
9.3%
2
5.6%
15
26.3%
23
15.3%
37
28.7%
321
100.0%
36
100.0%
57
100.0%
150
100.0%
129
100.0%
40
17.3%
231
100.0%
37
19.1%
184
16.5%
25
8.1%
42
22.3%
3
3.3%
25
17.7%
15
19.0%
194
100.0%
1118
100.0%
309
100.0%
188
100.0%
90
100.0%
141
100.0%
79
100.0%
28
21.5%
130
100.0%
31
16.8%
169
15.1%
55
8.7%
44
19.6%
18
12.2%
48
16.5%
52
25.0%
185
100.0%
1122
100.0%
630
100.0%
224
100.0%
147
100.0%
291
100.0%
208
100.0%
68
18.8%
361
100.0%
68
17.9%
353
15.8%
379
100.0%
2240
100.0%
Omani Stakeholders’ Preferences for Educational Placement of Students with Disabilities
Jalal Hussien & et al.
Question 2: Is the stakeholders’ gender associated with their preference of educational
placement setting for students with disabilities?
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
and their preference of educational placement
setting (separate facilities, self-contained class,
resource room, and general education) for
students with disabilities. A significant association between stakeholders’ role and their
preference of educational placement setting
for students with disabilities was revealed, χ2
(18, 2240) = 105.85, p < .0001.
The chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the association between the
stakeholders’ gender and their preference of
educational placement setting (separate facilities, self-contained class, resource room, and
general education) for students with disabilities. The results revealed no association between the stakeholders’ gender (male & female) and their preference of educational
placement setting for students with disabilities, χ2(3, 2240) = 3.02, p > .05.
Based on the results shown in Table 2 and
Figure 1, it appears that the stakeholders preferred the separate facilities setting followed
by the self-contained class setting, with the
exception of the social workers, who preferred
the self-contained class setting firstly, followed
by the separate facilities setting. Moreover, it
seems that the resource room setting was selected by stakeholders as the least preferred
setting, with the exception of the regular
teachers who selected the general education
setting as the least preferred option.
Question 3: Is the stakeholders’ role associated with their preference of educational
placement setting for students with disabilities?
The chi-square test of independence was performed to examine the association between the
stakeholders’ role (regular teachers, special
education teachers, social workers, principals,
parents of students with disabilities, parents of
students without disabilities, and students)
Question 4: Do the differences between percentages of each category of stakeholders’
responses on each pair of educational placement for students with disabilities differ
significantly?
Figure 1
Educational placement preference by the role of the stakeholder
633
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
The chi-square test of goodness of fit was performed to examine the differences between
percentages for each category of stakeholders’
responses on each pair of educational placement separately. These results are presented
below according to each category of stakeholders.
2015
tion of those teachers who selected the general
education classroom setting.
Special education teachers: The results in Table 4 indicate that a significantly higher proportion (p < .001) of special education teachers
selected separate facilities as the best educational placement setting for students with disabilities compared with any other educational
placement setting. In addition, a significantly
higher proportion (p < .05) of special education teachers selected self-contained class as a
better educational placement setting for students with disabilities compared with the resource room setting. However, there was no
significant difference (p = .05) between the
proportion of special education teachers who
selected self-contained class setting and the
proportion of those teachers who selected
general education classroom setting. Similarly,
there was no significant difference (p = .05)
between the proportion of special education
teachers who selected the resource room setting and the proportion of those teachers who
selected the general education classroom.
Regular classroom teachers: The results in
Table 3 indicate that a significantly higher
proportion (p < .001) of regular classroom
teachers selected separate facilities as the best
educational placement setting for students
with disabilities compared with any other educational placement setting. In addition, a significantly higher proportion (p < .001) of regular classroom teachers selected self-contained
class as the best educational placement setting
for students with disabilities compared with
resource room and general education classroom settings. However, there was no significant difference (p = .05) between the proportion of regular classroom teachers who selected the resource room setting and the propor-
Table 3
Results of the chi-square on the difference between percentages of
regular classroom teachers’ responses for each pair of educational placement
Setting
Observed N
Expected N
Residual
Chi-Square
Df
Separate facilities
303
256.5
46.5
16.860
1
Self-contained class
210
256.5
-46.5
Total
513
Separate facilities
303
182.5
120.5
159.126
1
Resource room
62
182.5
-120.5
Total
365
Separate facilities
303
179.0
124.0
171.799
1
General education
55
179.0
-124.0
Total
358
Self-contained class
210
136.0
74.0
80.529
1
Resource room
62
136.0
-74.0
Total
272
Self-contained class
210
132.5
77.5
90.660
1
General education
55
132.5
-77.5
Total
265
Resource room
62
58.5
3.5
0.419
1
General education
55
58.5
-3.5
Total
117
Asymp.sig.
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.518
Table 4
Results of the Chi-Square on the difference between percentages of
special education teachers’ responses for each pair of educational placement
Setting
Observed N
Expected N
Residual
Chi-Square
Df
Asymp.sig.
Separate facilities
94
73.0
21.0
12.082
1
.001
Self-contained class
52
73.0
-21.0
Total
146
Separate facilities
94
64.0
30.0
28.125
1
.000
Resource room
34
64.0
-30.0
Total
128
Separate facilities
94
69.0
25.0
18.116
1
.000
General education
44
69.0
-25.0
Total
138
634
Omani Stakeholders’ Preferences for Educational Placement of Students with Disabilities
Jalal Hussien & et al.
Table 4
Results of the Chi-Square on the difference between percentages of
special education teachers’ responses for each pair of educational placement
Setting
Observed N
Expected N
Residual
Chi-Square
Df
Self-contained class
52
43.0
9.0
3.767
1
Resource room
34
43.0
-9.0
Total
86
Self-contained class
52
48.0
4.0
0.667
1
General education
44
48.0
-4.0
Total
96
Resource room
34
39.0
-5.0
1.282
1
General education
44
39.0
5.0
Total
78
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Asymp.sig.
.05
.414
.258
principals selected separate facilities as the
best educational placement setting for students with disabilities compared with the resource room, and general education classroom
settings. On the other hand, there was no significant difference (p = .05) between the proportion of principals who selected separate
facilities and the proportion of those principals
who selected self-contained class setting for
students with disabilities. The results also indicate that a significantly higher proportion (p
< .001) of principals selected self-contained
class as the best educational placement setting
for students with disabilities compared with
the resource room and general education
classroom settings. It has also been revealed
that there was no significant difference (p =
.05) between the proportion of principals who
selected resource room and general education
classroom settings.
Social workers: The results in Table 5 indicate
that a significantly higher proportion (p < .01)
of social workers selected self-contained class
as the best educational placement setting for
students with disabilities compared with any
other educational placement setting. In addition, a significantly higher proportion (p <
.001) of social workers preferred separate facilities as a better educational placement setting
for students with disabilities compared with
the resource room and general education
classroom settings. The results also revealed
that a significantly higher proportion (p < .05)
of social workers preferred the general education classroom setting as a better educational
placement setting for students with disabilities
compared with the resource room setting.
Principals: The results in Table 6 indicate that
a significantly higher proportion (p < .001) of
Table 5
Results of the Chi-Square on the difference between percentages of
social workers’ responses for each pair of educational placement
Setting
Observed N
Expected N
Residual
Chi-Square
Df
Separate facilities
47
60.5
-13.5
6.025
1
Self-contained class
74
60.5
13.5
Total
121
Separate facilities
47
27.5
19.5
27.655
1
Resource room
8
27.5
-19.5
Total
55
Separate facilities
47
32.5
14.5
12.938
1
General education
18
32.5
-14.5
Total
65
Self-contained class
74
41.0
33.0
53.122
1
Resource room
8
41.0
-33.0
Total
82
Self-contained class
74
46.0
28.0
34.087
1
General education
18
46.0
-28.0
Total
92
Resource room
8
13.0
-5.0
3.846
1
General education
18
13.0
5.0
Total
26
Table 6
Results of the Chi-square on the difference between percentages of
principals’ responses for each pair of educational placement
Setting
Observe N
Expected N
Residual
Chi-Square
df
Separate facilities
113
103.5
9.5
1.744
1
Self-contained class
94
103.5
-9.5
Total
207
Separate facilities
113
74.5
38.5
39.792
1
635
Asymp. sig.
.014
.000
.000
.000
.000
.050
Asymp. sig.
.187
.000
2015
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Table 6
Results of the Chi-square on the difference between percentages of
principals’ responses for each pair of educational placement
Setting
Observe N
Expected N
Residual
Chi-Square
df
Resource room
36
74.5
-38.5
Total
149
Separate facilities
113
80.5
32.5
26.242
1
General education
48
80.5
-32.5
Total
161
Self-contained class
94
65.0
29.0
25.877
1
Resource room
36
65.0
-29.0
Total
130
Self-contained class
94
71.0
23.0
14.901
1
General education
48
71.0
-23.0
Total
142
Resource room
36
42.0
-6.0
1.714
1
General education
48
42.0
6.0
Total
84
Asymp. sig.
.000
.000
.000
.190
facilities as the best educational placement
setting for students with disabilities compared
with any other educational placement setting.
In addition, a significantly higher proportion
(p < .01) of parents of students without disabilities selected self-contained class as a better
educational placement setting for students
with disabilities compared with resource room
setting. Moreover, it has been revealed that
there was no significant difference (p = .05)
between the proportions of parents of students
without disabilities who selected selfcontained class setting and those parents who
selected general education classroom setting
for students with disabilities. Similarly, there
was no significant difference (p = .05) between
the proportions of parents of students without
disabilities who selected resource room setting
and those parents who selected general education classroom setting for students with disabilities.
Parents of students with disabilities: The results in Table 7 indicate that a significantly
higher proportion (p < .05) of parents of students with disabilities selected separate facilities as the best educational placement setting
for students with disabilities compared with
any other educational placement setting. In
addition, a significantly higher proportion (p <
.01) of parents of students with disabilities
selected self-contained class as the best educational placement setting for students with disabilities compared with the resource room setting, but not the general education classroom
setting. The results also indicate that a significantly higher proportion (p < .01) of parents of
students with disabilities selected general education classroom as a better educational
placement setting for students with disabilities
compared with resource room setting.
Parents of students without disabilities: The
results in Table 8 indicate that a significantly
higher proportion (p < .001) of parents of students without disabilities selected separate
Table 7
Results of the Chi-Square on the difference between percentages of parents
of students with disabilities responses for each pair of educational placement
Setting
Observed N
Expected N
Residual
Chi-Square
df
Separate facilities
77
65.0
12.0
4.431
1
Self-contained class
53
65.0
-12.0
Total
130
Separate facilities
113
74.5
38.5
25.252
1
Resource room
36
74.5
-38.5
Total
149
Separate facilities
77
64.5
12.5
4.845
1
General education
52
64.5
-12.5
Total
129
Self-contained class
53
39.5
13.5
9.228
1
Resource room
26
39.5
-13.5
Total
79
Self-contained class
53
52.5
.5
0.010
1
General education
52
52.5
-.5
Total
105
636
Asymp. sig.
.035
.000
.028
.002
.922
Omani Stakeholders’ Preferences for Educational Placement of Students with Disabilities
Jalal Hussien & et al.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Table 7
Results of the Chi-Square on the difference between percentages of parents
of students with disabilities responses for each pair of educational placement
Setting
Observed N
Expected N
Residual
Chi-Square
df
Resource room
26
39.0
-13.0
8.667
1
General education
52
39.0
13.0
Total
78
Table 8
Results of the Chi-Square on the difference between percentages of parents
of students without disabilities responses for each pair of educational placement
Setting
Observed N
Expected N
Residual
Chi-Square
Df
Separate facilities
154
119.0
35.0
20.588
1
Self-contained class
84
119.0
-35.0
Total
238
Separate facilities
154
104.5
49.5
46.895
1
Resource room
55
104.5
-49.5
Total
209
Separate facilities
154
111.0
43.0
33.315
1
General education
68
111.0
-43.0
Total
222
Self-contained class
84
69.5
14.5
6.050
1
Resource room
55
69.5
-14.5
Total
139
Self-contained class
84
76.0
8.0
1.684
1
General education
68
76.0
-8.0
Total
152
Resource room
55
61.5
-6.5
1.374
1
General education
68
61.5
6.5
Total
123
Asymp. sig.
.003
Asymp.sig.
.000
.000
.000
.014
.194
.241
Question 5: What is the stakeholders’ educational placement preference (separate facilities vs. regular school) for students with disabilities?
Students: The results in Table 9 indicate that a
significantly higher proportion (p < .001) of
students selected separate facilities as the best
educational placement setting for students
with disabilities compared with any other educational placement setting. Moreover, a significantly higher proportion (p < .01) of students preferred the self-contained class setting
over the resource room setting for students
with disabilities. On the other hand, the findings revealed no significant difference (p = .05)
between the proportion of students who selected self-contained class setting and those
students who selected general education classroom setting. Finally, the findings indicate a
significantly higher proportion (p < .001) of
students preferred general education classroom setting to the resource room setting for
students with disabilities.
The binomial test was performed for each category of stakeholders’ responses to examine
the significance of the difference between the
proportion of stakeholders who selected the
regular school setting and the proportion of
those who selected the separate facilities setting as the best educational placement setting
for students with disabilities. The results of the
binomial test are presented in Table 10. These
results showed a significantly higher proportion (p < 0.01) of stakeholders who preferred
the regular school over the separate facilities
setting for students with disabilities for all
stakeholders’
Table 9
Results of the Chi-square on the difference between percentages of
students’ responses for each pair of educational placement
Setting
Observed N
Expected N
Residual
Chi-Square
Separate facilities
181
132.0
49.0
36.379
Self-contained class
83
132.0
-49.0
Total
264
Separate facilities
181
114.0
67.0
78.754
Resource room
47
114.0
-67.0
Total
228
Separate facilities
181
124.5
56.5
51.281
General education
68
124.5
-56.5
Total
249
637
Df
1
1
1
Asymp.sig.
.000
.000
.000
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Table 9
Results of the Chi-square on the difference between percentages of
students’ responses for each pair of educational placement
Setting
Observed N
Expected N
Residual
Chi-Square
Self-contained class
83
65.0
18.0
9.969
Resource room
47
65.0
-18.0
Total
130
Self-contained class
83
75.5
7.5
1.490
General education
68
75.5
-7.5
Total
151
Resource room
47
57.5
-10.5
3.835
General education
68
57.5
10.5
Total
115
Df
1
Asymp.sig.
.002
1
.222
1
.050
2015
with separate facilities by 78% of stakeholders
for students with other health impairments,
77% for students with specific learning disabilities, 69% for students with speech and language disabilities, 61% for students with autism, 61% for students with hearing impairments, 59% for students with emotional and
behavioral disabilities, 51% for students with
physical disabilities, 51% students with visual
impairments, and 50% for students with intellectual disabilities. The results also revealed
that a significantly higher proportion (p < .000)
of stakeholders selected regular school as a
better placement for each type of disability,
with the exception of physical disabilities, visual impairments, and intellectual disabilities,
which showed non-significant differences (p =
.05) between the proportion of stakeholders
who selected the regular school and those who
selected the separate facilities.
categories, with the exception of two categories, i.e., regular education teachers and students showed no significant differences in
their preference.
Question 6: What is the stakeholders’ educational placement preference (separate facilities vs. regular school) for each type of disability?
The binomial test was performed to examine
the differences between the proportions of the
stakeholders who selected the regular school
option compared with those who selected the
separate facilities as the best educational
placement setting for each separate type of
disability. The results of the binomial test are
presented in Table 11. The findings indicate
that the regular school was selected as a better
educational placement setting in comparison
Table 10
Results of the binomial test for stakeholders’ responses on educational placement (separate facilities &
regular school) for students with disabilities
Type of disability
Response category
N
Observed
Test
Exact sig.
prop.
prop.
(2-tailed)
Regular Teacher
Separate Facilities
303
.48
.50
.359
Regular School
327
.52
Total
630
1.00
Special Education Teacher
Separate Facilities
94
.42
.50
.019
Regular School
130
.58
Total
224
1.00
Social Worker
Separate Facilities
47
.32
.50
.000
Regular School
100
.68
Total
147
1.00
Principal
Separate Facilities
113
.39
.50
.000
Regular School
178
.61
Total
291
1.00
Parents of students with disabilities
Separate Facilities
77
.37
.50
.000
Regular School
131
.63
Total
208
1.00
Parents of students without disabilities
Separate Facilities
154
.43
.50
.006
Regular School
207
.57
Total
361
1.00
Student
Separate Facilities
181
.48
.50
.411
Regular School
198
.52
Total
379
1.00
638
Omani Stakeholders’ Preferences for Educational Placement of Students with Disabilities
Jalal Hussien & et al.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Table 11
Results of the binomial test of stakeholders’ responses on educational placement setting (separate facilities & regular school) for each type of disability
Type of disability
Response category
N
Observed
Test
Exact
prop.
prop.
sig. (2tailed)
Intellectual disability
Separate facilities
1114
.50
.50
.784
Regular school
1128
.50
Total
2242
1.00
Autism
Separate facilities
877
.39
.50
.000
Regular school
1364
.61
Total
2241
1.00
Emotional & Behavioral disability
Separate facilities
909
.41
.50
.000
Regular school
1331
.59
Total
2240
1.00
Hearing Impairment
Separate facilities
866
.39
.50
.000
Regular school
1375
.61
Total
2241
1.00
Other Health Impairment
Separate facilities
495
.22
.50
.000
Regular school
1747
.78
Total
2242
1.00
Specific Learning Disabilities
Separate facilities
523
.23
.50
.000
Regular school
1718
.77
Total
2241
1.00
Visual Impairment
Separate facilities
1093
.49
.50
.237
Regular school
1150
.51
Total
2243
1.00
Speech and Language Disability
Separate facilities
703
.31
.50
.000
Regular school
1538
.69
Total
2241
1.00
Physical Disability
Separate facilities
1097
.49
.50
.342
Regular school
1143
.51
Total
2240
1.00
Question 7: Does the stakeholders’ educational placement preference for students
with disabilities differ significantly according to the student’s type of disability?
The results suggest that the stakeholders’ educational placement preference for students
with disabilities differs significantly (p < .000)
according to the students’ disabilities, with the
exception of the following disabilities: other
health impairment vs. specific learning disabilities, autism vs. emotional and behavioral disabilities, autism vs. hearing impairment, hearing impairment vs. emotional and behavioral
disabilities, intellectual disability vs. visual
impairment, intellectual disability vs. physical
disability, and physical disability vs. visual
impairment. The stakeholders’ educational
placement preference did not change significantly (p > .05).
McNemar’s test was performed to examine the
differences between the proportion of the
stakeholders who selected the regular school
option compared with those who selected the
separate facilities for each separate pair of various disabilities (health disabilities, specific
learning disabilities, speech and language disabilities, autism, hearing impairments, emotional and behavioral disabilities, physical disabilities, visual impairments, and intellectual
disabilities). The results of McNemar’s test is
summarized in Table 12.
Table 12
Results of McNemar’s test of stakeholders’ responses on
educational placement setting (separate facilities & regular school)
for students with disabilities
Type of disability*
Pair differences %
N
Chi-Square**
ID – AUT
-11
2241
77.248
ID – EBD
-9
2239
51.585
ID – HI
-11
2240
78.418
ID – OHI
-28
2241
377.023
ID – SLD
-27
2240
361.475
ID – VI
-1
2242
.492
ID – S-L
-19
2240
192.832
ID – PHD
-1
2239
.319
AUT – EBD
2
2239
1.538
639
Asymp. sig.
.000
.000
.000
.000
.000
.483
.000
.572
.215
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
2015
Table 12
Results of McNemar’s test of stakeholders’ responses on
educational placement setting (separate facilities & regular school)
for students with disabilities
Type of disability*
Pair differences %
N
Chi-Square**
Asymp. sig.
AUT – HI
0
2240
.136
.712
AUT – OHI
-17
2240
181.451
.000
AUT – SLD
-16
2239
156.247
.000
AUT – VI
11
2241
55.030
.000
AUT – S-L
-8
2239
39.066
.000
AUT – PHD
10
2238
60.386
.000
EBD – HI
-2
2240
2.413
.120
EBD – OHI
-19
2240
210.060
.000
EBD – SLD
-18
2239
180.485
.000
EBD – VI
8
2240
40.543
.000
EBD – S-L
-10
2238
53.878
.000
EBD – AUT – PHD
8
2237
43.129
.000
HI – OHI
-17
2241
189.875
.000
HI – SLD
-16
2240
158.854
.000
HI – VI
10
2241
77.979
.000
HI – S-L
-8
2239
40.885
.000
HI – PHD
10
2238
72.169
.000
OHI – SLD
1
2241
1.736
.188
OHI – VI
27
2242
395.132
.000
OHI – S-L
9
2240
68.449
.000
OHI – PHD
27
2239
400.445
.000
SLD – VI
26
2241
364.596
.000
SLD – S-L
8
2239
53.580
.000
SLD – PHD
2238
345.495
.000
VI – S-L
-18
2241
198.869
.000
VI – PHD
0
2240
.023
.880
S-L – PHD
18
2240
211.574
.000
*ID (Intellectual Disability), AUT (Autism), EBD (Emotional and Behavioral Disability), HI (Hearing Impairment), OHI (Other Health Impairment), SLD (Specific Learning Disabilities), VI (Vision Impairment), L-D
(Speech and language disability), PHD (Physical Disability)
**Continuity Corrected
The data also indicates that no special education services have been provided for children
with disabilities in the general education classrooms so far. In comparison, 87% of children
with disabilities in the United States are educated in the general education classroom setting (U.S. Department of Education, 2014).
Discussion
The information provided by the Ministry of
Education and the Ministry of Social Development (2015) revealed that 5,325 children
with disabilities received educational services
in Oman. Twenty nine percent of these children are enrolled in special education classes
in public school and 71% are enrolled in special education schools or centers. In comparison, 95% of children with disabilities in the
United States receive their education in regular schools and the remaining in separate settings (Giangreco, Smith, & Pinckney 2006;
Hocutt, 1996; U.S. Department of Education,
2014).
Moreover, the data showed a separate and
segregated special education system in Oman.
Unfortunately, history shows that a separate
and segregated education system was not successful in achieving inclusive schools in the
U.S.A. (Lamport, Graves, & Ward, 2012) and
more likely will not in Oman.
The results of the current study also showed a
significantly higher proportion of special education teachers, social workers, principals,
parents of students with disabilities, and parents of students without disabilities preferred
the regular school as a better setting than the
proportion of those who preferred the separate facility settings for educating students
with disabilities. However, there were no significant differences between the proportion of
the regular education teachers and the propor-
The data suggests that a very small number of
Omani children with disabilities are receiving
educational services; considering that WHO
(2011) estimated about 15% of any population
have a disability. This finding is consistent
with the estimation of the percentage of children with disabilities who attend school in
developing countries, which ranges from less
than 1% to 10% (Peters, 2004; UNESCO, 2009).
640
Omani Stakeholders’ Preferences for Educational Placement of Students with Disabilities
Jalal Hussien & et al.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
tion of the students who preferred regular
school or the proportion of those who preferred the separate facilities. However, Byrnes,
Sigafoos, Rickards, and Brown (2002) reported
that 60.3% of students with hearing impairments from Australia preferred to be educated
in their local school, not in a separate setting.
significant differences between the proportion
of stakeholders who selected the regular
school as a better placement and the proportion of stakeholders who selected separate facilities for educating students with the following disabilities: physical, visual impairment,
and intellectual.
Further investigation into the stakeholders’
preference of the educational settings (separate facilities, self-contained class, resource
room, and general education) indicate the following: a) a significantly higher proportion of
each category of stakeholder selected separate
facilities as the best educational placement
setting for students with disabilities compared
with any other educational setting, with exception of the social workers, who preferred
the self-contained class setting over the separate facilities setting, b) a significantly higher
proportion of each category of stakeholder
selected self-contained class as the best educational setting for students with disabilities
compared with resource room and general
education classroom settings, with the exception being the proportion of special education
teachers, parents of students with disabilities,
parents of students without disabilities and
students who preferred the self-contained
class, who did not differ significantly from the
proportion of those who selected the general
education classroom setting, and c) there were
no significant differences between the proportion of each category of stakeholder who selected the resource room setting and the proportion of those stakeholders who selected the
general education classroom setting, with the
exception of a significantly higher proportion
of social workers, parents of students with
disabilities, and students, who preferred the
general education classroom setting over the
resource room setting. Similarly, Livingston,
Reed, and Good (2001) found that principals
from the state of Georgia, U.S.A, preferred the
self-contained classroom in regular school as
the best placement option for children with
disabilities.
Moreover, the findings suggest that the stakeholders’ preference for educating students in
the regular school setting versus a separate
facility varied according to the type of disability. The order, from more likely to least likely,
of the stakeholders’ preference for educating
students in a regular school setting versus a
separate facility according to the type of disability is the following: a) other health impairment or specific learning disability, b) speech
and language disability, c) autism, emotional
and behavioral disability, or hearing impairment, and d) physical disability, visual impairment, or intellectual disability respectively. Finally, there were no significant differences in stakeholders’ preference for educating
students in the regular school setting versus a
separate facility between the following disabilities: other health impairment vs. specific
learning disabilities, autism vs. emotional and
behavioral disabilities, autism vs. hearing impairment, hearing impairment vs. emotional
and behavioral disabilities, intellectual disability vs. visual impairment, intellectual disability vs. physical disability, and physical disability vs. visual impairment. Similarly, TASH
(2009) and UNESCO (2010) documented that
the likelihood of educating students with disabilities in the general education setting varied
with the type of disability.
In addition, the results revealed that a significantly higher proportion of stakeholders selected the regular school as a better placement
over separate facilities for educating students
with the following disabilities: specific learning, other health impairment, speech and language, autism, hearing impairment, and emotional and behavioral. However, there were no
Overall, the stakeholders in Oman support the
education of children with disabilities in regular school. In spite of this, the implementation
of inclusive education is a complicated process. Successful inclusive education requires
restructuring the education system, resources,
accessible schools, and competent staff with
positive attitudes. It is fundamental to develop
Finally, a significant association between
stakeholders’ role and their preference of educational placement setting for students with
disabilities was found. However, the findings
revealed that there was no significant relationship between stakeholders’ gender and educational settings preference.
Recommendations
641
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
national policies and procedures that regulate
and operationally define the following: special
education services, the specific process of
providing special education services, the
rights of students with disabilities and their
parents, definitions of each type of disability,
and their eligibility criteria for special education.
2015
tion authority. Educational Psychology,
20(2), 191-211.
Avramidis, E., & Norwich, B. (2002). Teachers’ attitudes towards integration/inclusion: a
review of the literature. Eur. J. of Special Education, 17(2), 129-147.
Balboni, G. & Pedrabissi, L. (2000). Attitudes
of Italian teachers and parents toward
In order to provide effective and efficient special education services in inclusive classrooms,
the Ministry of Education must assure the
availability of a sufficient number of special
education teachers and support staff (psychologists, occupational therapists, physical
therapists, and speech therapists). The availability also of qualified staff (administrators,
supervisors, regular classroom teachers) in
teaching students with disabilities is essential.
school inclusion of students with mental retardation: the role of experience. Education and Training in Mental Retardation and
Developmental Disabilities, 35(2), 148-159.
Byrnes, L., Sigafoos, J., Rickards, F., & Brown,
P. (2002). Inclusion of students who are
deaf or hard hearing in government
schools in New South Wales, Australia:
Development and implementation of a
policy. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7(3), 244-257.
In addition, the availability of a continuum of
placement options is necessary to meet the
needs of all special education students. Finally, the availability of valid and reliable assessment instruments that measure academic,
social, and emotional development, speech
and language, adaptive behaviors, gross motor
skills, fine motor skills are crucial for screening, determining eligibility, planning, progress
monitoring, and evaluation.
Dyson, A., Howes, A., & Roberts, B. (2004).
What do we really know about inclusive
schools? A systematic review of the research evidence. In D. Mitchell (Ed.) Special Educational Needs and Inclusive Education: Major themes in education. London:
Routlege Falmer.
Acknowledgment
Emam, M., & Hassan, H. (2011). Preschool
and primary school teachers’ attitudes
towards inclusive education in Egypt: the
role of experience and self-efficacy. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 29, 976985.
The investigators would like to express their
sincere appreciation to the Research Affairs at
Sultan Qaboos University and the United Arab
Emirates University for the financial support
of this project under Grant # SQUUAEU/09/02.
Gannon, S., & McGilloway, S. (2009). Children’s attitudes toward their peers with
Down syndrome in schools in rural Ireland: an exploratory study. European
Journal of Special Needs Education, 24 (4),
455-463.
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(Pages 645-659)
Vol.9 Issue 4, 2015
The Relation between Omani Students' Perceptions of the Writing Strategies
and their Writing Performance
Juma B. Busaidi *& Dina A. Al-Jamal
Yarmouk University, Jordan
___________________________________________
Received: 3/2/2015
Revised: 18/5/2015
Accepted: 20/5/2015
_____________________________________________
Abstract: The present study aimed at exploring the relation between Omani students' perceptions of writing strategies and their own writing performance. Three types of key universal
strategies (metacognitive, cognitive, social-affective), in master’s degree research, were assumed
as effective in promoting students' successful writing processes. A strategy questionnaire in order to map Omani EFL students' perception of strategy use as well as a writing test to identify
students' actual writing performance was constructed. The present study reported that the participants perceived the metacognitive strategy of selective attention as prevailing in their writing
practice. They also demonstrated interest in the social affective strategy of cooperation. Cognitive strategy use, however, seemed to be complex and challenging, and was perceived as the
least apparent. Furthermore, the study reported inefficiency of strategy use, as obtained by the
questionnaire, which corresponded with students’ very poor performance in the writing test.
The test scores indicated that 84.40% of the participants failed the writing test, which means that
they are far away from being successful language writers.
Keywords: Writing strategies, EFL, tenth grade students, Oman.
‫العالقة بني إدراك الطمبة العمانيني واستخدام اسرتاتيجيات الكتابة و أدائهم الكتابي‬
‫مجعة بو بطي البوسعيدي* و ديها اجلمن‬
‫ األردى‬،‫جامعة الريموك‬
_____________________________________________
‫ ٍدفت الدزاسُ احلالًُ إىل كشف العالقُ بني تصىزات الطلبُ العناىًني حنى استدداو اسرتاتًحًات‬:‫مشتدلص‬
،ًُ‫ حًث افرتضت ٍره الدزاسُ أٌ االسرتاتًحًات العاملًُ السًٓشُ الثالث (ما وزاْ املعسف‬.ٌ‫الكتابُ وأدآَه الكتاب‬
ُ‫ يف حبث أجسٍ للحصىل علِ دزجُ ماجشتري ذات فعالًُ يف إجناح عنلًُ الكتاب‬،)ًُ‫ والىجداىًُ االجتناع‬،ًُ‫واملعسف‬
‫ ومت بياْ استبًاٌ مً أجل معسفُ تصىزات الطلبُ الريً يدزسىٌ اللغُ اإلجنلًزيُ كلغُ أجيبًُ حنى‬.ُ‫لدّ الطلب‬
ٌ‫ وخلصت الدزاسُ إىل أ‬.ُ‫ كنا ومت بياْ اختباز لتحديد األداْ الكتابٌ الفعلٌ للطلب‬،ُ‫استدداو اسرتاتًحًات الكتاب‬
ِ‫الطلبُ كاىىا يتصىزوٌ أٌ اسرتاتًحًُ ما وزاْ املعسفًُ لالىتباه االىتقآٌ ٌٍ الشآدَ يف أدآَه الكتابٌ وعالوَ عل‬
ُ‫ كنا أظَسوا تصىزات تعكص صعىب‬.ٌ‫ذلك أبدو مً ال حنى استدداو االسرتاتًحًُ الىجداىًُ االجتناعًُ للتعاو‬
‫ ٍرا وقد أشازت الدزاسُ إىل عدو تىافق تصىزات الطلبُ الستدداو اسرتاتًحًات‬.‫االسرتاتًحًُ املعسفًُ وتعقًدٍا‬
‫ حًث‬.‫الكتابُ اليت مت احلصىل علًَا مً االستبًاٌ مع أداْ الطالب الفعلٌ يف اختباز الكتابُ الرٍ كاٌ ضعًفا‬
‫ وٍرا قد يعين أٌ مشتىّ كتابتَه‬،ُ‫ مً املشازكني قد فشلىا يف اختباز الكتاب‬٪84.40 ٌ‫أشازت ىتآخ االختباز أ‬
.‫كاٌ بعًدا كل البعد عً وصفَه بكاتيب لغُ ىاجحني‬
.ٌ‫ عنا‬،‫ طلبُ الصف العاشس‬،ًُ‫ اللغُ اإلجنلًزيُ كلغُ أجيب‬،ُ‫ اسرتاتًحًات الكتاب‬:ًُ‫الكلنات املفتاح‬
*[email protected]
645
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
A noteworthy drift in the teaching of the writing skill in the last decade has been a prototype shift from stressing the process of writing
rather than the product of writing. As such,
such a drift motivated the researchers of the
current study to explore the teaching of the
writing skill in Oman, which will, in turn, affect the teaching of the writing skill.
2015
the findings of a study which revealed that
more experienced Japanese academic writers
differ from their junior counterparts when using “language-oriented” writing strategies.
Language learning strategies have three types:
cognitive, metacognitive and social-affective
strategies (Oxford, 1989, 1990; Chamot, 2005).
Cognitive strategies comprise unconscious
interactions with the material to be learned,
for instance differencing, resourcing, and notetaking. They refer to steps used in problemsolving that require analysis, transformation
and synthesis of learning materials. Metacognitive strategies, conversely, include conscious
management and control over the learning
process, for example planning, paying attention, and monitoring. That is, metacognitive
strategies refer to the knowledge about the
cognitive process as well as to the regulation
of cognition through processes of planning,
monitoring and evaluating. Social-affective
strategies involve interacting with one another
or using affective control to assist learning,
such as questioning, working with peers, and
lowering anxiety. They refer to the activities
learners engage in to practice this knowledge
(Rubin, 1987; Oxford, 1990; O'Malley &
Chamot, 2005).
Researchers such as Tsui and Ng (2000) and
Liu and Hansen (2005) highlighted this move
from studying writing itself to reviewing what
writers do as they write. Experts dedicated
their teaching to a sequence of strategies the
writer engages in so as to produce a piece of
writing. Successful language writers often
make use of appropriate learning strategies to
facilitate their writing process (Nyikos, 1987).
With the development of the research on second language acquisition, more and more
attention has been paid to the research on language learning strategies as they have the potential to enhance the development of the writing skill (Fazeli, 2012; Kang & Pyun, 2013). As
early as Oxford (1990[a or b]), learning strategies have been theorized to have the principal
influence on the rate and level of second language acquisition.
It was felt by the researchers that teachers
have begun to be aware of the need for
providing support for students with the writing process. Inquiry into language learning
strategies explored the possibility of assisting
students to become more effective language
learners by teaching them some of the writing
strategies that empirical studies have identified as characteristics of the successful language writer (e.g. Rubin, 1987; Shih-Chieh,
2012; Fazeli, 2012). Learning strategies can be
defined as steps, deliberate actions, techniques
and behaviors that learners take in order to
facilitate the learning process (Rubin, 1987;
Schmeck, 1988, O’Malley & Chamot, 1990).
Writing strategies are valuable in many learning settings. The potential will be achieved
when the person acquires ability in strategy
employment and formality with strategy application. This process approach to instruction
views writing in progress as a dynamic entity,
which can be substantively improved by multiple drafts and revisions. This is not to say
that learning strategies will substitute specific
knowledge of content domains; strategies are
rather simply necessary conditions for more
effective learning (Harold & O'Neil, 1978;
Huwari & Aziz, 2011).
Shapira and Lazarowitz (2005). Such performances demonstrate four clusters of procedures; namely, metacognitive, cognitive, social, and affective. Since writing proficiency
affects one's achievement, writing was perceived as an integral part of second/foreign
language learning (Anson, 2006). Kobayashi
and Rinnert (2008) indicated that students use
metacognitive strategies in their L1 and L2
essays as a result of interaction between the
two languages. Previously, however, Sasaki
(2000) stated that skillful writers use strategies
while less skilled ones do not. In his study,
Defining writing strategies
Second language research on writing strategies refers to the comparison between experienced writers’ writing behavior and that of
inexperienced writers. The difference in writing behaviors in first and second language
writing, the use of first language in second
language writing, and also the writers’ perception about writing tasks (Petric & Czarl, 2003;
Okamura, 2006; Erkan & Saban, 2011) have
been investigated. Okamura (2006), for example, supported this argument when showing
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The Relation between Omani Students' Perceptions of the Writing Strategies
Juma Busaidi & Dina Al-Jamal
Sasaki compared the use of planning and revision strategies by two groups of writers. The
study reported that skillful writers use strategies while less skillful ones do not use writing
strategies.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
study of successful and unsuccessful learners
of English in Chinese universities. The data
were collected through interviews, diaries,
and follow-up email correspondence with nine
successful and nine unsuccessful second-year
EFL students at two Chinese mainland universities. The findings revealed that the unsuccessful students relied on rote memorization,
while the successful students relied on a systematic plan and supplemented rote-learning
with strategies for supporting what they had
learnt.
Metacognitive strategies echo students' consciousness of using strategies in order to manage learning. Metacognitive strategies were
defined by Wiles (1997: 17) as “selfmanagement and the capability to plan, monitor and revise, or control learning”.
Cognitive strategies, in contrast, echo students'
processing and transforming information,
which entail using language dynamically. Examples of cognitive strategies are: organizing,
reading out loud, analyzing, summarizing and
reasoning (Oxford, 1990; Weinstein & Mayer,
1986). Social strategies, however, echo students'
interaction with their teacher or colleagues in
class such as asking questions, cooperating
with others, and peer work (Shapira & Lazarowitz, 2005).
The social context was demonstrated as vital
in writing strategies research. In this regard,
Kang & Pyun (2013) examined the writing
strategies used by L2 writers while stressing
the mediated activities included in their writing processes. The sample number was as
small as two participants, where there were
interviews, a think-aloud technique, and motivated recall. A number of themes and trends
were built in light of data analysis. Each theme
was interpreted in relation to each individual's
sociocultural context. The results revealed that
a learner's socially situated setting is strongly
related to the types of writing strategies and
mediating instruments that the learner employs or favors.
Language proficiency and the writing skill
Writers who are not skillful in English cannot
express multi-faceted ideas due to vocabulary,
grammar, background, culture, style, and L1
transfer deficiency issues (Kobayashi & Rinnert, 2008; Petric & Czarl, 2003). In such cases,
the growth of L2 writing promotes proficiency
which has been one of the core research
themes in EFL/ESL writing settings Evans and
Green (2007) reported significant differences
between proficient and non-proficient language users in terms of the writing process as
skillful and less-skilled writers employ different prewriting, planning, editing, and revision
activities.
Writing and cognition
Cognition was further examined in the context
of EFL writing strategies. Specifically, cognitive and compensatory learning strategies
were adopted study in order to develop writing skills. Twenty one females and 3 males in
their second year undergraduate writers participated in this study in Costa Rica. All participants were EFL students joining a writing
course. Brand and Jimenez employed a questionnaire which particularized Oxford's cognitive and compensatory learning strategies taxonomies and a pair of checklists for writers to
fill in so as to overcome their writing difficulties. The study reported that most writers did
not make the most of compensatory learning
strategies in order to write well, and besides
they had flaws in different writing areas, for
instance, grammar, process, and vocabulary.
Brand and Jimenez associated such findings
with the fact that these writers did not know
about the existence of cognitive and compensatory learning before the study commenced.
An in-depth investigation of the process was
carried out by Mu and Carrington (2007), who
examined the writing strategies of three Chinese post-graduate learners in an Australian
higher education institution. Data were collected by a semi-structured interview, questionnaire, and reflective post-writing discussion, and written drafts of papers were analyzed. The study reported that the participants
used rhetorical strategies, metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies and social-affective
strategies in their writing.
Strategy use features successful/unsuccessful
language learners. Gan, Humphreys, and
Hamp-Lyons (2004) conducted a comparative
Cognitive approaches to manage writing tasks
were also introduced by Shih-Chieh (2012)
647
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
who examined students' use of writing strategies as correlated to Taiwanese students’ English writing achievements. The cognitive approach was used so as to investigate the process of writing. The sample of the study involved 40 student writers (consisting of 20 low
and 20 high achievers). The study employed a
simultaneous think-aloud technique and instant effective interviews with students. The
study reported that high-achieving students
were more proficient than low-achieving students. Such student writers formulated their
thesis statement, produced texts, and edited
their texts through making the text as meaningful as possible.
2015
group L2 writers consistently in light of their
writing capabilities. The study trained four
Malay engineering undergraduates in Malaysia who had completed their foundation program. The results indicated that cognitive
strategies were used most by the engineering
students in composing; in contrast, the study
concluded that social strategies were the least
used strategies.
Personality and writing
Personality traits were studied carefully when
it came to the writing strategies research paradigm. Such a relation was explored by Fazeli
(2012). Four research instruments were employed; namely: Oxford's strategy inventory
for learning language (SILL), a background
questionnaire, a personality inventory, and a
test of English as a foreign language. Two
hundred and thirteen Iranian female EFL university undergraduates in Iran participated in
this study. The results of the study demonstrated positive and negative noteworthy correlations that accounted for frequency of English language strategies and personality traits.
Multiple intelligences were evidenced as relevant to writing strategies. Such a relationship
was identified by Moheb and Bagheri (2013).
The sample of the study consisted of 120 male
and female Iranian EFL learners studying at a
language institute. Two questionnaires were
used. The first questionnaire was a multiple
intelligences inventory reporting nine types of
intelligences based on Gardner’s theory. The
second questionnaire, however, was a writing
skills and strategies inventory. A relationship
between certain kinds of intelligences among
females and certain writing strategies was reported. The male group, in contrast, did not
display such a relationship. Advanced level
students presented more noteworthy correlations than high level students. Conversely, it
was revealed that none of the intelligences
could foretell writing strategies individually.
A further correlation between strategy use and
concept development was established by AlJabali (2012). Al-Jabali led a longitudinal study
of language strategy use and concept improvement. Forty-five Jordanian EFL undergraduates majoring in English participated in
the study, where study-semester and gender
variables were explored as well. The SILL inventory was adopted as a tool for responding
to the questions of the study. The findings established that Jordanian undergraduates majoring in English had great strategy employment for most strategies. The study reported a
hierarchy of strategies as ranking from social,
compensation, affective, cognitive, to memory
strategies. Gender differences were not significant in strategy use; yet, the study-semester
variable showed significant differences in favor of third and fourth semesters’ responses.
The relationship between strategy use and
proficiency was highlighted. A study by Magno (2010) examined the English proficiency of
Korean students, through adopting the SILL
inventory together with the number of months
spent in studying English. The sample consisted of 302 Korean learners who were asked to
complete the SILL in addition to an English
proficiency test. The study showed the compensation strategy as very effective in promoting students' English proficiency. A new result
was that the number of months learning formal English increased as the English proficiency of Korean students also increased.
The prominence of writers' motivation featured many studies, among which is the one
carried out by Soo-Eun (2011) in order to survey Korean college students’ L2 writing improvement, motivation, and strategies. The
study used interviews and self-report methods
for students enrolled in writing classes. Verdicts of the study pointed out that L2 [L1?]
and L2 writing background knowledge were
considerably linked to L2 writing motivation,
performance, and strategy use. Interview data
Arranging writers in terms of their writing
proficiency is a priority of writing strategy
research. Abdullah (2011) accounted for the
differences in the use of writing strategies between skillful and less skilled writers. Abdullah used multiple assessment criteria so as to
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The Relation between Omani Students' Perceptions of the Writing Strategies
Juma Busaidi & Dina Al-Jamal
supported the self-report method by establishing the students' level of L2 writing selfefficacy, motivation, and strategy uses.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Al-Barwani, Mekhlafi, & Nagaratnam (2013: 3)
studied the reality of Omani students in early
pre-university grades and noted weakness in
mastering the English language as a result of
lack of students’ knowledge about means and
effective strategies that can help them to learn
the English language as required. Very few
researches on learning strategies of the English
language have been conducted in Oman (Abu
Radwan, 2011; Al-Barwani et al, 2013). Omani
students need to be fully competent in learning English as a consequence of the spread of
globalization and technological development.
As a result, the need arises for studying the
effect of using learning strategies of the English language on the students’ achievement in
the English language writing skill. Students'
perceptions of the writing learning strategies
may play a role in drawing conclusions regarding their writing skill development.
Moreover, surveying Omani EFL strategies is
an exciting, still-unfolding area of L2 writing
and curriculum design. It is hoped that the
present study will guide the main issues and
considerations in EFL education particularly
in Oman.
Beliefs towards strategy use were perceived as
crucial in the writing strategy research. In this
regard, Sioson (2011) examined the relationship between students' beliefs and their strategy use among 300 undergraduates in the Philippines. The SILL questionnaire was managed
in order to gather information on language
learners’ beliefs and their learning strategies.
The study found that language learning strategies mostly were negatively associated with
language learning beliefs. Furthermore, only
the motivation subscale of beliefs was the important predictor of speaking performance.
Gender and proficiency were investigated as
variables that may affect the use of strategies.
As such, Abu Radwan (2011) examined the
use of language learning strategies by 128 students majoring in English at Sultan Qaboos
University, Oman by means of using Oxford's
(1990a) SILL. The study relied on three-way
criteria: students' grade point average (GPA)
in English courses, study duration in the English Department, and students’ perceived selfrating. Results of the study indicated that students employed metacognitive strategies
meaningfully more than any other category of
strategies, with memory strategies ranking as
lowest on students' preference scale, and male
students used more social strategies than female students. Moreover, the results revealed
that more proficient students used more cognitive, metacognitive and affective strategies
than less proficient students.
The primary research concern addresses the
congruence between students' perceptions of
writing strategies and their own writing performance by examining their perceptions as
well as their real writing performance. Step by
step questions that reflect such concern are as
follows:
The Omani setting
In Oman, English teaching has assumed extraordinary attention since as early as the
1970s when His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin
Said rose to the throne and pursued substantial educational reforms (Al-Issa, 2011). English language command is seen as a crucial
element in the development of Oman and its
real incorporation into the modern world. At
school level, from 1998-1999, English was
taught as early as the first grade onwards, giving pupils twelve years of instruction in the
language before entering higher education.
However, the majority of Omani students find
it very difficult to listen, speak, read or write
in English (Al-Mahrooqi & Asante, 2010).
649
1.
What types of writing learning strategies are most frequently perceived by
EFL tenth grade students at Khrayes Al
Hobos School?
2.
What is their actual writing performance?
3.
What is the relationship between students' perceptions of the writing strategies and their writing performance?
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Method
2015
The strategy survey questionnaires as well as
the writing test were given to a jury of eight
university professors and six senior teachers
and educational supervisors in order to elicit
their views and to make sure that it suited the
level of the students. The kind of feedback
on[?] the moderation process by the jury was
steered to elicit their views as to the accuracy,
clarity, and appropriateness of the instruments. The questionnaire was then reviewed
and modified in light of the jury's comments.
In order to ensure the reliability of the questionnaire, the internal consistency calculated
the coefficient on a pilot study of twenty students who were excluded from the sample.
The reliability coefficient of the test was calculated by using Pearson which reached (0.87)
and considered acceptable for conducting the
questionnaire. The following table displays the
estimation of each strategy.
The present study adopted a descriptive research design. Khrayes Al Hobos School was
selected as a case study. The participants included all tenth grade students at the school,
comprising 186 students as distributed over 6
sections in Muscat City in Oman during the
second semester of the academic year 20132014. The rationale behind having the tenth
grade students as the sample is relevant to the
fact that it is the last grade in the basic stage,
where students can draw conclusions on their
strategy use. All participants, thus, responded
to a strategy survey questionnaire in addition
to the writing test. To successfully conduct the
study, the following instruments were used:
o A language strategy questionnaire. A
questionnaire was used in order to identify the performances employed by learners
when they rewrite in English. The language learning strategy questionnaire was
derived from SILL as developed by Oxford (1990b), as shown in Appendix 1.
This self-report instrument used a fivepoint Likert scale, ranging from very
strongly disagrees to strongly agrees, to
assess the frequency that the students
used different techniques for Englishlanguage writing. The questionnaire comprised 24 items distributed across three
strategy types, where the metacognitive
strategy included items 1-10, the cognitive
strategy included items 11-22, and the social-affective strategy encompassed items
23 and 24. The form of the language learning strategy questionnaire was as follows.
Table 2
Coefficient of the internal consistency
measures
Dimension
coefficient of
the internal
consistency
Metacognitive strategy
0.81
Cognitive strategy
0.86
Social-affective strategy
0.77
Writing strategies as a whole
0.88
Students' perceived strategies
The following table shows the rank order of
perceived writing strategy types used by
Omani tenth grade students.
Table 3 presents mean scores and standard
deviations of the types of writing learning
strategies. It demonstrates that the rank order
of writing strategy types used by Omani tenth
grade students were metacognitive strategy as
the most frequent type with a mean score of
3.43, and then social-affective strategies with a
mean score of 3.34, and finally cognitive strategies, which were uncommon with a mean
score of 3.25. The results of the standard deviation scores, ranging, between 0.60 and 0.83,
refer to a rapprochement (i.e. the standard deviation is a measure of discrepancy among the
values) in the study participants' answers. The
following table shows the meta-cognitive
strategies used, ordered in a descending manner by Omani tenth grade students.
Table 1
Strategy types and their categorizations
Strategy type
Strategy name
Number
of items
1-Selective attention
1-10
Metacognitive
-Directed-attention
2-Cognitive
-Translation
11-22
-Elaboration
-Inferencing
-Summarizing
3-Social-Cooperation
23-24
affective
o A writing test was designed so as to evaluate students' use of learning strategies.
This test was parallel to tenth grade materials, as shown in Appendix 2. It consisted
of two questions which assessed students’
writing skill. The first question was graded out of 5 marks and the second question
was graded out of 10 marks.
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The Relation between Omani Students' Perceptions of the Writing Strategies
Juma Busaidi & Dina Al-Jamal
Rank
1
2
3
Item
10
4
5
9
2
1
6
3
8
7
Number of strategy
1
3
2
Table 3
Writing strategy types
Std. deviation
0.60
0.83
0.70
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Mean
3.43
3.34
3.25
Strategy type
Metacognitive
Social-affective
Cognitive
Table 4
Metacognitive strategies used, ordered in a descending manner
Item
Mean
Std.deviation
I revise whatever I write and edit it.
3.71
1.15
I determine answers with explanations before starting writing the
3.58
1.05
outline
I think about how the teacher may understand my writing.
3.56
1.28
I keep checking grammar when I write.
3.54
1.15
I identify the topic and collect information about it, from model writ3.52
1.00
ten work written by native speakers, if the topic is new to me.
I think in Arabic whenever I write in English.
I can write the outline precisely.
I identify points supporting the thesis by listing down paragraphs,
sentences and words relevant to the writing topic.
I do mind mapping to create relevant ideas to the topic in question.
I can write the main idea and supporting ideas precisely.
Rank
1
2
Degree
High
Medium
3
4
5
Medium
Medium
Medium
3.44
3.38
3.35
1.13
1.04
1.03
6
7
8
Medium
Medium
Medium
3.17
3.08
1.14
1.03
9
10
Medium
Medium
*(2.33 or less=Low; 2.34-3.67=Medium; 2.68 or more= High)
Table 4 illustrates the order of metacognitive
strategies which came top when strategies
were compared earlier. Mean sores of metacognitive strategies ranged between 3.08 and
3.71. Item 10 and its text "I revise whatever I
write and edit it" came first with a mean score
of 3.71. This indicates that most Omani tenth
grade students usually revise and edit their
writing. One explanation is that they tend to
be anxious as a result of the lack of writing
experiences and practices in writing the English language. Thus, revision and editing are
established in order to ensure their efficiency
during the writing process. Item 4 (“I determine answers with explanations before starting writing the outline") came second with a
mean score of 3.58. Item 5, then, and its text “I
think about how the teacher may understand
my writing” came third with a mean score of
3.56. Item 7 (“I can write the main idea and
supporting ideas precisely”), however, came
last with a mean score of 3.08. The results of
the standard deviations, which ranged between 1.00 and 1.28 bring up a rapprochement
in the participants' answers. This refers to the
fact that Omani tenth grade students tend to
feel that they have problems when it comes to
making an indicator of their knowledge base
in general. Cognitive strategies came third
when strategies were compared earlier in Table 3. Mean sores of cognitive strategies
ranged from 3.61 to 2.94. Table 5 demonstrates
how the participants felt towards each cognitive strategy.
The following table shows the cognitive strategies used, ordered in a descending manner
by Omani tenth grade students.
Table 5
Cognitive strategies used, ordered in a descending manner
Item
Item
Mean Std. deviation
16
I can compare and contrast similarities and differences between differ3.61
1.05
ent things.
19
I make sure that I write all the needed elements/components of a
3.48
1.04
certain argument.
17
I can provide sufficient examples to make my idea clear.
3.44
1.00
18
I can give evidence on my argument in order to make myself clear.
3.42
1.13
11
I can write without using the English-Arabic dictionary.
3.23
1.20
20
I can summarize key topics/ ideas precisely.
3.23
1.20
14
I can describe a place/an object/a friend in detail.
3.21
1.14
15
I can use different words/images every time I refer to the same thing.
3.18
1.18
21
I write redundant and trivial details.
3.16
1.30
22
I write everything and word for word when I summarize.
3.12
1.19
12
I can write without asking my teacher /friends about word meanings.
3.06
1.16
13
I write sentences in Arabic first then I translate into English.
2.94
1.36
*(2.33 or less=Low; 2.34-3.67=Medium; 2.68 or more= High)
651
Rank
1
Degree
Medium
2
Medium
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Medium
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
In Table 5, item 16 and its text "I can compare
and contrast similarities and differences between different things" came first with a mean
score of 3.61. Such a finding can be explained
in terms of the commonest of 'compare and
contrast' theme in education which is typically
introduced first. Item 19 (“I make sure that I
write all the needed elements/components of
a certain argument”) came second with of a
mean score of 3.48. Then, item 17 and its text
“I can provide sufficient examples to make my
idea clear” came third through a mean score of
3.44. Item 13 (“I write sentences in Arabic first
then I translate into English”), however, came
last with a mean score of 2.94. This can be interpreted as Omani students feeling that their
teachers do not direct them to use such cognitive strategies where English writing classes
are taught in a way similar to Arabic writing
classes. Standard deviation scores of 1.00-1.36
denote a rapprochement in the participants'
answers.
2015
text “I can write without negotiating meaning
with teacher/friends” came second through a
mean score of 3.04. The results of the standard
deviation were 1.24-1.27, which refers to a
rapprochement in the participants' answers.
The results of this table suggest that some students have the motivation to study and get
high degrees, which pushes them to consult
and ask for assistance from their colleagues or
teachers, while others avoid that, perhaps as a
result of social reasons related to shame or a
sense of inferiority in their opinion when relying on others, or as a result of indifference towards academic achievement in general.
Students' writing performance
To recap, the second question involved information on the following question: What is the
actual writing performance of the participants? Mean scores and standard deviations
were calculated, in addition to number of students and their marks in the test to answer this
question. Table 7 displays mean scores and
standard deviations of Omani tenth grade
students on the writing test. Table 8 outlines
such details.
Social-affective strategies came second when
strategies were compared previously in Table
3. Mean sores of social affective strategies
ranged between 3.04 and 3.66. Table 6 proves
how the participants felt towards each socialaffective strategy.
The following table shows results of students
on the writing test by Omani tenth grade students.
The following table shows social-affective
strategies use, ordered in a descending manner by Omani tenth grade students.
Table 6
Social-affective strategies use as ordered in a descending manner
No.
item
Mean
Std.
Rank
Degree
of
deviation
Item
24
I need to dis3.66
1.27
1
Medium
cuss the topic
with my teacher
first
before
commencing
writing
the
outline.
23
I can write
3.04
1.24
2
Medium
without negotiating meaning
with
teacher/friends.
Social affective
3.34
*(2.33 or less=Low; 2.34-3.67=Medium; 2.68 or more= High)
Table 6 illustrates that item 24 and its text "I
need to discuss the topic with my teacher first
before commencing writing the outline" came
first with a mean score of 3.66. This reflects
students' lack of self-confidence as a result of
teacher-centered approaches. Item 23 and its
652
Table 7
Results of students on the writing test
Questions of
Mean
Std. deRank
test
viation
Question 1
1.52
1.54
1
Question 2
1.27
2.52
2
Total Marks
2.78
3.73
The table indicates that the mean score of the
overall marks obtained by the test is as low as
2.78. The mean scores of both questions were
also low ranging from 1.27 for the second
question and 1.52 for the first question.Understanding the students' actual performances further entailed classifying them in
terms of successful or unsuccessful language
writers on the grounds of their real answers in
the test. The following Table, hence, points out
such classification.
The following table shows the participants'
classification
in
terms
of
successful/unsuccessful language writers by Omani
tenth grade students.
The Relation between Omani Students' Perceptions of the Writing Strategies
Juma Busaidi & Dina Al-Jamal
Table 8
Successful/unsuccessful language writers' classification
Number of
Number of
Number of
Students'
successful stuunsuccessful
students
marks
dents
students
71
0
29
157
86
1-6
27
7-14
2
15
Table 8 shows that the number of unsuccessful
students according to the test is as high as 157
students out of 186. In contrast, the number of
successful students according to the test is only 29 students. Surprisingly, 71 students received the score of zero. Eighty-six students
had marks that ranged between 1 and 6.
Twenty-seven students had marks that ranged
from 7 to 14. Only two students got full marks.
Strategy use is always correlated with proficiency. Accordingly, these very low figures
obtained by the test correspond precisely with
the results obtained by the strategy survey
questionnaire, where low and very moderate
results were obtained.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
writing performance and increases in students’ perceptions of using writing strategies,
both independently and together. Students'
perceptions, as investigated in the present
study, were not a much stronger predictor of
students’ performance in using writing strategies.
Summary of results
The present study reported the following results:
o
Omani tenth grade students feel that
they use metacognitive strategies more
than cognitive or social-affective strategies when they write in English. They
feel that they use revising and editing
metacognitive strategies most while believing that they cannot manipulate using writing main/supporting ideas met
cognitive strategies as least. It is worth
pointing out that 'revising' is a selective
attention strategy and 'editing' is a directed attention one.
Perception versus performance
o
The third research question entailed an analysis of the relationship between students' perceived strategies and their actual writing performance. The present study embarked on
metacognition, cognition, and social-affective
writing strategies in light of the growing interest in such strategies. This has been connected
to developing students' writing skills. This
study searched for the relationship between
students' self-reports of using writing strategies and their real use of these writing strategies. Using a language strategy questionnaire
survey data for 186 tenth grade students as
well as a writing test, we found a decline in
writing performance and increased statistical
indications of students’ perceptions of using
writing strategies.
Omani students believe that they use the
cognitive strategy of 'compare and contrast', which is an inference cognitive
strategy, more while not being certain of
their ability to write without asking the
teacher. The participating students regarded[?] using social-affective strategies, such as discussing the topic with
the teacher, as paramount.
o
Omani tenth grade students' beliefs,
perceptions and feelings towards the
use of strategies did not correspond
with their actual writing performance.
Provided that[?], results obtained by the
writing test demonstrated that 157 students out 186 did not pass the writing
test.
Discussion
This study reports many empirical based studies on the writing skill achievement. Its aim
was to derive a set of pedagogical implications
to help Omani students improve their writing
performance. It is found that there is a gap
between students' perceptions of the use of
writing strategies and their actual writing performance. In other words, the study showed
no relationship between students' perception
and their actual writing output. Such variance
in students' perceptions and practices reflected
evidence that there were drops in students’
The present study investigated the English
language writing strategies among tenth grade
Omani students. The results of the study
demonstrated that Omani students perceived
themselves as using metacognitive strategies
foremost; namely, selective attention and directed attention strategies. This finding is consistent with the findings obtained by Abu
Radwan (2011), Nikoopour, Farsani, and
Neishabouri (2011) and Al-Jabali (2012), which
established that EFL writers, generally, tend to
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
adopt metacognitive strategies, since metacognitive strategies do not entail complex
thinking processes; thus, they suit several students’ levels. Accordingly, the present study
showed that the learners favored using metacognitive strategies as they were the most frequently used English language writing strategies.
2015
the whole, unsuccessful language proficiency
prevents students from communicating appropriately. Students with low English proficiency always find it difficult to communicate
comfortably in English.
In Omani tenth grade English language classes, as indicated by the present study, students
have a weak proficiency in English writing
skills where they cannot write efficiently.
Therefore, as reported previously, they find it
hard to express ideas in their writing due to a
lack of their use of Arabic first before translating into English. In this regard, Kobayashi and
Rinnert (2008) demonstrated that the L1 writing ability of L2 students is the basic determinant of their L2 writing performance. Such
views are based on the supposition that writers transfer their writing skills from their L1 to
the target L2 writing (Kobayashi & Rinnert,
2008). In such a case, L2 writing difficulties are
the result of and influenced by L1 transfer of
culturally preferred linguistic patterns from
the L1.
The present study, furthermore, demonstrated
Omani students' sensible inclination towards
using social-affective strategies of cooperation.
Such moderate level of using social-affective
strategies can be attributed to teacher-centered
approaches to teaching. In such classes, students are not self-confident and keep asking
for assistance from their colleagues or teachers. This result is consistent with the study of
Al-Jabali (2012). On the other hand, Omani
tenth grade students perceived cognitive strategy employment in their writing as the lowest.
This result is also consistent with the findings
of Al-Jabali (2012) and Abdullah (2011). Cognitive strategies entail the strategies of translation, elaboration, differencing, and summarizing; that is, cognitive strategies are complex
and not easily used. Not all learners can manipulate cognitive strategies; unsuccessful
language learners fail to use this type of strategy.
Overall, the results of L2 writing process research displayed noteworthy differences between successful and unsuccessful language
writers (Brand and Jimenez, 2013; Evans &
Green, 2007) . Successful and unsuccessful
language writers differ in pre-writing activities. Unsuccessful writers devote only a short
time to planning before starting to write.
However, successful writers seem to devote
more time to planning and revision. The current study noted that Omani tenth grade students' ineffective writing categorized them as
unsuccessful language writers with low L2
proficiency as they made grammatical and
lexical errors when they created texts.
Results obtained by the strategy survey questionnaire concluded a shortage of use of writing strategies by Omani tenth grade students.
The results of the writing test likewise corresponded to the questionnaire results. The test
results exhibited a low level of students’ writing skill in the English language, where their
marks in the test were not promising. Additionally, the percentage of failure among students was as high as 84.40%. That is, 157 students out of a total of 186 failed the test. It was
concluded that the majority of students' writings demonstrated obvious and overt weaknesses and flaws when expressing their ideas
in the English language. In addition, a large
number of errors like spelling and grammar
were prevailing and dominant all through the
students' writings.
Pedagogical implications
The present study stressed the importance of
using strategies in learning the skill of writing.
Still further examination is crucial to confirm
the results of this study. Obviously, EFL
teachers are intensely recommended to foster
their students' strategic use. Teachers, likewise, are really steered to teach students how
to write expressively through strategy use rather than evaluating their final product of
writing. EFL teachers are strongly recommended to increase learners’ engagement with
pre-task activities by enabling them to plan
their writing because this would enhance the
quality of the language used during the task
and reduce the overall mental burden during
In conclusion, strategy use was correlated with
unsuccessful language writing. This result is
consistent with the findings of many researchers, for example, Evans & Green (2007), Kuiken and Vedder (2008) [not in references list],
and Moheb and Bagheri (2013), who associated writing proficiency with strategy use. On
654
The Relation between Omani Students' Perceptions of the Writing Strategies
Juma Busaidi & Dina Al-Jamal
writing. The study, hence, proposes designing
applicable writing activities to promote the
use of strategies, and explicitly teaching writing strategies and monitoring their application
in writing classes. Teachers should be aware of
the role of metacognitive, cognitive and socialaffective strategies in regulating students’
thoughts and emotions. Therefore, teachers
are invited to clarify explicitly to their students
how such strategies can help them cope with
their writing problems and as a result make
the writing process more creative and enjoyable.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
er Education in Oman: International Journal of Instruction, 6(2), 109-128.
Al-Issa, A. (2011). Advancing English Language Teaching Research in Gulf Cooperation Council States universities. MJAL,
3(2), 60-77.
Al-Jabali, M. (2012). Language Learning
Strategy Use and Concept Development
among Jordanian Undergraduate English
Language Majors, International Journal of
Education, Amman, 4(1), 161-180.
Al-Mahrooqi, R., & Asante, C. (2010). Promoting Autonomy by Fostering a Reading
Culture. In R. Al-Mahrooqi & V. Tuzlukova (Eds.). The Omani ELT Symphony:
Maintaining Linguistic and Socio-cultural
Equilibrium (pp. 477-494). Muscat: Sultan
Qaboos University Academic Publication
Board.
Understanding the effectiveness of strategy
use is important in designing EFL materials.
Thus, the present study recommends the need
for developing principled instruction of all
language skills in light of language learning
strategies exemplified through this study.
Moreover, this study proposes directing research-based strategic instruction across different subjects. The study, then, displays gratitude to promising strategic instruction techniques that convey practical and comprehensive materials.
Anson, C. M. (2006). Assessing Writing in
Cross-Curricular Programs: Determining
the Locus of Activity. System, 11(3), 100112.
Bagheri, M., & Fazel, I. (2011). EFL Learners’
Beliefs about Translation and its Use as a
Strategy in Writing. Journal of the Reading Matrix, 11 (3), p 292-301.[not mentioned in text]
Although the emphasis of this study was not
on the syntactic features of the text, it was
found, however, that grammatical and
spelling problems prevented understanding.
Therefore, tutors and language instructors are
recommended to teach students these aspects
of the text, not in isolation but in communicative classes, and they should monitor the application of the rules in the students’ writing.
The current study, accordingly, might be of
educational assistance to textbook designers,
academics, instructors and communicative
competence advocates.
Chamot, A.U. (2005). Language Learning
Strategy Instruction: Current Issues and
Research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 25: 112-30.
Erkan, D. Y., & Saban, A. I. (2011). Writing
Performance Relative to Writing Apprehension, Self-Efficacy in Writing, and Attitudes towards Writing: A Correlational
Study in Turkish Tertiary-Level EFL.
Asian EFL Journal, 5(4), 164-192.
References
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(2004). Understanding Successful and
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Juma Busaidi & Dina Al-Jamal
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Weinstein, C.E., & Mayer, R.E. (1986). The
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Language Teaching and Research, 4(4), 777784.
657
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
2015
Appendix 1
Strategy questionnaire
This questionnaire is designed for investigating the writing strategies among EFL
tenth grade students in Oman. I would be grateful if you could answer the following
questions .The information provided will be of great help in my study and will be
treated anonymously.
‫مت تصنيه ٍذا االستبياٌ للحصْل على معلْمات حْل التحقق مً اسرتاتيجيات الكتابة لدى طالب الصف العاشر يف‬
ً‫ ّسْف تستخدو املعلْمات اليت سيته احلصْل عليَا م‬.‫ أشكر تفضلكه باإلجابة عً األسئلة التالية‬.ٌ‫سلطية عنا‬
.‫ٍذِ االستباىُ ألغراض البحث العلني دٌّ أٌ تعطى إىل طرف ثالث‬
No.
12345678910
1112131415161718192021222324-
Item
Meta-cognitive strategy
I think in Arabic whenever I write in English.
‫أفكر تانهغح انعرتٍح عُذيا أكتة تانهغح االَجهٍسٌح‬
I can identify the topic and collect information about it, from model written work.
‫استطٍع أٌ أحذد انًٕضٕع ٔأجًع انًعهٕياخ عُّ يٍ ًَٕرج انعًم انًكتٕب‬
I identify points supporting the thesis by listing down paragraphs, sentences and words relevant to the writing topic.
‫أحذد َقاط دعى االطرٔحح يٍ خالل سرد انفقراخ ٔانجًم ٔانكهًاخ راخ انعالقح تًٕضٕع انكتاتح‬
I determine answers with explanations before starting writing the outline.
‫أحذد األجٕتح ٔانتفسٍراخ قثم انثذء تكتاتح انخطٕط انرئٍسٍح‬
I think about how the teacher may understand my writing.
ً‫أفكر كٍف سٍفٓى يعهًً كتاتت‬
I can write the outline precisely.
‫أستطٍع أٌ أكتة انخطٕط انرئٍسٍح تذقح‬
I can write the main idea and supporting ideas precisely.
‫أستطٍع أٌ أكتة انفكرج انرئٍسٍح ٔاألفكار انذاعًح تذقح‬
I can do mind mapping to create relevant ideas to the topic in question.
‫أستطٍع أٌ أقٕو ترسى خرائط رٍُْح نخهق أفكار راخ عالقح تًٕضٕع انسؤال‬
I keep checking grammar when I write.
‫أتحقق يٍ ساليح قٕاعذ انهغح عُذيا أكتة‬
I revise whatever I write and edit it.
ِ‫أٌقٕو تًراجعح كم يا أكتثّ ٔأحرر‬
Cognitive strategy
I can write without using the English-Arabic dictionary
‫ إَجهٍسي‬-ً‫أستطٍع انكتاتح تذٌٔ استخذاو قايٕش عرت‬
I can write without asking my teacher /friends about word meanings.
‫أستطٍع انكتاتح تذٌٔ سؤال يذرسً أٔ أصذقائً حٕل يعاًَ انكهًاخ‬
I write sentences in Arabic first then I translate into English.
‫أكتة انجًم تانهغح انعرتٍح أٔالً ثى أحٕنٓا إنى انهغح اإلَجهٍسٌح‬
I can describe a place/an object/a friend in detail.
ً‫أستطٍع أٌ أصف يكاَاً أٔ كائُاً أٔ صذٌقاً تانتفص‬
I can use different words/images every time I refer to the same thing.
ّ‫أستطٍع أٌ استخذو كهًاخ ٔصٕر يختهفح فً كم يرج أٔد أٌ أشٍر فٍّ نهشًء َفس‬
I can compare and contrast similarities and differences between different things.
‫أستطٍع أٌ أقارٌ ٔأيٍس أٔجّ انشثّ ٔاالختالف تٍٍ األشٍاء انًختهفح‬
I can provide sufficient examples to make my idea clear.
‫أستطٍع تقذٌى أيثهح ٔافٍح نجعم فكرتً ٔاضحح‬
I can give evidence on my argument in order to make myself clear.
ً‫أستطٍع أٌ أقذو دنٍالً عهى حجتً يٍ أجم جعم َفسً أكثر ٔضٕحا‬
I make sure that I write all the needed elements/components of a certain argument.
ٍٍ‫أتأكذ أًَُ أكتة كم انًكَٕاخ ٔانعُاصر انًطهٕتح نًٕضٕع يع‬
I can summarize key topics/ideas precisely.
‫أستطٍع أٌ أنخص انًٕاضٍع ٔاألفكار انرئٍسٍح تذقح‬
I write redundant and trivial details.
‫أكتة تفاصٍم غٍر يًٓح ٔزائذج عٍ انحاجح‬
I write everything and word for word when I summarize.
‫أكتة كم شً كهًح كهًح عُذيا أنخص‬
Social affective strategy
I can write without negotiating meaning with teacher/friends.
‫أستطٍع أٌ أكتة تذٌٔ أٌ أستفسر حٕل انًعاًَ يٍ انًعهى أٔ األصذقاء‬
I need to discuss the topic with my teacher first before commencing writing the outline.
‫أحتاج نًُاقشح انًٕضٕع يع يعهًً أٔالً قثم انثذء تكتاتح انخطٕط انرئٍسٍح نهًٕضٕع‬
658
The Relation between Omani Students' Perceptions of the Writing Strategies
Juma Busaidi & Dina Al-Jamal
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Appendix 2
Writing Proficiency Test
Name:
Class:
WRITING 1
[5 marks]
Write a PARAGRAPH about a film called ‘Home Alone’. Use all the information in the box. Your
paragraph should be correct and well-organized.
Home Alone
Star/Macaulay Culkin
Child/protect house/thieves
family/gone/Paris
Produce/1990
write/John Hughes
Suitable/12 and above
direct/Chris Columbus
Earn/$ 480 million
comedy
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………….……………………………………………………………………………………………………
Marker A
Name:
Marker B
Average
Class:
WRITING 2
[10 marks]
Complete the following task. Write at least 75 words.
Situation: Imagine that you have just received this e-mail from a friend. Write a reply.
Hi, As you know, I have just moved to a new school in a different area. I’m worried about finding
new friends. What should I do? Can you advise me?
Your writing should be clear.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………
Marker A
SCORE
659
Marker B
Average
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University
(Pages 660-676)
Vol.9 Issue 4, 2015
Spelling Errors of Omani EFL Students
Sheikha A. Al-Bereiki*
&
Abdo M. Al-Mekhlafi
Ministry of Education, Sultanate of Oman Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
Received: 30/3/2015
___________________________________________
Revised: 5/5/2015
_____________________________________________
Accepted: 9/6/2015
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the types of spelling errors students of grade
ten make and to find out whether there were any significant differences between males and females with respect to the types of spelling errors made. The sample of the study included 90
grade ten students from four different schools in North Batinah. The researchers manipulated
the use of a test that consisted of two questions: an oral dictation test of 70 words with a contextualizing sentence and a free writing task. The misspellings were classified into nine different
types. The findings revealed that the most common spelling errors among Omani grade ten students were vowel substitution, then came vowel omission in the second place and consonant
substitution in the third place. Male students omitted more vowels than female students while
females made more true word errors than their male counterparts. In light of the findings, the
study presents some recommendations and suggestions for further studies.
Keywords: Spelling errors, errors, ESL/EFL, error analysis.
‫األخطاء اإلمالئًة يف تعلم اللغة اإلجنلًزية عند الطالب العمانًني‬
‫و عبده حممد املخاليف‬
*‫شًخة بنت علٌ الربيكًة‬
‫ سلطنة عمان‬،‫جامعة الشلطان قابىس‬
‫ سلطنة عمان‬،‫وزارة الرتبًة والتعلًم‬
_____________________________________________
ُ‫ هدفت هره الدزاسُ إىل التعسف علِ أكجس األخطاء اإلمالئًُ شًىعا عند طالب الصف العاشس يف سلطن‬:‫مشتخلص‬
ُ‫ أما عًنُ الدزاس‬,ُ‫ تلىن جمتنع الدزاسُ من مجًع طالب وطالبات الصف العاشس يف حمافظُ مشال الباطن‬.‫عنان‬
ًُ‫ وقد مت مجع البًانات عرب إدساء اختباز للطالب ملعسفُ أكجس األخطاء اإلمالئ‬,ُ‫ طالب‬49 ‫ طالبا و‬41 ‫فكد تلىنت من‬
‫ وتىصلت‬.َ‫ كلنُ والجانٌ كتابُ حس‬70 ‫ األول اختباز إمالء شفىٍ ملىن من‬:‫شًىعا وذلم باإلدابُ علِ سؤالني‬
:ًُ‫الدزاسُ إىل النتائج التال‬
‫ أكجس األخطاء اإلمالئًُ شًىعا بني طالب الصف العاشس هى استبدال حسف أو حسوف العلُ و الجانٌ أكجس‬.1
.ُ‫شًىعا هى حرف حسف أو حسوف العلُ والجالح أكجس شًىعا هى استبدال حسف أو حسوف ساكن‬
‫ تىدد فسوق ذات داللُ إحصائًُ بني الطالب الركىز واإلناخ يف نىعني من األخطاء اإلمالئًُ وهٌ حرف‬.2
‫ حًح كان متىسط حرف حسف‬,ُ‫حسف أو حسوف العلُ وكتابُ إمالء صحًح وللن لًص الللنُ املشتودف‬
ُ‫أو حسوف العلُ أكرب عند الطالب الركىز يف حني كان متىسط كتابُ إمالء صحًح وللن لًص بالللن‬
.‫املشتودفُ أكرب عند الطالبات‬
.‫ حتلًل األخطاء‬،ًُ‫ اللغُ اإلجنلًزيُ كلغُ أدنبًُ أو لغُ ثان‬،‫ األخطاء‬،ًُ‫ األخطاء اإلمالئ‬:ًُ‫الللنات املفتاح‬
*[email protected]
660
Spelling Errors of Omani EFL Students
Sheikha Al-Bereiki & Abdo Al-Mekhlafi
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Literature review
The process of learning a second or foreign
language is challenging.
Thus, ESL/EFL
learners face difficulties with various aspects
of the language including spelling. Spelling is
considered as the starting point of the written
language as indicated by Mahmoud (2013).
Also, writing compositions demands a high
level of spelling proficiency in order to produce a good piece of writing. Allred (1990)
pointed out that spelling ability can influence
the writer's effectiveness and creativity.
Spelling and its related concepts
Spelling is often defined as the process of recognizing and reproducing sounds of language
into a sequence of letters in a written form or
in an oral form (Santoro, Coyne & Simmons,
2006). It is also defined as “the grammar of
letter sequences that generates permissible
combinations without regard to sound” (Peters, 1985, p. 11-12). Here, the definition suggests that spelling is not a task of translating
sounds into their corresponding letters in a
direct sound to letter relationship. It is more
complex than this. There are rules that govern
letter combinations. Spelling is a challenging
skill to master because it is made up of different layers of knowledge.
The ability of encoding a sound or phoneme
into the appropriate corresponding grapheme
or spelling is complex to many learners of
English. Likewise, Arab learners of English
face various difficulties when learning English
spelling. A large body of research analyzes
students' errors as a way of gaining insight
into how students learn and how to address
their learning needs. For example, Brown
(2000) encouraged systematic analysis of
learners' errors in order to address their needs
via designing appropriate curricula. A considerable amount of research has been devoted to
analyze the patterns of spelling errors (AlHarrasi, 2012). These studies surveyed the
errors in spelling and then classified them into
distinct categories. Studies done in the Omani
context have surveyed spelling difficulties at
either early grade levels like grade five and six
or at a tertiary level. To the researchers‟ best
knowledge, no study about learners' spelling
difficulties has been conducted on high school
students. Therefore, this study aims to find out
the most common spelling errors grade ten
EFL students in Oman make.
Spelling, as Moats (1984) indicated, is a multifaceted skill that depends upon several layers
of knowledge; phonological awareness, morphological awareness, semantic knowledge
and orthographic knowledge (cited in Santoro,
Coyne & Simmons, 2006). Phonological
awareness is the ability to identify sounds in
spoken words as explained by Bourassa and
Treiman (2009). It is the explicit knowledge of
the sounds‟ system in the language (Santoro,
Coyne & Simmons, 2006). Morphological
awareness is defined by Bourassa and Treiman
(2009) as the knowledge of relations among
word forms and how they influence spelling.
Semantic knowledge is “the knowledge of the
effect of spelling on word meanings and vice
versa” (Apel, 2008, p.15). Wasowicz (2007)
explained morphological knowledge and semantics relationships as the knowledge that
allows the individual to spell inflected words
(that contain suffixes and provide information
about time or quantity without changing the
meaning, e.g. walk-walked, cat-cats) and derived
forms (that contain suffixes or prefixes and can
change the meaning and sometimes the class
of words, e.g. friend-friendly). Bourassa and
Treiman (2009) explained orthographic
knowledge as the knowledge of legal and illegal letter sequences. It can also refer to, as indicated by Apel (2008), the use of spelling
rules and patterns. It is also, according to Apel
(2008), the knowledge that governs the alphabetical principles, for example, a /k/ sound
can be k, c, cc, ch, ck, qu or x, and a (gh) can be
pronounced as a /f/ or a /g/. It also covers
knowledge of rules for combining letters, for
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to analyze the
spelling errors of grade ten EFL students in
Oman. It also aims to find out whether there
are any significant differences between male
and female students with respect to the types
of the spelling errors made.
Study questions
1. What are the most common types of
spelling errors made by Omani grade
ten EFL students?
2. Is there a statistically significant difference between male and female students
regarding the types of the spelling errors made?
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
instance, there is no letter string like (kr) in
English. In spelling, the concern is in letter
sequences not word sequences.
2015
spelling. Consequently, written production
may fail to convey its intended message.
Additionally, there is the question of courtesy
which is connected to spelling as it is connected to speaking and writing. Educated people
have to acquire the habit of being precise (Peters, 1985). Being precise requires being able
to write what exactly conveys the meaning,
not avoiding certain words for being difficult.
What is more is that good spelling contributes
effectively to a learner's self-concept. It gives
any person the status and knowledge to communicate adequately and acceptably in writing (Peters, 1985).
Significance of correct spelling
The emphasis of spelling accuracy is closely
related to its role in successful writing, effective communication, its link to courtesy and
self-concept, its role in success at school and
other educational pursuits, and finally its relation to success in society.
Treiman and Kessler (2013) pointed out that
learning to spell is important
“because
human attention is limited. Children who
must devote a good deal of attention to
spelling have fewer mental resources available
for other aspects of writing” (p. 317). Thus,
being a good speller reserves mental effort for
other aspects of writing. McMurray (2006)
explained that a speller with automatic
spelling skills can produce a high standard
piece of writing since s/he has more resources
in working memory for other composition
skills. Indicated by Kreiner, Schnakenberg,
Green, Costello and McClin (2002), poor
spelling denotes lower writing ability since
spelling is a component of successful writing.
Also, writing is seen as a permanent activity.
What we write remains there for anybody to
read, criticize, or notice any errors. One's writing reflects his/her education, reliability and
even intelligence (Jennings, 1998; Stirling,
2011).
Accurate spelling is of high importance and
teachers have the responsibility for convincing
learners that accurate spelling is mandatory
for several parts in their exams. It is also required for job applications and businesses.
Conversely, poor spelling reflects negatively
on the individuals and companies that employ
it (Warda, 2005).
The last point has to do with international proficiency tests (e.g. TOEFL and IELTS). Test
takers are penalized for spelling errors in these
major scale tests. Students and job seekers are
required to display a certain level of English
proficiency reflected in TOEFL or IELTS.
Thus, spell checkers are not available in circumstances where students and test takers
have to demonstrate their knowledge of English (Cook, 1999).
There are also reasons that concern communication. Spelling words correctly is crucial because spelling conveys meaning, grammar and
intent; thus misspellings may interfere with
comprehension and eventually may hinder
communication between the writer and the
reader (Apel, 2008; Jennings, 1998; Peters,
1985). A similar notion expressed by the Department of Education and Children‟s Services
in Australia (DECS) (2011) illustrated that the
purpose of spelling is for the writer to communicate the ideas clearly and properly and
for the reader to understand the written message. Thus, poor spelling affects written
communication negatively. Additionally, several researchers (Kohnen, Nickels & Castles,
2009; Peters, 1985; Stirling, 2011; Warda, 2005)
pointed out that poor spelling capabilities affect the individual‟s choice of words in writing, forcing learners to avoid using certain
words because they are not certain of their
The definition of error
Any learning experience is most likely to involve attempts of learners as trial and error
which might end up with making errors. It is
essential to make a distinction between mistakes and errors. According to Corder (1981,
cited in Al-Jayousi, 2011), mistakes are incorrect instances that are a result of performance.
They are said to be slips that learners can correct by themselves. However, errors are the
incorrect outputs that are due to problems in
the underlying knowledge of the learner.
Here, the learner lacks the competence to rectify the inaccurate responses.
Error analysis and its significance
Error analysis has gained a considerable
amount of attention by scholars. It is defined
as “the process of determining the incidence,
nature, causes and consequences of unsuccessful language” (James, 1998, p.1).
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Sheikha Al-Bereiki & Abdo Al-Mekhlafi
Learners' errors are significant for various instructional reasons. For example, studying
learners' errors can throw some light on how
learners process language and what kind of
assistance they need. Wasowicz (2007) emphasized the notion that spelling errors can
inform educators about the kind of linguistic
knowledge individual learners possess. Also,
studying learners‟ misspellings can inform
educators about which stage of spelling development the learner is stuck at. This assessment, as indicated by Kohnen, Nickels and
Castles (2009), can draw the training framework and the types of strategies needed for
the learner in order to move to the next stage.
It is emphasized by DECS (2011) that the
teacher can best assist learners by analyzing
their writing, looking for recurring patterns
and discussing with them ways of successful
learning. Kohnen, Nickels and Castles (2009)
suggested identifying learners‟ spelling difficulties as early as possible in order to enhance
spelling abilities and to facilitate text writing.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
es. He classified misspellings according to
their types into six categories; substitution,
omission, addition, disordering, segmentation
and unrecognizable. Misspellings were classified into three categories according to their
likely causes:
1. irregularity of English (errors mostly
caused by the non-phonetic nature of the
English orthographic system),
2. mother tongue interference (which included errors that involve misuse of
sounds like /p/,/v/ and /tʃ/, consonant
clusters, confusion in using mirror letters:
b/d, p/q and deletion of short vowels:
writing svn for seven, and
3. lack of knowledge of spelling rules and
their exceptions.
Very few studies focused on other aspects of
spelling errors such as gender differences.
Allred (1990) investigated gender differences
in spelling achievement of male and female
students from grade one through grade six in
the United States. He compared the spelling
achievement of boys and girls on both a
spelling test and a proofreading standardized
test. The researchers found out that girls were
better spellers than boys in all grade levels.
Allred discussed possible reasons for the gender differences in spelling achievement; two of
which were maturation and cultural expectations. Maturation favors girls over boys since
girls mature earlier than boys.
Identifying the types of spelling problems is of
central importance in the process of spelling
error analysis. Some research work has been
devoted to analyze the patterns of spelling
errors (Al-Harrasi, 2012) and findings of
spelling errors' studies vary according to the
aims of each study (Emery, 2005). Consequently, different studies used different systems for classifying the spelling errors. For
example, Al-Jarf (2010) suggested classifying
spelling problems into phonological and orthographic problems. Cook (1997) classified
spelling errors into four types: the first type
was omission and addition, the second was
substitution, the third was transposition and
the fourth was called sound-based errors.
Other researchers such as Al-Harrasi (2012),
Al-Jabri (2006), Al-Zuoud and Kabilan (2013)
and Khan and Itoo (2012) followed the classification of spelling errors suggested by Cook
(1997). Mahmoud (2013) classified spelling
errors in his corpus into inter-lingual and intra-lingual. He justified his two-way classification for the purpose of finding implications
for classroom instruction. Classifying spelling
errors into different categories helps detect the
sources of difficulties and would consequently
facilitate the choice of the appropriate classroom instruction.
Cook (1999) carried out a study with the purpose of looking at students' spelling errors
with specific L1s. Cook's study looked at 1,498
errors made by eleven different groups of preuniversity students including Arab learners.
The analysis revealed that ESL Arab learners
substituted vowels (e.g. obundant for abundant), added 'epenthetic' vowels (e.g. punishement for punishment) and made phonological errors (e.g. manshed for mentioned). The
researcher collected the errors from their writings. However, students' writings do not always reveal all types of errors students may
make since topic familiarity is under question
(Cramer, 1998). Students may avoid writing
words if they are not certain of their spelling
(Schonell, 1985). Arabs speak different dialects which are themselves quite distinct from
Standard Arabic Language (Fender, 2008), yet
Al-Jayousi (2011) classified spelling errors according to their types and to their likely caus-
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Cook did not indicate which background
those Arab students came from.
2015
In some cases, the percentage of passing in the
vocabulary question was as low as 8%. A look
at the analysis of writing questions showed
that students scored low marks too. In some
schools, the percentage of failure was higher
than the percentage of passing. All in all, the
anecdotal evidence of the analysis of
2012/2013 summative English language examination results uncovered the fact that students
of grade ten face difficulties in spelling (Afra
School 5-10; Hunain School 5-10; Jumanah
School 5-10; Khadeejah School 5-10, personal
communication, November 14th, 2013). But,
what are the types of their spelling errors?
A number of studies have analyzed learners'
spelling errors conducted in the Omani context. A study done by Al-Harrasi (2012) on
grade six female students utilized the spelling
list suggested by Cook (1997). However, the
words in Cook's spelling list are not normally
covered in grade six syllabus. Kibel and Miles
(1994) stated that words selected for spelling
tests should be ones that students are familiar
with. Al-Jabri (2006) conducted a study on
grade five students who were taught Our
World Through English (OWTE) syllabus in
their second year of learning a foreign language and it revealed similar results to AlHarrasi's study. A third study was conducted
with tertiary students in Dhofar University by
Vaddapalli (2012). The researcher tested students' difficulties in spelling three-letter words
containing one vowel for the purpose of highlighting spelling and auditory discrimination
difficulties of students in Oman. He found that
students misused most of the vowels and
some of the consonants. For example, 95% of
the students misspelled the word „rub‟ and
instead they wrote rup, rap, rab, raue, rib.
Studies done in the Omani context have surveyed spelling difficulties at either early grade
levels such as grade four (Al-Yahyai, 2009),
grade five (Al-Hassan, 2006; Al-Jabri, 2006)
and grade six (Al-Harrasi,2012 ) or at a different educational system such as grade nine of
general education (Al-Mezeini, 2009) or at a
tertiary level (Emery, 2005; Mahmoud, 2013
Vaddapalli, 2012). To the researchers' best
knowledge, no study about learners' spelling
difficulties has been conducted on high school
students in Oman.
Expressed by Emery
(2008), good spelling is necessary for secondary students simply because their “courses are
geared towards passing written exams” (p.17).
Therefore, studying grade ten students‟
spelling errors is critical for a number of reasons. Firstly, students are at a different age
level from students being studied in previous
research studies, and they have been learning
English for almost ten years. Secondly, anecdotal evidence shows that tenth graders suffer
from difficulties in their spellings. Thirdly, the
tenth graders are assessed differently from all
previous grade levels (25 marks out of the total 100 are allocated for writing and 5 marks
are given for accurate spelling in a vocabulary
question). In addition, grade ten marks the
end of cycle two of basic education. So, students are expected to compose more complex
texts displaying proficiency in different language skills including spelling (Ministry of
Education, 1999). Thus, studying learners‟
spelling difficulties can help improve their
writings (Al-Jabri, 2006) and their language
proficiency. In light of the above discussion,
there is a need to investigate spelling errors
made by grade ten students.
A study done by Al-Mezeini (2009) on grade
nine learners of general education in Oman
revealed that explicit teaching of spelling rules
did not improve students' performance in
spelling tests but it helped to improve their
writing performance. The researcher manipulated the use of an oral dictation test and a free
writing task in order to collect his data. In his
study, sound-based spelling errors constituted
the largest category for a percentage of 55.
Cook (1999) found out that sound-based
spelling errors came in third place with 6%.
This supports the fact that ESL learners who
have different L1s face different spelling difficulties due to the interference of their mother
tongue. An obvious limitation to Al-Mezeini‟s
study would be the kind of intervention he
employed in his teaching of spelling rules.
A preliminary field survey conducted by the
researchers of the present study on the analysis of the academic year's (2012/2013) summative English language examination results of
grade ten Basic Education has revealed some
important findings. This survey study included four cycle two (5-10) schools. Students in
grade ten scored very low marks in vocabulary questions that required accurate spelling.
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Sheikha Al-Bereiki & Abdo Al-Mekhlafi
Methodology
words which they probably won't use in their
writings. Thus topic-related vocabulary at the
back of grade ten text books was not included
in the dictation question.
Population and sample
The study population comprised all students
in grade ten Basic Education in North Batinah
Governorate. There were 280 male classes, 259
female classes and 5 coeducation classes in
North Batinah Governorate. So, two male
classes and two female classes were the random sample in this study. Table 1 displays the
distribution of male and female students who
took the test and their test papers were valid
for analysis.
Using words from frequency lists to assess
students' progress in spelling has several advantages. Schlagal (2002) pointed out that
words in these lists are sequenced according to
their frequency of use. The words students
learn are the ones that they will need in their
writings. Secondly, the word frequency lists
are ordered by level of difficulty. Easier words
come first. A very interesting idea highlighted by Schlagal is that “the 4000 most frequently used words constitute nearly 98% of the
vocabulary used by children and adults in and
out of school” (2002, p.46). Thus, the underlying principle of the vocabulary selection for
the oral spelling test should be frequency of
use as well as familiarity with the words.
Table 1
Distribution of male and female students
who participated in the study
Gender
No. of students
Male students
41
Female students
49
Total
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2015
Therefore, in order to ensure familiarity of the
selected vocabulary, the words were selected
from previous grades (grade 5 to grade 9).
Then, these words were checked against the
Word Zone for 4,000 simple word families
(“Text Project,” 2012) to ensure their frequency. Informal interviews with grade ten teachers were made to further ensure the familiarity
and frequency of the selected words. The chosen words represented various aspects of the
spelling system; regularly spelled words; e.g.
got and hand, irregularly spelled words; e.g.
daughter, homophones; e.g. their and wear, and
morphologically derived words; e.g. education
and entertainment. (See appendix A for the
spelling words).
Instruments
An English test was given to grade ten students. It was designed in order to find out the
most common types of spelling errors students
of grade ten in North Batinah Governorate in
Oman make. It was also intended to find out
whether there were any significant differences
between Omani male and female EFL students
with respect to the types of spelling errors
made.
The English test had two questions: a dictation question and a free writing task. There
were seventy words in the dictation test.
There were also contextualizing sentences, a
sentence for each spelling word. The words
were selected on the basis of familiarity and
frequency. According to a curriculum specialist in the Ministry of Education, vocabulary
selection in grade ten of basic education and
other grade levels is topic-related. Word lists
at the back of the skills books (grades 8-10)
and at the back of the class books (grades 5-7)
include new vocabulary related to the topics of
each unit and words that are commonly used
(Al-Jardani, personal communication, January.8th.2014). Schlagal (2002) argued that content vocabulary lists are problematic in different ways. They are challenging, they contain
lower frequency words and they do not reflect
any orthographic patterning since they have
been selected for the purpose of advancing
ideas and not to teach orthography. Therefore,
students will be learning the spellings of
The second question was a free writing task.
The students were asked to write about a given situation. Again, the researchers discussed
the possible topics with some grade ten teachers and topic familiarity was taken into consideration.
The primary version of the English test was
validated by a panel of experts. The validation
panel included two faculty members in the
College of Arts at SQU, one faculty member in
the College of Education at SQU, one curriculum officer in the Ministry of Education, two
English language supervisors from North
Batinah Governorate, one senior English
teacher and an English teacher from North
Batinah Governorate.
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
It included seventy words for the oral spelling
question and three topics in the writing question for students to choose one and write
about. The validators had to give their comments on the level of difficulty of the selected
spelling words, the number of words, the clarity of the contextualizing sentences and the
level of difficulty for the topics selected to
choose from in writing. Feedback from the
validity check panel included changing some
of the contextualizing sentences for the sake of
more clarity and limiting students to one topic
in the writing question in order to save students' time and to keep them focused. Thus,
the final English test was modified accordingly.
2015
2. For question one, the oral test, each instance was marked as either correctly, incorrectly spelled or no attempt. If the
spelling of the word was incorrect, then
the type of the error was identified. The
spelling errors were classified under nine
distinct categories. These categories were
consonant omission, vowel omission,
consonant insertion, vowel insertion,
consonant substitution, vowel substitution, transposition, complex word errors
and true word errors. It is noteworthy
that substitution, omission, insertion and
transposition were the most common
classifications used in literature (AlJayousi, 2011). Also, the first seven categories were straightforward adaptations
from Brooks, Gorman and Kendall (1993)
for L1 children and Bebout (1985) for L2
adults (cited in Cook, 1999). The last two
categories were adapted from Emery
(2005). Below is a detailed description of
the categories used to classify the spelling
errors.
In order to ensure the reliability level of the
English test, the validated version of the test
was piloted on two grade ten classes: 25 male
students and 27 female students. These two
classes were not included in the actual implementation of the test later on. The first question of the test was marked in terms of accuracy of spelling. Then, the internal consistency
of the test was measured using Cronbach's
alpha test in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The result showed that
the oral spelling test had a high level of consistency as Cronbach's alpha coefficient was r=
0.97. In order to ascertain the reliability of the
scoring of the writing question, inter-rater reliability was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient between the ratings given by
the researchers and those given by a senior
English teacher. The correlation coefficient of
the writing question was r= 0.93, which was a
high level of inter-rater consistency. The following procedure was followed in administering and marking the test.
A. Consonant omission refers to the dele-
tion of one consonant letter or more
from the target word.
B.
Vowel omission refers to the deletion
of one vowel or more from the target
word.
C.
Consonant insertion refers to the addition of one consonant letter or more in
the target word.
D. Vowel insertion refers to the addition
of one vowel letter or more in the target word.
1. Students were firstly oriented with the
test, its purpose and its questions. Then,
an example was given in order to clarify
the instructions for the first question.
Then, the test administrator, the researchers of the present study, read the
word once. Then, the word was repeated
in the context of a sentence. Finally, the
word was read twice. This procedure has
been followed by Al-Yahyai (2009)
among other researchers. Once the first
question was completed, the test administrator discussed the writing topic with
the students in order to generate ideas to
write about.
E.
Consonant substitution refers to the
replacement of a consonant letter or
more for others. This also involves
substituting a consonant digraph or
tri-graph.
F.
Vowel substitution refers to the replacement of a vowel letter or more
for others. This also involves substituting a vowel diagraph or a tri-graph.
G. Transposition refers to reversing the
order of a letter or some letters in a
word. Transposition is treated as one
category with disregard to the type of
letter being mis-ordered. This includes mis-ordering of:
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Sheikha Al-Bereiki & Abdo Al-Mekhlafi
1. one letter as in reversing the order
of two correctly adjacent letters
such as writing caemra for camera,
2. one letter as in reversing the order
of two adjacent letters, one of
them is not a correct letter in the
word as in writing akmre for camera,
3. one letter as in reversing the order
of two letters which are not adjacent to each other as in writing
deegre for degree and bussines for
business; this counts as one transposition,
4. two letters in the place of each
other as in misplacing the e and
the i as writing cimestry for chemistry; this counts as two transpositions, and
5. two letters in the place of two other letters as in bussnies for business; this counts as two transpositions.
classification. The second rater was a
senior English teacher. It was decided that one English test paper would
be done by the second rater for the
first test question since there were
seventy words. Four test papers
would be done for the free writing
question since students wrote passages with different lengths. The
level of agreement between the researchers and the second rater was
.88 for the oral spelling question and
.90 for the free writing question.
Both correlation coefficients showed
a high level of agreement indicating a
high level of consistency in the classification of errors.
M. A second review by the researchers
was carried out to further ensure the
consistency and accuracy of classification of errors. A few changes were
made accordingly.
N. A third table was created to include
H. True word spelling error: Here, the
the errors of both questions.
target word is spelled as another
word, e.g. writing live instead of
leave.
I.
J.
K.
L.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
O. The data in the three table were en-
tered in the SPSS to run the appropriate statistical procedures in order
to answer research questions one and
two.
Complex spelling error refers to the
misspellings that have more than two
types of spelling errors or the
spelling is not readable or has no explanation, e.g. apaksi for education,
or durt for their.
Findings and Discussions
The first question: What are the most common types of spelling errors made by Omani
grade ten EFL students?
The different types of misspellings
were counted manually for every
student and recorded in a table.
Table 2 shows the sums and percentages of the
different types of spelling errors for grade ten
students in both test questions one and two. It is
noteworthy that correct spellings and no attempts
to spell the words were also recorded, yet they
were not included in the tables of the types of
spelling errors because they were not errors.
For question two, the written text for
each student was read twice. Misspellings were underlined and then
classified. After that, different types
of spelling errors were counted manually for every student and recorded
in a table. The writing question differed from the oral spelling question
in terms of the absence of two categories; correct spelling and no attempt,
and that was due to the nature of the
two questions.
Table 2
Sums and percentages of different types of spelling errors for all students in test questions one and two
Types of spelling errors
Sum
*Percentage
Vowel substitution
2,470
24.58%
Vowel omission
2,131
21.29%
Consonant substitution
1,698
16.90%
Complex spelling error
1,246
12.40%
Consonant omission
1,039
10.34%
True word error
535
5.32%
Vowel insertion
524
5.21%
Transposition
271
2.70%
Consonant Insertion
136
1.35%
Total
10,050
A second rater classified the spelling
errors of a random sample from the
test papers. This step was important
because it ensured consistency of
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
2015
Table 4 displays the sums and percentages of
the different types of spelling errors made by
grade ten students in the second question of
the English test, the free writing task. There is
a very similar order of the different types of
spelling errors as being mostly made by the
students to the order in question one and
when the misspellings were combined in the
two test questions. In table 4, vowel substitution and vowel omission came in the first and
second places respectively, similar to tables 2
and 3. The least common type of spelling
error was consonant insertion. However, true
word spelling errors were in third place and
consonant substitution came in fourth place.
*out of the total number of errors
Students made a large number of spelling errors. Over ten thousand spelling errors were
made by ninety students and that shows how
big the spelling problem is among this grade.
Table 2 presents the types of spelling error
committed by the students. Vowel substitution was the most common type of spelling
error made by students. Vowel omission was
the second most common spelling error. The
third in the list of spelling problems was consonant substitution while complex spelling
errors came in fourth place. Finally, consonant insertion was the least common typeof
spelling error. For specific details of the types
of spelling errors made by students, table 3
and table 4 displays the sums and percentages
of the different types of spelling errors for all
students in questions one and two of the test
respectively.
Noticeably, the order of the types of spelling
errors as the most common and the least
common is the same for question one of the
test, question two of the test and when combining both questions one and two of the test.
Similarities are apparent in the order of the
types of the misspellings for the first and second and the least common. Differences occurred in the orders of the other types. A simple explanation for this is that the largest
number of spelling errors were made in question one since students were asked to write
certain words while in question two students
had to use their own knowledge in order to
generate their written compositions. Students
did not write much in the second part of the
English test, the free writing task, and thus the
number of spelling errors found in students‟
text writing was not high compared to the
spelling errors made in the oral spelling question.
Table 3
Sums and percentages of the different types of
spelling errors for all students in question one of
the test
Types of the spelling
Percentage
errors
Sum
Vowel Substitution
2,243
24.54%
Vowel Omission
1,959
21.43%
Consonant Substitution
1,595
17.45%
Complex Spelling Error
1,214
13.28%
Consonant Omission
941
10.29%
Vowel Insertion
446
4.88%
True Word Error
440
4.81%
Transposition
186
2.03%
Consonant Insertion
117
1.28%
Total
9,141
Table 3 shows that the most common spelling
error in question one of the test vowel substitution. Vowel omission types of errors were in
second place. Consonant substitution spelling
errors and complex spelling errors represented
the third and fourth types of errors respectively. The least common spelling errors were consonant insertion.
The findings in tables 2, 3 and 4 correspond
with the findings of some previous studies.
Discussion in this section uses table 2, where
all the spelling errors from both test questions
are included. Corresponding with the present
study‟s findings, Emery (2005) found that
vowel substitution was the most common type
of spelling errors among all other types of errors that involved vowel letters. Also, Al-Jarf
(2008) found out that substituting the vowel
by another faulty vowel was the most common specific strategy used by university students in her study.
Table 4
Sums and percentages of the different types of
spelling errors for all students in question two of the
test
Types of spelling errors
Sum
Percentage
Vowel Substitution
255
27.36%
Vowel Omission
171
18.35%
True Word Error
99
10.62%
Consonant Substitution
96
10.30%
Consonant Omission
86
9.23%
Vowel Insertion
78
8.37%
Complex Spelling Error
66
7.08%
Transposition
62
6.65%
Consonant Insertion
19
2.04%
Total
932
Previous studies (Al-Harrasi, 2012; Al-Zuoud
& Kabilan, 2013) showed that substituting the
correct letter with another letter was the most
common spelling erroramong their students
involved in the studies; however, the research-
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Sheikha Al-Bereiki & Abdo Al-Mekhlafi
ers did not specify the types of letters that
were most problematic; were they substituting
the vowels or substituting the consonants?
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
fifth. Vowel insertion came in seventh place
whereas consonant insertion was the least
common type of misspellings. This suggests
that vowels constitute particular difficulties
for Arab learners of English. The literature
supports this finding. Emery (2005) found out
that vowel-related spelling errors constituted
83% among all the spelling errors in the corpus collected by the researcher compared to
17% consonant-only misspellings. Additionally, Cook (1999), in his analysis of the spelling
errors made by L2 users of English from different L1s, indicated that Arab learners substituted vowels and added more vowels than
other L2 users and the researcher attributed
this to the linguistic differences between English and Arabic. A question to be raised: were
there certain vowel that were more problematic than others? This is a question that may
constitute a possible area of future research
studies.
Additionally, Al-Hassan (2006) found that
consonant substitution was of particular difficulty to Omani grade five male students in his
study. The researcher indicated that his learners had difficulty with mirror-shaped letters,
e.g. b and d, but he did not include any percentages or means of all the error types in his
analysis of misspellings.
Al-Jabri (2006) found that substitution and
omission spelling errors were the most common among his students. Yet, the researcher
did not specify the types of letters. Also, the
findings of Al-Jayousi‟s (2011) study revealed
that spelling errors of Arab learners of English in the UAE were highly concentrated in
substitution errors with as high as 50% while
omission came in second place with 33%.
On the other hand, the findings of the present
research study were not in consistency with
Al-Mezeini‟s (2009) study which he conducted
with Omani grade nine male students. The
researcher found that sound-based spelling
errors were the most common spelling errors
(55%) while substitution and omission were
categorized in second place (35%). Obviously,
Al-Mezeini followed a different categorization
from the one followed in the present study
since sound-based misspellings were not specified in the present study. Substituting the correct vowel with another vowel was found to
be the most common type of misspelling
among grade ten students. This finding might
raise the concern about phonemic awareness
in the vowel sounds students possess.
Vaddapalli (2012), in his study about spelling
and auditory discrimination difficulties students in Oman face, concluded that “lack of
phonemic awareness of English sounds is one
of the main reasons of spelling problems”
(p.273 ).
The second question: Is there a statistically
significant difference between male and female students regarding the types of spelling
errors made?
This question was answered by comparing the
types of spelling errors of male and female
students. Table 5 displays t-test results for differences between males and females in mean
spelling errors in question one and question
two.
The results presented in table 5 revealed that
there were significant differences between
male and female students with respect to two
types of misspellings; vowel omission and true
word errors. Male students omitted more
vowels when spelling as opposed to female
students. Similarly, more female students
made true word errors compared to their male
counterparts.
Vowel related spelling errors seemed to be
more problematic for Arab EFL learners of
English than consonant related misspellings.
According to table 2, vowel substitution came
in first place while consonant substitution
came in third place. Similarly, vowel omission
was the second most common type of misspellings while consonant omission was the
669
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
2015
Table 5
T-test results for differences between males and females in mean spelling errors in questions one and two of the test
Types of spelling errors
Gender
Mean*
SD.
T
Sig.(2-tailed)
Consonant Omission
Male
12.60
4.91
1.77
0.08
Female
10.88
4.33
Vowel Omission
Male
27.27
10.65
3.23
0.00**
Female
20.67
8.71
Consonant Insertion
Male
2.18
1.39
0.11
0.92
Female
2.14
1.29
Vowel Insertion
Male
5.29
3.53
1.49
0.14
Female
6.53
4.20
Consonant Substitution
Male
20.80
9.70
1.91
0.06
Female
17.24
8.00
Vowel Substitution
Male
27.22
10.57
0.18
0.86
Female
27.63
11.58
Transposition
Male
3.61
2.64
0.46
0.65
Female
4.05
4.54
True Word Error
Male
5.17
2.60
2.21
0.03**
Female
6.59
3.36
Complex Spelling Error
Male
16.33
10.73
1.59
0.12
Female
12.89
9.31
*The average of misspellings for each student
** The mean difference is significant at 0.05 level
Vowel omission is a characteristic of a speller
at the phonetic stage of spelling development.
There were more male students at the phonetic stage than female students. This is quite
alarming since phonetic spelling is an attribute
of young learners‟ writing. Making true word
errors shows that the students have good
knowledge of permissible strings of letters and
the constituents that are more likely to make
correct words in English language. Students
who make more true word errors can be said
to know how a word looks right or have good
orthographic knowledge; however, their semantic knowledge is poor. More exposure to
the language through directed reading or extensive reading can help students develop
good semantic knowledge. For specific de-
tails, tables 6 and 7 represent the t-test results
for the differences between males and females
in mean spelling errors for question one only
and question two only respectively.
With reference to table 6, there were significant differences between males and females
with respect to types of spelling errors in three
categories; vowel omission, consonant substitution and true word errors. Table 6 reveals
that male students made more vowel omission
misspellings than their female counterparts.
Also, they used the incorrect consonant in
their spellings more frequently than female
students. Similar to the findings in table 5, female students made more true word errors
than male students.
Table 6
T-test results for differences between males and females in mean spelling errors in question one only
Types of spelling errors
Gender
Mean*
SD.
T
Sig.(2-tailed)
Consonant Omission
Male
11.34
4.68
1.33
0.19
female
10.13
3.85
Vowel Omission
Male
25.27
10.46
3.31
0.00**
female
18.84
7.96
Consonant Insertion
Male
1.79
1.32
-0.750.46
female
2.03
1.24
Vowel Insertion
Male
4.65
3.15
-1.240.22
female
5.53
3.44
Consonant Substitution
Male
20.15
9.68
2.43
0.02**
female
15.69
7.23
Vowel Substitution
Male
24.85
9.93
-0.060.95
female
24.98
9.52
Transposition
Male
3.19
1.92
0.85
0.40
female
2.78
1.87
True Word Error
Male
4.24
1.91
2.71
0.01**
female
5.66
2.94
Complex Spelling Error
Male
15.83
10.93
1.42
0.16
female
12.63
9.90
*The average number of misspellings for each student
** The mean difference is significant at 0.05 level
670
Spelling Errors of Omani EFL Students
Sheikha Al-Bereiki & Abdo Al-Mekhlafi
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Table 7
T-test results for differences between males and females in mean spelling errors in question two only
Types of spelling errors
Gender
Mean
SD.
T
Sig (2-tailed)
Consonant Omission
Male
1.74
1.05
1.23
0.20
Female
2.19
1.25
Vowel Omission
Male
3.00
1.88
1.47
0.15
Female
2.37
1.57
Consonant Insertion
Male
1.22
0.67
1.00
0.35
Female
1.00
0.00
Vowel Insertion
Male
2.067
1.22
0.17
0.87
Female
2.14
1.28
Consonant Substitution
Male
1.86
1.03
1.17
0.25
Female
2.33
1.35
Vowel Substitution
Male
3.13
2.49
0.68
0.50
Female
3.51
2.38
Transposition
Male
2.00
1.05
0.76
0.45
Female
1.75
0.79
True Word Error
Male
2.33
2.11
1.42
0.17
Female
1.58
1.02
Complex Spelling Error
Male
1.64
0.67
1.12
0.27
Female
2.09
1.24
their linguistic performance would most probably be better than boys of the same age. The
difference between the different types of
spelling errors with respect to gender is an
area that needs further investigation.
Table 7 shows that there were no significant
differences between male students and female
students with respect to the types of spelling
errors found in students‟ text writing. Although there were mean differences between
males and females in vowel omission spelling
problem and true word errors, this difference
was not significant at 0.05 level. A possible
explanation to this finding is the nature of the
two types of questions. In the writing question, students needed to bring in more language knowledge in order to compose their
writing. The length of what students wrote
varied from no writing to two pages. Many
students could not write anything even
though they were encouraged and assisted by
the researchers of the present paper.
Conclusion
Spelling is a complex language skill and the
findings from this research study uncovered
the different difficulties students face with
spelling. Vowel substitution, vowel omission
and consonant substitution were the most
common types of spelling difficulties Omani
students in the present study face. Thus, mastering the spelling of the most frequent English words is something that needs time and a
lot of effort. Spelling instruction in Arab EFL
in general and in Omani classrooms in particular should be reviewed in order to provide the
appropriate spelling instruction that corresponds with students‟ actual spelling needs.
A change to alleviate the spelling problems is
necessary. This change needs to combine the
efforts of all change agents in education namely curriculum designers, supervisors, trainers
and teachers.
Previous spelling studies based on corpus
analysis did not compare the types of misspellings made by male and female students in
composition writing. Gender difference between the types of spelling errors was not the
focus of previous studies. However, the comparison of spelling achievement between male
and female learners was the focus of some
spelling studies. An Omani study conducted
by Al-Yahyai (2009) on grade four male and
female students found out that girls were better spellers than their male counterparts in
both the pretest and posttest. Allred (1991)
studied the achievements of boys and girls
from grade one through grade six in the USA
and found out that girls were better spellers
than boys. The researcher attributed the difference between the two genders to maturity
and cultural expectations.
According to
Allred, girls mature earlier than boys, thus
Recommendations
In light of the findings of the present study,
the following recommendations are made:
1.
671
Evaluating students‟ spelling proficiency particularly at the beginning of grade
ten in order to measure students‟ actual
achievements in spelling through the
nine years of learning English. Subsequently, stakeholders at the curriculum
department in the Ministry of Education
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
are well informed about students‟ actual
needs and thus can design the most appropriate intervention programs.
2.
English language syllabus can include
more effective spelling learning strategies for students to employ when learning spelling.
4.
Further studies on spelling problems
might consider investigating the misspellings of different grade levels.
5.
Comparisons between the spelling performance of different grade levels, e.g.
between grade five and grade ten, are
recommended in order to examine
whether students make different types
of spelling errors as they progress
through the years of learning English or
not.
6.
eam/123456789/7716/1/Listeningspelling%20strategies%20in%20EFL%20Ar
ab%20college%20students.pdf
Teachers need to be well trained to deal
with students‟ spelling difficulties.
Therefore, curriculum developers in coordination with training and supervision departments can survey teachers‟
training needs with respect to teaching
and learning spelling. Then, in-service
training needs that can correspond with
students‟ actual needs can be designed
and implemented.
3.
2015
Al-Jarf, R. (2010). Spelling error corpora in
EFL. Sino-US English Teaching, 7(1), 6-15.
Al-Jayousi, M.T. (2011). Spelling errors of Arab
students: Types, causes and teachers' responses. Master Thesis. American University of
Sharjah. Retrieved from
https://dspace.aus.edu/xmlui/bitstream
/handle/11073/2716/29.2322011.09%20Mohannad%20Al%20Jayousi.p
df?sequence=1
Allred, R. A. (1990). Gender differences in
spelling achievement in grades 1 through
6. Journal of Educational Research, 83(4), 187193.
Al-Mezeini, H. (2009). Does teaching spelling
rules make a difference?. In S. Borg (Ed.),
Understanding English Language Teaching
and Learning in Oman (pp. 124-131). Sultanate of Oman: Ministry of Education.
Al-Yahyai, S. (2009). Spelling Difficulties in
Grade 4. In S. Borg (Ed.),Understanding
English Language Teaching and Learning in
Oman (pp.132-139 ) Sultanate of Oman:
Ministry of Education.
Al-Zuoud, K. & Kabilan, M. (2013). Investigating Jordanian EFL students‟ spelling
errors at tertiary level. International Journal
of Linguistics, 5(3), 164-176.
Testing the effectiveness of a teaching
approach or a teaching/learning strategy for spelling is recommended in order
to measure their effect on improving
students‟ spelling proficiency.
Anonymous, (2012). Text project. Retrieved
from
http://textproject.org/archive/resources
/wordzones-for-4000-simple-wordfamilies/
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Spelling Errors of Omani EFL Students
Sheikha Al-Bereiki & Abdo Al-Mekhlafi
Appendix A
The Spelling Words
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
The word
Angry
Beach
camera
Degree
Energy
Forest
got
hand
inside
junk
Keep
Leave
market
Nine
Orange
paint
Queen
reduce
salary
team
under
very
Water
fox
Yet
zoo
country
view
receive
elephant
because
mountain
serious
Creature
people
daughter
Should
Climb
Knife
wrong
Building
Chocolate
chemistry
Machine
laugh
Language
Would
Knew
wear
right
Sentence
Don't drive when you are angry.
I like walking on the beach.
Take a photo with your camera.
My brother has a master‟s degree.
We can make solar energy from the sun.
Many animals live in the forest.
I've got a nice gift on my birthday.
Eat with your right hand.
Put the book inside the bag.
You shouldn't eat junk food.
People keep goats in their farms.
You should leave the building if there is fire.
I bought my new dress from a big market in Matrah.
My sister is nine years old.
An orange is a fruit.
Paint the picture with different colors.
A queen lives in a palace.
We should reduce the amount of plastic we use.
In some jobs, you get a high salary.
Our football team won the match.
There is a bag under the table.
I like this book very much.
Drink at least two litres of water every day.
I saw a fox in the zoo.
I haven't finished writing yet.
There are many animals in the zoo.
Oman is a beautiful country.
Write your view about the topic.
Did you receive my message?
The elephant is a big animal.
She won the race because she was the fastest.
Al-Jabel Al-Akhdher is a famous mountain in Oman.
If you have a serious problem, talk to your parents about it.
A creature is an animal.
More people live in cities than in villages.
I have one daughter and two sons.
You should see a doctor if you are sick.
A monkey can climb a tree.
You need to use a sharp knife to cut that fish.
You don‟t get marks for wrong answers.
Our school is a large building.
Children like eating chocolate.
He studies chemistry at the college.
We need a big machine to dig the well.
I always laugh at the jokes he makes.
Arabic is a language of many countries.
Would you get me a cup of coffee please?
I knew she could do it.
Muslims wear new clothes during Eid.
Turn right at the roundabout and then go straight.
675
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Appendix A
The Spelling Words
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.
64.
65.
66.
67.
68.
69.
70.
The word
Buy
their
business
education
beautiful
entertainment
walked
finished
wanted
Personality
interesting
Carefully
helpless
slowly
centimeter
unhappy
using
goats
boxes
wives
Sentence
Did you buy milk from the supermarket?
Their son works in a big company.
Some people have their own business.
Education in Oman is improving.
This is a beautiful flower.
Nowadays, there are many activities one can do for entertainment.
Yesterday, I walked for 5 kilometers.
He finished the report last week.
When I was a child I wanted to become a superman.
Some people have a lovely personality.
It is an interesting movie.
You should drive carefully.
You shouldn't be helpless when you face a problem.
Turtles move slowly.
This line is one centimeter long.
I was unhappy about my marks.
I like using the computer.
Farmers usually keep goats and cows in their farms.
There are three boxes of mangoes on the shelf.
Wives are happy with the new law.
676
2015
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University
(Pages 677-690)
Vol.9 Issue 4, 2015
Omani Students’ Application of the Second Standard for Technology Coaches
in Internship Program
Ahmed Y. Abdelraheem* & Talal S. Amir
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
___________________________________________
Received: 5/6/2015
Revised: 5/9/2015
Accepted: 10/9/2015
_____________________________________________
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which Omani students apply International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) second standard for technology coaches
and its relation with gender, training institution type, student’s specialization, GPA and cohort.
A questionnaire of twenty three items to measure the components of the second standard was
derived from these components and used. A sample of 171 students was used to collect data.
Onsite supervisors were used to evaluate students’ application of the second standard. The results indicate that the overall performance of the students reflects a reasonable and acceptable
performance but does not reach the target and desirable performance. Statistical analysis shows
no significant differences due to gender, and cohort but there were significant differences due to
students’ specialization, institution type and students’ GPA. The study concludes with some
recommendations to improve the weak components and revise the procedures and processes of
the internship program.
Keywords: ISTE standards, internship, technology coaches, Omani students.
‫تطبيق الطلبة العنانيني للنعيار الثاني ملدربي التكنولوجيا يف برنامج اإلحلاق املهين‬
‫أمحد يوسف عبد الرحيه* و طالل شعبان عامر‬
‫ سلطنة عنان‬،‫جامعة السلطان قابوس‬
_____________________________________________
‫ ٍدفت ٍرِ الدزاسة إىل تكصٕ مدى تطبٔل الطلبة العناىٔني للنعٔاز الثاىٕ للجنعٔة العاملٔة للتهيْلْحٔا يف الرتبٔة‬:‫مستخلص‬
‫ مت‬.‫ملدزبٕ التهيْلْجٔا ّعالقة ذلو بيْع الطلبة ّىْع مؤسسة تدزٓبَه ّختصصَه ّمعدالتَه الرتاننٔة ّسية ختسجَه‬
.‫ طالبا ّطالبة‬171 ً‫ ننا مت استخداو عٔية مهْىة م‬.ٕ‫ فكسة أشتكت مً مهْىات املعٔاز الثاى‬23 ً‫استخداو استباىة مهْىة م‬
‫ أشازت اليتائج إىل أٌ األداء العاو للطلبة ناٌ معكْال‬.‫ّنرلو مت استخداو املشسفني املكٔنني لتكٔٔه تطبٔل الطلبة هلرا املعٔاز‬
‫ ّقد أظَس التخلٔل اإلحصائٕ عدو ّجْد فسّم يف املتْسطات ىاجتة عً ىْع الطلبة‬.‫ّمكبْ ال ّلهيُ مل حيكل اهلدف املطلْب‬
‫ّسية التخسج بٔينا أظَس فسّق ًا ىاجتة عً ختصص الطالب ّىْع مؤسسة التدزٓب ّاملعدل الرتاننٕ للطلبة ّاختتنت الدزاسة‬
.‫بتْصٔات لتخسني مْاضع الضعف ّمساجعة اإلجساءات ّالطسم اخلاصة بربىامج اإلحلام املَين‬
‫ الطلبة‬،‫ مدزبٕ التهيْلْجٔا‬،‫ االحلام املَين‬،‫ معآري اجلنعٔة العاملٔة للتهيْلْجٔا يف الرتبٔة‬:‫الهلنات املفتاحٔة‬
.‫العناىٔني‬
*[email protected]
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
The history of student internships originated
in the U.S. in the early twentieth century
(Driscoll, 2006). According to Thiel and Hartley (1997) the university of Cincinnati's cooperative education program developed the first
college‐endorsed internship program in the
USA in 1906. The program was developed
based on the premise that college students
pursuing a professional program of studies
needed to find a way to finance their education. The first framework of managing the
practical experience element was adapted in
the field of education where a major requirement of the teaching certification is practice.
Internships are career-oriented curricular endeavors of practical application. Internships
also address the issue of “lack of practical application” by giving students an active learning experience in the workplace. Students are
able to develop the various applied workplace
skills they will need to enable them to make a
smooth transition from the classroom to the
world of business. Feedback from the aggregated evaluations can be used to revise the
curriculum in order to improve student performance and meet employers’ needs and expectations (Divine, Miller & Wilson, 2015).
Internships are work-based learning experiences that relate to future professions. Students are placed as interns with a wide variety
of sponsoring organizations based on their
individual fields of interest. These organizations can serve internships in the arts, education, health, communications, business and
industry, technology, and many other areas.
Students are released from school for part of
the school day or school year and work a variable number of required hours on a part-time
basis for a designated period. Student interns
receive on-the-job, one-on-one training in a
work setting from skilled professionals, who
provide the knowledge and expertise of their
field. Students learn by doing in actual situations through direct, hands-on experiences.
They are evaluated and assessed by both their
school internship coordinator and their on-site
professional supervisor or mentor using an
authentic, competency- and performancebased model, portfolios, and exhibitions.
Among the many positive educational outcomes of internships are practical experiences,
new skills, and improved attitudes and behaviors (Merritt, 2008).
2015
service experience in which an individual has
intentional learning goals and reflects actively
on what she or he is learning throughout the
experience or duration of attachment. Hendrikse (2013) indicated that the benefits of
completing an internship include gaining valuable work experience, having an edge in the
job market, an opportunity to decide if this is
the right career choice and it is a valuable way
to build confidence and gain experience. Amir
& Ismail (2014) indicate that the internship
program plays a significant role in developing
the interns’ skills and makes them better prepared for a future career. They added that
clear and achievable objectives, experienced
site-supervisors, orientation, continuous evaluation and feedback throughout the internship
period are major factors for a successful internship program.
Most definitions of the concept of internships
have been consistent, making it simple to explain the term. According to Furco (1996), internships are defined as programs that engage
students in service activities primarily to provide them with hands-on experience that enhances their learning or understanding of issues relevant to a particular area of study.
Meanwhile, McMahon and Quinn (1995) noted that internships are supervised work experiences whereby students leave their institutions and become engaged in work-related
programs, during which period they are closely supervised by experienced job incumbents.
Internships are therefore any carefully monitored piece of work or service experience in
which an individual has intentional learning
goals and reflects actively on what she or he is
learning throughout the experience or duration of attachment.
The internship program described in this
study is designed for undergraduate students
to gain work experience, that is, experience
gained through the workplace as opposed to
experiences students gain in lectures and
classrooms. Thus, the term Work-Based Learning (WBL) will be broadly used to encompass
these experiences, and the literature on WBL is
also included to explore the importance of internship programs for undergraduates. Internships can be used as a pedagogical tool. Student interns are employed and receive on-thejob, one-on-one, practical training in hands-on
learning experiences. They work with and
learn from skilled professionals in a work setting, which provides them opportunities to
Bukaliya (2012) pointed out that internships
are any carefully monitored piece of work or
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Omani Students’ Application of the Second Standard for Technology Coaches in Internship Program
Ahmed Abdelraheem & Talal Amir
associate with the people and the resources
that can make work real (Littke, 2004). The
job-site professionals provide interns with assignments and responsibilities that will allow
them to serve as assistants. Students are exposed to workplace environments, norms of
the workplace, work expectations, and obligations (Wynn, 2003). Students participate in
meetings and get a feel for what work days are
like in their field of interest.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
will result in better coaching of teaching and
learning. Swan & Dixon (2006) investigated
the influence of a mentor-supported model of
technology training on mathematics teachers’
attitudes and use of technology in the classroom. The treatment included six coaching
sessions, informal focus groups, and mentorprovided support. The results indicated that
mathematics teachers male and female participating in mentor-supported, professional development increased the amount and level of
technology use in their practice. Teachers had
a desire to learn about technology and understood it was important.
Although the majority of higher education
institutions offer internship programs for their
students, the exact nature of each program
may differ based on the aims and objectives
set by the respective institutions. However, all
internship programs are mainly formed to
provide undergraduates with the opportunity
to experience and gain practical knowledge in
authentic, professional environments before
they graduate. In general, internship programs
attempt to merge students’ learning gained in
a campus-based environment with a real-work
environment. Thus, terminologies used to describe this relationship between learning and
work become important. Terms such as workrelated learning, workplace learning, and
work-based learning (WBL) have been used to
discuss and describe internship programs.
However, the similarities and differences of
these terms are not entirely clear (Streumer &
Kho, 2006).
In a study by Holahan, Jurkat, and Friedman
(2000), 34 teachers from 33 New Jersey schools
were trained not only to use new technology
but also to serve as coaches of other teachers at
their home schools. The results showed that a
mentor-based teaching model permitted
greater efficiency as compared to traditional
training approaches. The program emphasized
mutual sharing, learning, and collaboration
versus superior-subordinate relationships between the mentors and those who attended
training. Felicen, Rasa, Sumanga & Buted
(2014) utilized the descriptive qualitative design using 50 percent of the interns of second
semester 2012-2013 as participants in the area
of food and beverage and travel agencies. Results of the study revealed that interns have a
satisfactory level of academic performance. In
training performance they were rated as very
good in terms of knowledge, skills, attitude
and personality. Their study also revealed that
there is no significant relationship between
academic performance and training performance. Martinez, et al (2014) found that Mass
Communication students obtained an excellent performance rating in their On-the-Job
Training with a high academic performance
rating in media marketing and average in advertising principle. Students with high academic performance in Advertising Principle
also obtained high training performance except in adherence. Yeswa, Okaka, Mutsotso,
Odera & Mumbo (2012) conducted a study in
Kenya to assess whether the contextual factors
influence the relationship between internship
programs and performance of public
healthcare institutions. They found a significant positive relationship between contextual
factors and internship programs in public
healthcare institutions (r=0.501; P <0.05).
Barron, Dawson, & Yendol-Hoppey (2009)
surveyed a Microsoft program workshop in
Florida. The Survey results revealed that many
coaches did not perceive that computers
changed the role of the classroom teacher. This
view suggests a lack of deep understanding
about technology integration. They suggested
that the program could be substantially improved by helping the coaches think more
deeply about technology integration. In addition, most of the coaches and facilitators who
attended the workshops were enthusiastic
about the peer coaching concept and had positive attitudes about the integration of technology. However, the perpetual issues of adequate time and resources for the implementation of peer coaching and the integration of
technology in K-12 classrooms were recurring
themes.
Bradshaw (2002) concludes his study with recommendations for strengthening technology
initiatives to increase the likelihood that they
679
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Walo (2001) assessed students’ perceptions of
their level of management competence, before
and after the internship component of their
degree program. A self assessment instrument
utilizing the management competencies within the competing values was used for the empirical stages of the study. The research implies that the internship program has proved
effective in contributing towards the development of management competencies for this
cohort of students. The study provides valuable insight into the relationship between internship and the development of students’
management competencies and highlights the
need for further research in this area.
2015
number of empirical studies that investigated
that influence on the perceived value of internship appear to be inconsistent. Therefore,
there is a need for more studies that empirically investigate the influence of the individual
characteristics on the perceived value of internships in order to enhance our understanding of such influence and help design effective
internship programs.
The above studies outline the value and variety of the benefits enjoyed by those students
participating in internships, including a better
understanding and knowledge of the tasks
and practices performed by industry professionals, improved self‐confidence, enhanced
employment and professional growth opportunities, the ability to network within the industry by creating personal contacts, exposure
to management activities, and the development of skills relevant to their particular career choice. Furthermore, internships provide
an opportunity for students to apply classroom theories to practical issues in the actual
business setting, and most importantly to
evaluate whether their career choice is compatible with their interests and personality.
These studies did not touch directly the topic
investigated by this study, namely the International Society for Technology in Education
(ISTE) standards application.
Regarding students’ academic performance
and success on internship, Callanan and Benzing (2004) posit that there is evidence that
students with higher GPAs are more likely to
pursue an internship, although it is unclear
whether or not they benefit to a greater extent
than do students with lower GPAs. Kim, Kim,
and Bzullak (2012) found 2.5 or higher to be
the most popular GPA prerequisite for internship in accredited schools. Hergert (2011)
found a strong correlation between the perceived value of the internship and the student's age and GPA, as older students with
higher GPAs had higher perceived values of
business internship than did younger students
with lower GPAs at a large, public, USA university. On the other hand, Gault et al. (2000)
found that major area of study, GPA, and
gender were not correlated with the extrinsic
measures of career success for the undergraduate business alumni. Hayes (1981) found no
relationship between a student's GPA and the
completion of required work experience. Also,
Casado (1991) suggested that GPA is not a
predictor of success or achievement in a hospitality curriculum. In terms of program preparedness Beard and Morton (1999) found academic preparedness to correlate with successful outcomes of a mass communication internship program. Cannon and Arrnold (1998),
however, found that students with lower
GPAs believed more strongly that an internship in marketing should lead to a full-time
job.
Recently, Sultan Qaboos University (SQU), the
national university in the Sultanate of Oman,
invested a considerable amount of money to
purchase educational technology software and
hardware (WebCT, blackboard learning systems, computer labs, and computers at every
teaching room with different projectors) that
will be used in teaching and learning. This
development is accompanied by comprehensive revisions of the curriculum of the College
of Education to obtain the accreditation of the
National Council for Accrediting Teachers'
Education (NCATE), which is changed to
Council for Accrediting Educators’ Programs
(CAEP). All these efforts are expected to increase the productivity of the instructional
process and the overall educational outputs of
the university. Students are supposed to use
these benefits and technologies in the learning
process. Simply having the technology resources in the school does not necessarily
mean that the staff will use them in their
teaching. Educational planners wish to increase the use of technology by students when
they leave school and enter the work life.
Although the literature is rich with studies
that investigated and assessed the value of
internships in different settings, few studies
empirically investigated the influence that individual characteristics could have on such a
value. Furthermore, the findings of the limited
680
Omani Students’ Application of the Second Standard for Technology Coaches in Internship Program
Ahmed Abdelraheem & Talal Amir

The Instructional and Learning Technologies
Department (ILTD) in the College of Education, SQU, was established in 2005. The department strives to achieve excellence in its
provision of teaching, research, and societal
services in the field of instructional and learning technologies. Currently, the department is
offering B.Ed in Instructional and Learning
Technologies to meet the potential need for
information technology teachers and learning
resources centers at both basic education and
general education levels in the Sultanate of
Oman. The department program is undergoing an accreditation process by CAEP by the
use of the ISTE standards for coaches.
Importance of the study
The importance of this study stems from the
nature of the topic under study. It is the first
study in this area to the best of the researcher’s
knowledge and there are no previous studies
for the variables considered for this study.
Coaching support for teachers is a powerful
means of both modeling and harnessing the
potential of technology to improve teaching
and learning. Teachers who receive coaching
in the use of technology tools to improve student learning, and who learn from and collaborate with peers via professional learning
communities, will develop confidence and
effectiveness in designing and supporting
technology-rich environments that maximize
student learning. Therefore, the importance of
this study could be viewed as follows:
ISTE is a premier, nonprofit organization that
serves educators and education leaders committed to empowering connected learners in a
connected world. ISTE has five sets of standards for each individual who wants to work
with technology. These standards are as follows:
ISTE Standards for Students

ISTE Standards for Teachers

ISTE Standards for Administrators

ISTE Standards for Coaches
ISTE Standards for Computer Science
Educators
Our emphasis in this study is on ISTE standards for coaches. These standards have eight
dimensions, and specifically our focus is on
the second standard. This second standard
focuses on teaching, learning, and assessing
technology. In this standard, technology
coaches assist teachers in using technology
effectively for assessing students’ learning,
differentiating instructions, and providing
rigorous, relevant, and engaging learning experiences for all learners. Technology coaches
help bridge the gap from where we are to
where we need to be. The ISTE Standards for
coaches describe the skills and knowledge
they need to support their peers in becoming
digital age educators.
Internship at the ILTD of the College of Education, SQU, started in the summer of 2008 with
18 students distributed among 6 government
and private sector institutions. By the end of
the summer 2014, the total number of students
who were offered the internship opportunity
increased to 211. The internship institutions
reached 38 institutions. The main objective of
this program is to provide students hands-on
experience that relates to their future positions. The nature of the internship of ILTD is
slightly different from the normal internship
program. In this internship program, the students play two roles. They become trainees at
the beginning of the program, and they become trainers at the second part of the internship period, which is two months. They play
double roles. Students’ evaluation was based
on on-site professional supervisors’ report,
students’ daily report, and the university faculty member who administers the program.
The work of the intern is an integral part of the
student’s course of study. No grades are provided for this internship, but it is a required
course for student graduation.

Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
681

It will cast light on the internship program by showing how technology
coaches practice their roles at the internship institutions.

The findings of this study will be useful
for accreditation process by providing
useful data on the application of the second standard for technology coaches.

ILTD will benefit from this study in determining the weaknesses and strengths
of the preparation program and take action where necessary.

The findings of this study will help in
showing if there are any differences in
internship institutions, students’ cohort,
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
2015
cohort is a very old-fashioned word, little used these days. I’m not sure what
you mean by this word. Maybe group?
Intake?
and gender and how these differences
could be treated.
Statement of the Problem
Internships have been hailed for integrating
classroom education with practical experience
in enabling graduates to develop their professional knowledge and professional skills
(Beard, 1998). However, unlike the conventional system and owing to a diversity of factors in an educational setting, the concept has
encountered challenges. The reason for evaluating internship is to determine its effectiveness. When the evaluation is done, we can
hope that the results are positive and gratifying, both for those responsible for the program
and for upper-level managers who will make
decisions based on their evaluation of the program. Therefore, much thought and planning
need to be given to the program itself to make
sure that it is effective. The internship program at ILTD has never been evaluated in
terms of ISTE standard since its establishment
in 2008. This is the first time for this program
to be evaluated according to the ISTE second
standards for technology coaches (teaching,
learning and assessment). As mentioned before, ILTD program is currently undergoing
an accreditation process using ISTE standard
as SPA (ISTE Standards for Coaches). Therefore, there is a need for this study especially at
this time. The study might cast light on the
current practice of the internship program in
the second standard. This standard is central
to the program since the graduates of this program will work in the future as information
technology teachers or learning resources specialists. In both positions they are required to
coach teachers at school in technology utilization. Therefore the study focuses on uncovering the extent to which the students apply the
ISTE second standard for coaches (teaching,
learning, and assessments of technology).
Having these concerns in mind, this study
seeks to answer the following research questions:
Instrument
The ISTE second standard for technology
coaches (Appendix 1 ) consists of eight elements (components), which have been broken
down into twenty-three Liker-type items of
five points (strongly agree to strongly disagree) to make assessments easier. They constitute the questionnaire (contact the authors for
the questionnaire). The questionnaire was given to a panel of faculty members who specialized in educational technology to assess its
face validity. They suggested minor revisions,
and the researchers fixed them. The reliability
coefficient of the instrument was found to be
0.89 based on Cronbach’s alpha. The instrument also contains demographic information
(gender, specialty, year of internship, and type
of institution) about the students and their
supervisors who participated in the study.
Thereafter, the questionnaire was distributed
to the population of the study to respond to its
items. The researcher contacted the population
through e-mail and telephone calls to urge
them to respond to the questionnaire. Collecting the data from the population took two
months.
Population
The population of this study consists of 171
student interns (50 male and 121 female),
which is the total number for the last four
years (2011 to 2014), and 53 on-site supervisors
(35 male and 18 female). A total of 140 students obtained their internship at training institutions supervised by 39 supervisors, and 31
obtained their training at educational institutions supervised by 14 supervisors.
Results and Discussion
The means and standard deviations of the first
question, namely, “To what extent do student
interns apply ISTE second standard for technology coaches in internship institutions as
viewed by their supervisor?” were calculated,
as shown in Table 1:
1. To what extent do student interns apply
the ISTE second standard for technology coaches in internship institutions as
viewed by their supervisor?
2. Do student interns’ applications of the
second standard vary according to student interns’ gender, type of internship
institution, academic specialization,
GPA, and internship year (cohort)? NB:
Table 1 shows that the first element, element
(a), has the highest mean (4.13), which means
that the supervisors believe that the student
interns did well in this element. This result
could be attributed to the number of courses
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Omani Students’ Application of the Second Standard for Technology Coaches in Internship Program
Ahmed Abdelraheem & Talal Amir
(four courses) that deal with content and student technology standards in their degree
plan. Element (h), which deals with research
skills, came at second rank. This result could
be explained by the fact that these students
have been exposed to many courses that developed their research skills inside and outside the department. The elements with relatively low means are (d) and (f). Element (f)
deals with instructional design skills, and this
element has only two courses in the degree
plan. Element (d) deals with creativity, higherorder thinking skills and processes, and mental habits. This element has no specific courses
and is distributed over the whole program.
Table 2 shows that the overall performance of
the students in the second ISTE standard for
technology coaches has a mean value of 3.88,
which reflects a reasonable and accepted performance but not the target and desirable performance which is 5 points as indicated in the
questionnaire. The ILTD program also requires more revisions to fix the weak areas
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
and reach the target performance. More work
should be done in Coaching teachers in and
modeling design and implementation of technology-enhanced learning experiences emphasizing creativity, higher-order thinking skills
and processes, and mental habits (e.g., critical
thinking, metacognition, and self-regulation.)
Also an emphasis should be given to coach
teachers in and model incorporation of research-based best practices in instructional
design when planning technology-enhanced
learning experiences.
To answer the second question which states:
“Do student interns’ applications of the second standard vary according to student interns’ gender, type of internship institution,
academic specialization, GPA, and internship
year?”, t-test was performed for the three variables of the second question, namely, gender,
type of internship institution, and academic
specialization. The results are shown in Table
2.
Table 1
Means and standard deviations of students’ responses
Elements of the second ISTE standard for technology for coaches
a. Coach teachers in and model design and implementation of technology-enhanced learning experiences addressing content and student technology standards.
h. Coach teachers in and model effective use of technology tools and resources to systematically
collect and analyze student achievement data, interpret results, and communicate findings to improve instructional practice and maximize students’ learning.
c. Coach teachers in and model engagement of students in local and global interdisciplinary units
in which technology helps students assume professional roles, research real-world problems, collaborate with others, and produce products that are meaningful and useful to a wide audience.
e. Coach teachers in and model design and implementation of technology-enhanced learning experiences using differentiation, including adjusting content, process, product, and learning environment based upon student readiness levels, learning styles, interests, and personal goals.
g. Coach teachers in and model effective use of technology tools and resources to continuously
assess student learning and technology literacy by applying a rich variety of formative and summative assessments aligned with content and student technology standards.
b. Coach teachers in and model design and implementation of technology-enhanced learning experiences using a variety of research-based, learner-centered instructional strategies and assessment
tools to address the diverse needs and interests of all students.
d. Coach teachers in and model design and implementation of technology-enhanced learning experiences emphasizing creativity, higher-order thinking skills and processes, and mental habits (e.g.,
critical thinking, metacognition, and self-regulation).
f. Coach teachers in and model incorporation of research-based best practices in instructional design when planning technology-enhanced learning experiences.
Total
683
N
171
Mean
4.13
Std.
.65
171
4.01
.87
171
3.96
.79
171
3.87
.69
171
3.83
.77
171
3.80
.80
171
3.77
.68
171
3.67
.73
3.88
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Table 2
T-test for differences in means caused by gender, type of institutions and academic specialization
Variables
N
Mean
SD.
T
df
Male
50
4.0137
.45825
.756
169
Female
121
3.9537
.47643
Educational
31
4.1795
.52219
2,776
169
Training
140
3.9252
.44747
IT teachers
145
3.9400
47480
-2.069
169
LC specialists
26
4.1455
.41283
2015
Sig.
.450
.006
.040
means that contextual factors influence internship program in public training institutions
and facilitate the use of internship program to
achieve the intended objectives. This result
could be justified by the fact that in educational institutions, students had the chance to
show and apply their skills in the application
of the ISTE standard more than their fellows in
other institutions. This result could also be
justified by the fact that the nature of the educational programs at educational institutions
focuses on instructional topics, such as designing learning environments, instructional design, electronic management systems, and digital photography. These topics are fully covered in their study plan, whereas at noneducational institutions, the concentration is
on topics such as special software serving their
needs, networking, human resource development, and other systems for managing companies and institutions.
Table 3 shows that no significant differences
exist in the means between the male and the
female (t169=.756, p >0.05) (mean = 4.01 for
male and mean = 3.95 for female). This result
means that female and male students apply
the ISTE standards for teaching, learning, and
assessing technology in a similar way without
differences. This result could be justified by
the fact that both of them received the same
training in the Department of Instructional
and Learning Technologies. This result agrees
with Gault, Redingtion, & Schlager (2000).
They found that gender was not correlated
with the extrinsic measures of career success
for the undergraduate business alumni. This
result is inconsistent with that of Ju, Emenheiser, Clayton, & Reynolds (1998), who found
that gender was an important factor that influenced students’ perception of their internship
experiences. Males were more satisfied with
their internship experiences than females.
Males tended to have a stronger resolve to
work in the hospitality industry than females.
They added that in Korea, it may be very difficult for female college graduates to be offered
management positions by hospitality and other companies. Many female hospitality management graduates are employed as entrylevel employees even when they exhibit greater potential than male graduates.
Concerning the comparison between students’
track of study, IT teacher against learning center specialists in applying ISTE standards for
teaching, learning, and assessing technology in
internship program. Table 3 shows a significant difference in the application of ISTE
standards ( t169=-2.06, p<0.05) between learning center specialists (mean = 4.1455) and instructional technology teachers (mean =
3.9400). This result disagrees with Parsa,
Aghazadeh, Nejatisafa, Amini, Mohammadi,
Mostafazadeh, & Moghaddam, (2010). They
found that there was no significant difference
between pediatrics, gynecology, psychiatry,
and general practice among the two groups in
medical internship program. Also, it disagrees
with Gault et al. (2000) who found that major
area of study, was not correlated with the extrinsic measures of career success for the undergraduate business alumni. This result
could be justified by the fact that learning center specialists have more in technology courses, such as networking, multimedia, and more
hands-on laboratory work. They usually take
their internship in educational institutions that
meet their interests.
Concerning the comparison between the training institution, Table 3 shows significant differences in means between institution type (
t169=2.77, p<0.05) (mean = 4.17 for educational
institution and mean = 3.92 for training institution), which means that students who were
offered the opportunity to undertake their internship at educational institutions showed
greater application of the ISTE standard for
teaching, learning, and assessing technology
than their fellows who obtained their training
at non-educational institutions. This result
agrees with the findings of Yeswa, Okaka,
Mutsotso, Odera, & Mumbo (2012). They
found a significant positive relationship between contextual factors and internship program in public healthcare institutions. This
684
Omani Students’ Application of the Second Standard for Technology Coaches in Internship Program
Ahmed Abdelraheem & Talal Amir
To determine the differences in means between students’ GPA and differences in students’ cohort, the ANOVA test was used. Table 3 shows the results of the differences in
means caused by the GPA variable.
Table 3
ANOVA test for students’ GPA variable
Source
SS
df
MS
F
Between
5.466
2
2.733 14.263
Groups
Within
32.189
168
.192
Groups
Total
37.655
170
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
age- and low-GPA students). The results also
show that the applications of the ISTE standard for teaching, learning, and assessing technology of students with average GPA were
found to be significantly greater than those of
low GPA students. These results could be justified by the fact that during the program of
study, high and average GPA students usually
exerted more efforts on their studies, which
were reflected in the internship program performance. Those students usually reflect on
their performance and apply ISTE standards
the way they should be applied. This implies
that those students with high final grades in
courses have also high performance on job
training.
Sig.
.000
Grade point average in particular is important
to examine for students participating in internships, due to both its link to retention and
the link between retention and gainful employment. While the rationale for internships
is focused on career-related outcomes, GPA
plays an essential role in the link between internship participation and the job market. Table 3 shows that a significant difference exists
in means between the students’ application of
ISTE standard for teaching, learning, and assessing technology caused by their GPA ( F2,168
=14.26 p < 0.05). The result agrees with Martinez et al, (2014) who found that students
with high academic performance in advertising principle also obtained high training performance except in adherence to company policy. In addition, it agrees with Hergert (2011)
and Callanan and Benzing (2004). But it disagrees with the findngs of Felicen, Rasa, Sumanga & Buted (2014), Buted, Felicen, & Manzano (2014), Casado (1991) and Hayes (1981)
who found that there is no significant relationship between academic performance and
training performance. Also, this study disagrees with Coutinho (2007) who found no relationship between performance goals and GPA.
GPA might be one measure of success, but
does not necessarily embody determination or
career success as found by Beard and Morton
(1999). Although Beard and Morton found that
GPA was a less important predictor of internship success, Bacon (2006) found that GPA
was a valuable indicator of job success.
Table 4
Scheffe’s multiple comparisons
(I) GPA (J) GPA
Std.
Sig.
mean
mean
error
1.00
2.00
3.00
2.00
3.00
1.00
3.00
1.00
2.00
.13680
.13138
-.13680
.18272
-.13138
-.18272
.000
.010
.000
.002
.010
.002
In table 4, 1.00 stands for students with low
GPA, 2.0 for average GPA, and 3.00 for high
GPA.
Comparisons between cohorts help examine
trends and provide historical context. To determine the differences caused by internship
year (cohort), ANOVA was used. Table 5
shows that no significant difference existed in
the cohort variable ( F2,50 =2.267 p >0.05).
Table 5
ANOVA test for the cohort variable
Source
SS
df MS
F
Sig.
Between
1.391
2 .696 2.607 .084
Groups
Within
13.341 50 .267
Groups
Total
14.732 52
This result indicated that students’ performance in the internship program was stable
and consistent. This result could be attributed
to the fact that in the last three years, students
went to the same institutions that offer the
same internship programs. The improvement
of students’ performance in these programs
was minor. This result shows a need to revise
the internship program because the natural
thing for this program is to improve over the
years, not to stay stable. This finding disagrees
with Frenette’s (2015) findings in which he
In order to know which group of students
perform better than others, Scheffe’s multiple
comparisons were used. Table 4 shows that
the applications of the standard for teaching,
learning, and assessing technology of students
with high GPA were found to be significantly
greater than those of their counterparts (aver-
685
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
mentioned that a considerable rise in the prevalence and improvement of internships over
years among arts graduates; in particular, that
paid and unpaid internships were increasing
at an equally common rate until a decade ago,
when unpaid internships began growing more
substantially. Among the many potential reasons for this shift is a greater demand for internships by students attempting to launch
their careers during a recession. The rise in
demand is also likely linked to demographic
changes, especially the larger number of college-age youth. Also, the result of this study
disagrees with Khalil (2015) who found that
the year of the internship influenced the interns' satisfaction. Since technology is moving
faster and faster, the ILTD needs to with the
advancement in technology and incorporates
that in the program curriculum in order to
increase its effectiveness over time. Improvement in the internship program requires careful monitoring and selection of training institutions that guide students effectively. Also,
students who enter the program should be
selected carefully after sufficient screening and
that might invite a good cohort who makes a
difference. As with any worthwhile experience, developing a successful internship experience requires thought and planning. It could
be beneficial if we help interns to be an integral part of the training institution from the
very beginning. Providing professional networking opportunities to help a new cohort
gain additional insights might increase their
future performance in the internship.
2015
financial considerations. Internships offer students a chance to gain a deeper understanding
of one or more specialties within their chosen
profession through actual work experience. As
students move through their academics, classes expose them to new knowledge which
stimulates their interest. They take more upper-division classes and build a skill set and
some expertise within their major. This interest then manifests itself as a career option. In
order to gain a better understanding of what
this career option is like in reality, undergraduates participate in internship programs
through their college or university. This study
attempted to answer the following questions:
(1) To what extent do student interns apply
the second standard of ISTE for technology
coaches in internship institutions as viewed by
their supervisor? And (2) Do student interns’
application of the second standard vary according to student interns’ gender, type of internship institution, academic specialization,
GPA, and internship year.
The findings of this study show that the overall performance of the students in the second
ISTE standard for technology coaches has a
mean value of 3.88 out of 5.00, which reflects a
reasonable and acceptable performance but
not the target and desirable performance. No
significant difference was observed in the application of the ISTE standard caused by gender and cohort. This study also reveals the
following significant differences: type of internship institution in favor of educational
institution, student GPA in favor of high GPA
and average GPA in favor low GPA, and students’ academic specialization in favor of
learning center specialists. Based on these
findings, a number of salient implications can
be obtained:
Conclusion and Implications
Internship practices will continue to play a
significant role in educational degree programs. Educational institutions throughout
the world must strive to develop a unique,
triangular partnership between students, the
industry and educational institutions, forming
a relationship based on intrinsic motivators
and the common interests of the industry. The
aim should be for an innovative, educational
experience that would best fit the personality
traits of individuals and, as a result, committing them to the values governing the modern
technology era. The challenge for all stakeholders is to further commit to the practice
and embrace new and innovative approaches
that can greatly improve the development of
the next digital generation; a generation that
will depend more on human relations and
technological skills rather than impersonal,
 To reach the target performance ( 5/5) in
the application of the second standard of
ISTE for technology coaches, ILTD
should place more courses on two elements: (f), which deal with instructional
design skills and have only two courses
in the degree plan, and (d), which deal
with creativity, higher-order thinking
skills and processes, and mental habits
and which have no specific courses and
are distributed over the whole program.
 Students’ performance in the internship
during three years shows no improvement, and this result means there is a
686
Omani Students’ Application of the Second Standard for Technology Coaches in Internship Program
Ahmed Abdelraheem & Talal Amir
need to revise the internship procedures
and processes for the purposes of improvement.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
perience. Journalism and Mass Communication Educator, 53(4,) 42-53.
Bukaliya, R. (2012). The potential benefits and
challenges internship programs in an ODL
institution: a case for the Zimbabwe Open
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Trends in Education and Their Implications,
3(1), 118- 133. Retrieved July 22, 2014 from
www.ijonte.org.
 Information technology teachers require
more courses on technology, such as
school networking, hardware and multimedia.
 Students perform well in the use of technology tools and resources to systematically collect and analyze student
achievement data, interpret results, and
communicate findings to improve instructional practice and maximize students’ learning. This performance should
be reinforced and maintained.
Buted, D. R., Felicen, S. S. Manzano, A.I.
(2014). A Correlation Study between Student Performance in Food and Beverage
Services Course and Internship in F&B
Department of Hospitality Business, International Journal of Academic Research in
Business and Social Sciences, 4(6), 54-66
 Technology integration into the classroom teaching, learning and assessment
needs careful consideration when planning for effective use. Internship programs should support the innovation of
technology as a tool that makes teaching
more efficient and not as another layer in
the curriculum.
Bradshaw, L. (2002). Technology for teaching
and learning: Strategies for Staff Development and Follow-Up Support. Journal of
technology and teacher education, 10(1), 131150.
Callanan, G., & Benzing, C. (2004). Assessing
the role of internships in the careeroriented employment of graduating college students. Education and Training, 46,
82-89.
 More research is needed in examining
other standards for technology coaches.
 Further investigation could be carried on
overall students’ experiences on internship program.
Cannon, J. A., & Arrnold, M. J. (1998). Student
expectations regarding collegiate internship programs in marketing: a 10-year
update. Journal of Education for Business,
73(4), 202-205.
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
2015
Appendix 1
ISTE Second standard for technology coaches
Teaching, Learning, and Assessments of Technology
Technology coaches assist teachers in using technology effectively for assessing student
learning, differentiating instructions, and providing rigorous, relevant, and engaging
learning experiences for all students.
a. Coach teachers in and model design and implementation of technology-enhanced learning experiences addressing content and student technology standards.
b. Coach teachers in and model design and implementation of technology-enhanced learning experiences using a variety of research-based, learner-centered instructional strategies and assessment tools to address the diverse needs and interests of all students.
c. Coach teachers in and model engagement of students in local and global interdisciplinary
units in which technology helps students assume professional roles, research realworld problems, collaborate with others, and produce products that are meaningful
and useful to a wide audience.
d. Coach teachers in and model design and implementation of technology-enhanced learning experiences emphasizing creativity, higher-order thinking skills and processes, and
mental habits (e.g., critical thinking, metacognition, and self-regulation).
e. Coach teachers in and model design and implementation of technology-enhanced learning experiences using differentiation, including adjusting content, process, product,
and learning environment based upon student readiness levels, learning styles, interests, and personal goals.
f. Coach teachers in and model incorporation of research-based best practices in instructional design when planning technology-enhanced learning experiences.
g. Coach teachers in and model effective use of technology tools and resources to continuously assess student learning and technology literacy by applying a rich variety of
formative and summative assessments aligned with content and student technology
standards.
h. Coach teachers in and model effective use of technology tools and resources to systematically collect and analyze student achievement data, interpret results, and communicate findings to improve instructional practice and maximize students’ learning.
690
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University
(Pages 691-700)
Vol.9 Issue 4, 2015
Academic Delay of Gratification and its Relationship to Motivational Determinants, Academic Achievement, and Study Hours among Omani High
School Students: A Path Analysis
Sabry M. Abd-El-Fattah* & Sahar El Shourbagi
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
___________________________________________
Received: 21/4/2015
Revised: 20/8/2015
Accepted: 20/9/2015
_____________________________________________
Abstract: This study was aimed at investigating the relationships of academic delay of gratification to motivational determinants, academic achievement, and study hours. The sample of the
study included 200 Omani high school students. A path analysis showed that motivational determinants were positively related to academic delay of gratification which in turn was positively related to academic achievement and study hours. A mediational analysis showed that academic delay of gratification mediated the relationships among motivational determinants and
academic achievement and study hours. There were significant gender differences in academic
delay of gratification which favored females.
Keywords: Motivational determinants, academic delay of gratification, academic achievement,
study hours, high school students
‫تأجيل اإلشباع األكادميي وعالقته باحملددات الدافعية و التحصيل األكادميي وساعات االستذكار لدي طالب‬
‫ حتليل املسار‬:‫املزحلة الثانوية يف سلطنة عمان‬
‫صربي عبد الفتاح* وسحز الصورجبي‬
‫ سلطنة عمان‬،‫جامعة السلطان قابوس‬
_____________________________________________
ُ‫ هدفت الدراسة احلالَة إىل فحص تأجَن اإلشباع األكادميُ ًعالقتى باحملددات الدافعَة ًالتحصَن الدراس‬:‫مستخمص‬
‫ ًقد أظوز حتمَن املسار أن احملددات‬.‫ طالب ًطالبة باملزحمة الثانٌٍة يف سمطنة عمان‬200 ‫ًساعات االستذكار لدى عَنة من‬
‫ ًأظوز‬.‫الدافعَة تزتبط إجيابَا بتأجَن اإلشباع األكادميُ الذِ بدًري ٍزتبط إجيابَا بالتحصَن الدراسُ ًساعات االستذكار‬
.‫حتمَن التٌسط أن تأجَن اإلشباع األكادميُ ٍتٌسط العالقات بني احملددات الدافعَة ًالتحصَن الدراسُ ًساعات االستذكار‬
.‫كذلك كانت هناك فزًقا دالة إحصائَا يف تأجَن اإلشباع األكادميُ لصاحل اإلناث‬
‫ طالب املدرسة‬،‫ ساعات االستذكار‬،ُ‫ التحصَن الدراس‬،‫ احملددات الدافعَة‬،ُ‫ تأجَن اإلشباع األكادمي‬:‫الكممات املفتاحَة‬
‫الثانٌٍة‬
*[email protected]
691
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
A path analysis
2015
male counterparts. Likewise, Bembenutty
(2007) found in a sample of college students
that minority females had higher levels of academic delay of gratification than Caucasian
males. Bembenutty (2009) reported that gender was a significant predictor of academic
delay of gratification of college students with
female students reporting higher levels of academic delay of gratification than their male
counterparts. In addition, Villarroel (2008),
using a sample of Spanish undergraduates,
found that females reported higher levels of
academic delay of gratification than their male
counterparts. This is confusing as first Bembenutty states gender is a significant predictor
then in this sentence he does not. Perhaps
make it clear that this was an earlier study.
Beginning in the late 1960s and continuing
into the early 1970s, Walter Mischel and his
colleagues (Mischel, 1961; Mischel, Ebbesen, &
Zeiss, 1972) conducted a series of studies,
known as the Stanford marshmallow experiment, to measure children's willpower to defer
gratification. In these experiments, a preschooler would be given two marshmallows if
she waited until the researcher returned to the
room. The length of time individual children
waited until ringing the bell was taken as a
measure of their ability to delay gratification.
According to Mischel and his colleagues
(Mischel, 1981; Mischel & Metzner, 1962;
Mischel, Shoda, & Peake, 1988), delay of gratification represents people's attempts to delay
an attractive, immediately obtainable goal
(e.g., get one marshmallow immediately) with
that of pursuing long-range objectives (e.g.,
wait for few minutes and get two marshmallows). Delay of gratification has been conceived as an ability or competence (Mischel et
al., 1988) that children develop over time and
as a relatively stable generalized disposition
(Funder, Block, & Block, 1983).
Academic delay of gratification and motivational determinants
One important framework that proves to be
helpful in explaining learners‘ preferences for
diverse alternatives of action in an academic
delay of gratification situation is the expectancy-value theory (Eccles, 2005, 2007; Wigfield,
& Eccles, 2000). In this theory, achievement
outcomes, such as task performance and future aspirations, are primarily influenced by
internalized perceptions of outcome expectancies and the value of specific tasks or domains.
The expectancy component corresponds to
beliefs about one‘s own competence and selfefficacy. The value component refers to the
reasons for engaging in a specific task and includes four principal components: attainment
value, intrinsic value, utility value, and cost.
Attainment value is defined as the personal
importance of doing well on a task, whereas
intrinsic value refers to the enjoyment an individual gets from performing an activity, or to
the subjective interest an individual has in a
subject or activity. Utility value is determined
by how well a task or domain relates to current and future goals, such as career goals and
academic aspirations. Finally, cost is conceptualized in terms of the negative aspects of
engaging in a task, such as performance anxiety and fear of both failure and success, as well
as the amount of effort needed to succeed and
the lost opportunities that result from making
one choice rather than another (Eccles, 2005;
Eccles & Wigfield, 2002).
From an academic perspective, many students
strive to remain goal oriented and committed
to tasks while facing distractions that are typical features of learning contexts. These distractions may include turning to more enjoyable
activities such as going out to a party with
friends, shopping, and going to the cinema or
theater. Because remaining goal oriented and
committed to tasks often involves foregoing
an attractive, immediately obtainable goal
(e.g., going to a party) in order to pursue
long-range academic objectives (e.g., obtain
a high score on a test), this process can be
linked to a delay of gratification (Mischel
1961, 1981). Bembenutty and
Karabenick
(1998, p. 329) defined academic delay of gratification as students postponement of immediately available opportunities to satisfy impulses in favor of pursuing chosen important academic rewards or goals that are temporally
remote but ostensibly more valuable."
Gender differences in academic delay of
gratification
With respect to gender differences and their
impact on academic delay of gratification,
Bembenutty and Karabenick (1998) reported
that female college students had higher levels
of academic delay of gratification than their
Mischel (1996) has assessed motivational determinants of delay of gratification, such as
relevance, value, and expectancy for an im-
692
Academic Delay of Gratification and its Relationship to Motivational Determinants
Sabry Abd-El-Fattah & Sahar El Shourbagi
mediate reward versus delayed reward option. His research has suggested that students‘
willingness to delay gratification depends upon the relative value placed on the competing
alternatives. In addition, students‘ choice to
delay gratification depends upon their expected likelihood of successful performance,
given that they devote their time to this academic goal instead of a more immediate reward. Bembenutty and his colleagues (Bembenutty, 1999, 2008, 2009; Bembenutty &
Karabenick, 1998) have demonstrated a relationship between academic delay of gratification and several motivational determinants.
For example, Bembenutty (2008) found that
college students were more likely to engage in
academic delay of gratification when they
liked the delay alternative, considered the delay alternative more important than the nondelay alternatives, and had higher expectations that the delay alternative would provide
better outcomes than the non-delay alternatives. Further, after controlling for gender, importance of the delay alternative versus immediate alternative was a significant predictor
of academic delay of gratification.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
students between academic delay of gratification, time management and study environment. However, there is insufficient evidence
of a link between academic delay of gratification and self-reported intentions and behavior
that is indicative of academic delay of gratification, such as the actual time high school students devote to their study. In a recent study,
Zhang, Karabenick, Maruno, and Lauermann
(2011) assessed Chinese elementary school
children‘s willingness to delay gratification,
and the time they devoted to non-school study
and playtime during an extended interval prior to taking a high stakes final exam. They
found that children who exhibited a higher
willingness to delay gratification were more
likely to spend time studying and less time
playing several weeks prior to the exam in
contrast to those children with a lower willingness to delay gratification.
Aim and rational of the present study
Several studies have sought to investigate the
relationships of academic delay of gratification
to motivational determinants, academic
achievement, and management of study time
in college student samples using correlational
and regression analyses techniques despite the
fact that these statistical procedures do not
provide a complete picture of any intercausal
connections among the variables (Pedhazur,
1997).
Academic delay of gratification and academic
achievement
There is compelling research evidence that
individual differences in children‘s delay preferences are associated with subsequent higher
academic achievement, intelligence, and the
need for achievement (Mischel, 1961; Mischel
et al., 1988). Bembenutty and Karabenick
(1998) reported that academic delay of gratification correlated positively with expected and
obtained final course grades in a sample of
college students. Bembenutty (2007) found a
positive relationship between academic delay
of gratification and final course grade for Caucasian male and female college students. Bembenutty (2009) demonstrated that the positive
relationship between academic delay of gratification and academic achievement held even
after controlling for the effects of students‘
ratings of the course, expected grades, and the
degree of interest, importance, and utility of
the academic task.
Furthermore, although early writings on academic delay of gratification are rooted in
cross-cultural psychology (Gallimore, Weiss,
& Finney, 1974), the vast majority of academic
delay of gratification research has been conducted in Western cultures. Thus, there is a
need for more research to be conducted on
how participants from different cultures construe academic delay of gratification, and how
academic delay of gratification is related to
other psychological constructs within nonWestern cultures.
Given these insights/perceptions, the present
study extends the existing literature on the
relationships of academic delay of gratification
to motivational determinants, academic
achievement, and management of study time
in several ways. Firstly, the present study explores the relationships among these variables
in a non-Western, Middle Eastern Arab cultural context and as such, it provides evidence
of the applicability of motivational constructs
Academic delay of gratification and study
time allocation
Bembenutty and his colleagues (Bembenutty,
2007, 2009; Bembenutty & Karabenick, 1998)
reported a positive association among college
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
based on the theories largely developed in the
West. The cultural variation in construing
human behavior important for the study of
academic delay of gratification because some
cultures may be more conducive to academic
delayed gratification than others. This may be
true because cultures differ in educational opportunities, available attractive alternative
activities that are typical features of learning
contexts, and the values associated with academic tasks. For example, in societies with
stronger collectivistic values, students have
greater filial allegiances that result in stronger
incentives for higher academic performance
and academic delay of gratification (Ratner &
Hui, 2003).
2015
stage that contributes decisively towards students‘ academic and career future.
To summarize, the aim of the present study is
to test a path analysis model that can articulate
the relationship of academic delay of gratification to motivational determinants, academic
achievement, and study time allocation in a
sample of Omani high school students. It was
predicted that: (a) motivational determinants
will be positively related to academic delay of
gratification, (b) academic delay of gratification will be positively related to academic
achievement, (c) academic delay of gratification will be positively related to study time
allocation, (d) academic delay of gratification
will mediate the relationship between motivational determinants and academic achievement, and (e) academic delay of gratification
will mediate the relationship between motivational determinants and study time allocation.
Given that motivational determinants are expected to predict academic delay of gratification, and academic delay of gratification, in
turn, is expected to predict academic achievement and study time allocation, it is possible
that academic delay of gratification mediates
the relationship between the antecedents and
the consequences.
Secondly, the present study provides a test of
a theoretical model combining variables derived from the expectancy-value theory and
the theory of self-regulated learning using a
path analysis technique. One of the strengths
of the path analysis is that it estimates a system of equations that specifies all the possible
causal linkages among a set of variables. In
addition, path analysis enables researchers to
break down or deconstruct correlations among
variables into causal (i.e., direct and indirect)
and noncausal (e.g., superious) components.
Thus, path analysis helps researchers disentangle the complex interrelationships among
variables and identify the most significant
pathways involved in predicting an outcome.
Furthermore, researchers using nonexperimental, quantitative, or correlational data can
test whether their hypotheses regarding the
relationships among variables are plausible
and supported by the data and represent underlying (causal) processes (Pedhazur, 1997).
Participants
A total of 200 Omani students (110 males and
90 females) from 5 public secondary schools in
four governorates in Oman (Musandam, Muscat, Ad Dakhiliyah, and Dhofar) participated
in this study. All participant students were at
Year 11 and were chosen using a multistage
stratified sampling strategy. All schools were
located in metropolitan areas and had singlegender populations (three male schools and
two female schools). The mean sample ages
were 16.68 (SD = .76) and 16.23 (SD = .44) for
boys and girls, respectively. Only students
with complete data were retained for the present study. The percentage of missing data
was 2% which represents those students who
left several items blank on the Academic Delay
of Gratification Scale (ADGS) and the Motivational Determinants Scale (MDS). The analysis
of demographic data showed that participant
students were from the same ethnic background and that 97% of them were from the
working and lower social class strata. Arabic
was the native language of all participant students.
Thirdly, although the findings of several studies have shown that college students higher in
academic delay of gratification are more likely
to manage their time and study environment,
there is insufficient evidence for the link between academic delay of gratification and selfreported intentions and behavior that is indicative of academic delay of gratification, such
as the actual time students devote to their
study. One of the most important issues, especially for high school students, would be
whether students higher in academic delay of
gratification devote adequate out-of-school
time to academic tasks. This may be true given
that high school represents a highly competitive and academically demanding educational
694
Academic Delay of Gratification and its Relationship to Motivational Determinants
Sabry Abd-El-Fattah & Sahar El Shourbagi
Measurements
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
minants (Eccles, Wigfield, Harold, & Blumenfeld, 1993).
Academic delay of gratification
Academic achievement
Bembenutty and Karabenick (1998) developed
the 10-item ADGS to assess college students'
tendencies to delay gratification within specific academic situations. For each situation, the
students rated their preference for an option
that offered immediate gratification, such as
"Miss several classes to accept an invitation for a
very interesting trip" or a delay gratification
option such as "Delay going on the trip until the
course is over." Students responded to each
item on a 4-point scale: Definitely choose A;
Probably choose A; Probably choose B, or Definitely Choose B. Abd-El-Fattah and Al-Nabhani
(2012) translated the ADGS from English into
Arabic using a sample of 195 Year 11 students
in Oman. They reported that an exploratory
factor analysis with principal components of
responses retained a 10-item single factor
(Cronbach‘s alpha = .87)
Students' academic achievement scores were
obtained from their school records at the end
of the academic year. These were the courses
aggregated total scores, that is, the sum of oncourse assignments and midterm and final
examination scores and were expressed as a
percentage.
Study hours
Students were requested to respond to one
question concerning their study time allocation ―On average, how many hours a day do
you spend studying?‖.
Procedure
Approval was obtained to conduct the research investigation at the schools prior to data collection. Students were recruited to participate in the present study during their normal
classes at their schools. All students agreed by
signing a consent form prior to their participation in the present study that stated that they
were willing to respond to the ADGS, the Motivational Determinants Scale, and one question concerning their study time allocation.
The consent form also indicated that participant students agreed that their end-of academic year achievement scores could be obtained
from their school records. Students first responded to the ADGS, then the Motivational
Determinants Scale, and finally to the question
concerning study time allocation. The
measures were administered by trained according to standardized instructions. Students
were informed that participation was voluntary and that confidentiality of their answers
would prevail at all times. Only certain classes
in each school participated in the present
study depending on students‘ classroom
schedules on the day and time of the administration of the measures. Students completed
the three measures in 15 to 20 minutes.
Motivational determinants
Students were asked to report how strongly
they agreed or disagreed with statements that
described motivation-related features of the
delayed and immediately-available alternatives. These motivational-related features were
as follows: Liking (e.g., ‗‗This is something
that I would like to do‘‘); Importance (e.g.,
‗‗This is something that is important to me‘‘);
Expectancy (e.g., ‗‗This is something that
would help me to achieve my academic
goals‘‘); Utility (e.g., ‗‗This is something that
can be useful to me‘‘), Negative Consequences
(e.g., ‗‗This is something that can have negative consequences to me‘‘), and Time/Effort
(e.g., ‗‗This is something that can be costly in
time or effort to me). Students responded to all
items of the Motivational Determinants Scale
on a 4-point Likert-type scale ranging from 1
(Strongly Disagree) to 4 (Strongly agree). Differences in scores between motivation for the
delay and immediate preferences were obtained by subtracting responses to the immediate alternative from the delay alternative for
the four items (e.g., liking of the delay alternative minus liking for the immediate alternative
= difference in liking). Higher scores were
thus indicative of greater liking, importance,
expectancy, utility, and time/effort for the delay versus non-delay alternatives. Scores on
these motivational features were summed up
to form a single index of motivational deter-
Path analysis
Given that the data appear normally distributed at univariate and multivariate levels, the
full information maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyze the variancecovariance matrices and estimate the path
analysis model parameters and obtain fit indexes using the path analysis technique (Byr-
695
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
ne, 2010; Kline, 1998). The AMOS 7.0 program
(Arbuckle, 2006) was used to run all analyses.
In this path analysis model, depicted in Figure
1, motivational determinants were set as a
positive predictor of academic delay of gratification, and academic delay of gratification was
set as a positive predictor of academic
achievement and study hours. Several absolute and relative goodness-of-fit indexes were
used to evaluate the path model‘s goodnessof-fit to the data. Absolute fit indices included
Chi-square (χ2), Standardized Root MeanSquare Residual (SRMR), and Root-MeanSquare Error of Approximation (RMSEA).
Relative fit indices included Comparative Fit
Index (CFI) and Nonnormed Fit Index (NNFI).
When modeling normally distributed data,
SRMR values of approximately .08 or below,
RMSEA values of approximately .06 or below,
CFI values of approximately .95 or above, and
NNFI of approximately .95 or higher suggest
2015
adequate model-data fit (Byrne, 2010; Hu &
Bentler, 1998). Because the χ2 is sensitive to
sample size, Hoelter (1983) recommended reporting the χ2/df ratio and suggested that ratios below 2.0 indicate a reasonable fit.
The analysis showed that the path model fitted the data adequately (χ2 = 5.31, df = 3; χ2/df
= 1.77, RMSEA = .04 (CI. .02 - .07), CFI = .98,
SRMR = .06, NNFI = .97). The full set of significant paths is presented in Figure 2 along with
the associated variance explained (R2) for each
criterion variable. In line with our hypotheses,
the analysis showed that motivational determinants positively predicted academic delay
of gratification (β = .37). Academic delay of
gratification positively predicted academic
achievement (β = .32) and study hours (β =
.28,). Motivational determinants positively
predicted academic achievement (β = .29) and
study hours (β = .33).
Table 1
Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation, and Cronbach's alpha for motivational determinants, academic delay of gratification, academic achievement, and study hours
Variable
1
2
3
4
M
SD
SkewKurtoCronbach‘s
ness
sis
alpha
1. Motivational determi3.1
.85
1.33
.95
.84
nants
2. Academic delay of
.35
3.3
.73
1.12
.83
.89
gratification
3. Study hours
.30
.32
4.4
.80
.63
.22
NA
4. Academic achievement
.39
.36
.34
86.6
1.7
1.51
1.20
NA
Note. NA = Not applicable
+
+
+
+
+
+
Figure 1
A hypothesized path analysis model of the relationships among motivational determinants, academic delay of gratification,
academic achievement, and study hours (positive ‘+’ indicates a positive effect of an independent variable on a dependent
variable when all other independent variables in the model are held constant)
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Academic Delay of Gratification and its Relationship to Motivational Determinants
Sabry Abd-El-Fattah & Sahar El Shourbagi
Mediation analysis
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
ing is in line with the findings reported by
Bembenutty and his colleagues (Bembenutty,
2007, 2009; Bembenutty & Karabenick, 1998)
using samples of college students. This finding
is noteworthy since it suggests that males and
females can show differences in the way they
manage academic situations by remaining
goal oriented and committed to tasks while
facing distractions that are typical features of
learning contexts. However, this finding
should not be interpreted as suggesting that
males and females are inherently different in
ways that lead them to engage in academic
endeavors in a particular way. The socialization process and classroom contexts, including
academic tasks, reward structures, instructional methods, and instructors‘ behaviors,
may be associated with the patterns of the academic behavior reported by the students in
the present study.
Given the findings of the path analysis model,
we proceeded to test whether academic delay
of gratification mediates the relationship between motivational determinants and academic achievement and study hours. In this analysis, we simultaneously regressed academic
achievement and study hours on academic
delay of gratification and on motivational determinants. Gender was set as a covariate. We
ran the mediation analysis using the SPSS
script that accompanies the paper by Preacher
and Hayes (2008) on the usage of the bootstrapping method to test mediation models.
The bootstrapping method involves repeated
random repeated random sampling observations with replacement from the dataset to
compute the desired statistic in each resample
(Chernick, 1999). In the present study, we set
the estimation convergent index to 1000 bootstrap samples to allow for the convergence of
the indirect effect estimates. The bootstrapped
estimates of the indirect effects, along with the
bias-corrected accelerated (BCA) 95% confidence intervals (CI), were calculated.
The path analysis showed that motivational
determinants were positively related to academic delay of gratification. This finding firmly embeds academic delay of gratification
within the framework of the expectancy–value
theory (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Eccles et al.,
1993) and the motivational view of delay of
gratification (Mischel, 1996). Within hindsight,
this appears to be a readily understood relationship: students‘ willingness to delay gratification in order to pursue long-term academic
goals is associated with their motivationrelated judgments of delay vs. non-delay alternatives as articulated by incentive value,
such as the benefits, or rewards associated
with the academic alternatives and the tempting alternatives. Thus, an expectancy-value
mechanism seems to underlie the subjective
calculation and ultimately the decision of
whether the value and feasibility of attaining a
delayed reward, relative to the value of the
immediately available one, is high enough to
warrant a choice between waiting or working
to attain it. This finding is consistent with the
findings of Bembenutty and his colleagues
(Bembenutty, 1999, 2008, 2009; Bembenutty &
Karabenick, 1998). For example, Bembenutty
(2009) reported that value based incentives
were positively associated with how important, useful, and interesting college students perceived the delay alternative to be, but
were inversely related to students‘ consideration of negative consequences associated with
The analysis showed a significant indirect effect of motivational determinants on academic
achievement through academic delay of gratification (indirect effect = .13; BCA 95% CI lower bound = 0.10, BCA 95% CI upper bound =
0.17). This finding indicated that academic
delay of gratification mediates the relationship
between motivational determinants and academic achievement. The analysis also showed
a significant indirect effect of motivational determinants on study hours through academic
delay of gratification (indirect effect = .11;
BCA 95% CI lower bound = 0.08, BCA 95% CI
upper bound = 0.15). This finding indicates
that academic delay of gratification mediates
the relationship between motivational determinants and study hours.
Discussion
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships among motivational determinants, academic delay of gratification,
academic achievement, and study hours and
whether academic delay of gratification mediates the relationship between motivational
determinants and academic achievement and
study hours. Descriptive analyses showed that
females reported higher tendencies of academic delay of gratification than males. This find-
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
possible selection of the immediate alternatives versus delay alternatives.
2015
sult, definitive conclusions about the relationship among motivational determinants, academic delay of gratification, academic
achievement, and study hours could not be
drawn. A different method for understanding
the developmental precursors and consequences of academic delay of gratification
would be to examine them over time rather
than at a single point in time. The second limitation was the use of self-reported measures of
motivational determinants, academic delay of
gratification, and study hours. Although selfratings of these constructs remain the standard
used by most studies, future studies should
assess behaviors associated with these constructs either as observed by others or by researchers‘ direct observations. Until such studies are conducted, these constructs will remain
largely defined as cognitive self-construal processes rather than observable traits.
The path analysis also showed that academic
delay of gratification is positively related to
academic achievement and study hours. This
relationship can be explained within the
framework of the self-regulated learning theory because academic delay of gratification has
commonly been conceptualized as involving
successful self-regulated learning (Bembenutty
& Karabenick, 1998; Zimmerman, 1998). According to Bembenutty (2007, 2009), successful
self-regulated learners engage in academic delay of gratification by deferring attractive activities in order to achieve long-term goals.
Those students also orchestrate their study
environment to serve an adaptive purpose that
facilitates academic achievement and selfimposed constraints of their own actions in
order to devote more time to their study. In
contrast, less-skilled self-regulated learners
engage in immediate gratification that could
preclude them from academic success. Mischel
(1996) conceptualized the ability to delay
gratification as part of the self-regulatory system necessary to guide behavior without external controlling stimuli. He suggested that
the ability to delay gratification is a process of
a self-regulatory system of willpower that orchestrates repetitive—used this word before
maintenance of motivation and engagement in
goals. Zimmerman (1998) argued that lessskilled self-regulated learners "must generate
extraordinary personal motivation to delay of
gratification until distal goals are achieved."
(p. 6). In line with this finding, Bembenutty
and his colleagues reported a positive relationship between academic delay of gratification and the control of time and study environment (Bembenutty, 2007; Bembenutty &
Karabenick, 1998) and that of academic
achievement (Bembenutty, 2007, 2009; Bembenutty & Karabenick, 1998).
To summarize, the current findings provide
further insight into the dynamics which underpin students‘ academic delay of gratification. It could be argued that motivational determinants are associated indirectly and positively with academic achievement and study
hours because they encourage positive mediating factors (i.e., academic delay of gratification) that facilitate important educational outcomes.
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2015
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University
(Pages 701-717)
Vol.9 Issue 4, 2015
Arabic in Foreign Language Programmes: Difficulties and Challenges
Fatma Y. Al-Busaidi*
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
___________________________________________
Received: 20/8/2015
Revised: 14/9/2015
Accepted: 22/9/2015
_____________________________________________
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to review the reported literature regarding Arabic language programmes. It gives an overview of the historical background of Teaching Arabic as a
Foreign Language (TAFL) programmes. It also provided a brief description of the Arabic language and its characteristics, and how they might cause some difficulties. Specifically, the diglossic phenomenon in Arabic programmes and how Arabic programmes deal with diglossia
was discussed. Pedagogical factors, such as the lack of clearly articulated objectives in TAFL, the
lack of coordination between Arabic programmes, the lack of experienced and qualified teachers, the shortage of materials and resources and insufficient presentation of Arab culture in
(TAFL) programmes were also discussed.
Keywords: Teaching Arabic as a foreign language, MSA, NSA, linguistic factors, pedagogical
factors, diglossia.
‫ الصعوبات والتحديات‬:‫برامج اللغة العربية لغري الناطقني بها‬
*‫فاطمة بنت يوسف البوسعيدية‬
‫ سلطنة عمان‬،‫جامعة السلطان قابوس‬
_____________________________________________
‫ وحتلًل أيم التحديات اليت تىاجًًا‬،‫ صعت يذه الدراصة إىل مزاجعة األدبًات اخلاصة بربامج تعلًم اللغة العزبًة‬:‫مضتخلص‬
‫ ووصف ًا مىجشًا عو طبًعة اللغة العزبًة وخصائصًا اليت‬،‫ قدمت الدراصة نبذة تارخيًة عو بزامج اللغة العزبًة يف العامل‬.‫ومهاقشتًا‬
‫ميكو أى تشكل صعىبات وحتديات ملتعلمٌ اللغة العزبًة مو الهاطكني بغرييا واليت يهبغٌ مزاعاة تذلًلًا يف الربامج املكدمة‬
‫ كما ناقشت يذه الدراصة قضًة االسدواجًة اللغىية يف اللغة العزبًة وأصالًب التعامل معًا يف بزامج تعلًم اللغة العزبًة‬.‫إلًًم‬
‫ وأخريا تهاقش الىرقة نكاط الضعف يف بعض بزامج اللغة العزبًة واملتمثلة يف عدم وجىد أيداف‬.‫املكدمة هلذه الفئة مو الطلبة‬
‫ وضعف االيتمام بالطزائل والىصائل‬،‫ وقلة املعلمني املؤيلني لتعلًمًا هلذه الفئة‬،‫واضحة لتعلًم اللغة العزبًة للهاطكني بغرييا‬
.‫ وقلة االيتمام باجلانب الثكايف يف بزامج اللغة العزبًة‬،‫واألصالًب احلديثة يف التعلًم‬
،‫ العىامل الرتبىية‬،‫ العىامل اللغىية‬،‫ اللًجة‬،‫ اللغة العزبًة الفصحى‬،‫ تدريط اللغة العزبًة كلغة أجهبًة‬:‫الكلمات املفتاحًة‬
.‫اإلسدواجًة اللغىية‬
[email protected]*
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
The developments in the 1940s in the field of
foreign language education had a strong influence on teaching Arabic. This influence began
to be evident in the 1950s, under the support
of the Ministry of Education of Egypt. For example, Egyptian professors began to conduct a
number of programmes and activities such as
conferences, seminars and discussions regarding the teaching of Arabic to non-native
speakers. All these activities led to the establishment of a number of institutions for teaching Arabic as a foreign language in both Arab
and non-Arab countries. The most important
institutions founded in the period of 1958 1979
in Arab countries were as follows:
2015
United States as early as the 17th and 18th centuries. McCarus (1992) described the history of
Arabic teaching in the United States in the following way: “Arabic was being taught in the
United States over a century before the signing
of the Declaration of Independence, introduced to complement the study of Hebrew
and the Old Testament” (p. 207).
In fact, efforts to improve teaching Arabic as a
foreign language (TAFL) in America began in
1958 when the Social Science Research Council
sponsored a conference of 20 teachers of Arabic to make recommendations in the field, specifically relating to textbooks and the evaluation system (McCarus, 1987). Based on these
suggestions, the American Association of
Teachers of Arabic (AATA) was established in
1963 under the direction of the Modern Language Association (MLA). Soon after its establishment, AATA began publishing a newsletter, An-Nashrā, „which later became AlArabiyya (Al-Batal, 1995a).
 Centre for Arabic studies, Lebanon, 1958.
 The Arabic Unit of the Language Centre,
Kuwait University, 1965.
 The Institute of Teaching Arabic, Islamic
University of Medina, 1965.
 Habib Bourguiba Institute, Tunis, 1968.
The AATA made a great effort to encourage
study, criticism, and research in the field of
TAFL in both linguistics and Arabic literature.
Additionally, in order to improve the quality
of Arabic programmes across America, the
AATA planned to assemble a textbook evaluation package, designed to distribute information on textbooks and other materials to
teachers of Arabic. The idea for this package
came from a survey conducted with financial
support from the Ford Foundation channelled
to the National Council of Less Commonly
Taught Languages. This study focused on the
institutional setting of Arabic language teaching in the United States (Belnap, 1995).
 Centre of Arabic Studies at the American
University in Cairo, 1974.
 Khartoum International Institute in Sudan under the support of the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (ISESCO), 1974.
 Institute of Arabic Language, King Saud
University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1975.
 Institute of Arabic Language, University
of Umm Al Qura, Maakkah Al- Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia, 1979.
Following these initiatives, a number of institutions in various Arab countries established
private Arabic schools. Thus, currently there
are a number of private Arabic programmes
for non-native speakers in Morocco, Tunisia,
Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Syria, Saudi
Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates,
Yemen and Oman.
The AATA also developed the Arabic language learning framework. Thus, they conducted studies to better understand the nature
and variety of existing Arabic curricula. In
addition, while American universities and institutions were unlikely to settle on a particular Arabic curriculum for non-native speakers,
they worked to produce a set of universal curriculum strategies meant to serve as a resource
for teachers and learners (McCarus, 1987).
The growth of awareness in teaching and
learning Arabic is not limited to Arab countries. For example, teaching Arabic has a long
history in Britain and Ireland, and the language is currently being taught in many of its
universities and institutions. Other European
countries, the United States of America, and
many Islamic countries have witnessed an increase in institutions that teach Arabic for Iislamic purposes (Al-Batal, 1995a). For example,
Arabic teaching started in universities in the
Furthermore, in response to and as a consequence of the increasing interest in the Arabic
language, a number of universities and colleges in America and Europe, and many Islamic
from countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia,
and India expanded and added new courses to
their Arabic programmes. Moreover, in order
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Arabic in Foreign Language Programmes: Difficulties and Challenges
Fatma Al-Busaidi
to provide English-speaking learners of Arabic
with the opportunity to study the language in
its real cultural setting, several universities
conducted intensive summer language programmes in the Arab world to foster Arabic
study abroad (Al-Batal, 1995a).
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
among non-native speakers. Al-Batal and
Belnap (2006), for instance, found that an
extremely small number of foreigners engage in Arabic language learning in U.S.
universities in contrast to other languages,
and very few of them achieve a high level
of proficiency.
Major concerns for the field of TAFL
The United States Foreign Service Institution
(FSI) has classified languages into four levels
or degrees of difficulty based on the amount of
time required to reach a certain level of proficiency (Liskin-Gasparro, 1982). According to
the FSI rankings, Arabic is grouped with those
relatively difficult languages such as Chinese,
Korean and Japanese (Stevens, 2006). It has
been argued that Arabic cannot be fully
learned as a second or foreign language to a
level where a learner would be able to be at
the educated native speaker level. As a result,
there has been a serious argument over
whether or not non-native learners can ever
achieve the highest level, level 5, in Arabic (in
terms of FSI proficiency ratings) (Ryding,
1994). Likewise, it has been found that some
Arabic teachers consider this level of achievement simply not possible (Ryding, 1995).
Despite all of the efforts to produce Arabic
language programmes worldwide, the field of
TAFL still has major concerns. For example,
although in 1974 the United Nations adopted
Arabic as one of its six official languages, the
National Foreign Language Centre considered
Arabic to be one of the less commonly taught
languages in America, the United Kingdom
and even in the Arab world. Ryding (1994)
highlights this issue, stating that: “When considering some of the facts about Arabic, it may
be surprising that it is one of the less commonly taught languages in the West in general and
in the United States in particular.” (p.23).
Similarly, Allen (2007) confirms the lack of
attention given to Arabic in the United
States: “The events of 9/11/2001 found
American „preparedness‟ in terms of Arabic-competent citizens at a very low level.” (p. 258).
Belnap (1987) conducted a study to investigate
the number of students who learned Arabic in
the United States and to find out what motivated them to learn this language. The results
showed that the number was on the rise; however, the great majority did not continue their
study of the language beyond the second year.
Another study conducted by Belnap (2006) to
understand students‟ beliefs and attitudes towards the Arabic language indicated that
more than half of students felt that Arabic was
a difficult language to learn and achieving a
high level of proficiency was difficult. Moreover, a study by Abdelhadi, Ibrahim and Eviatar (2011) found that learning the written form
of Arabic took a longer compared to other languages.
However, this changed after the terrorist
attacks of September 11 2001. Allen (2007)
explains this as follows:
Since that day, the status of Arabic in
the national consciousness has been
transformed almost overnight to become the number-one desideratum of
the American government and its various agencies. Huge amounts of money
are being spent and will be spent in an
attempt to produce an increased number of Americans who are competent in
the Arabic language at levels considerably higher than those of the majority of
previous learners of the language. (p.
258).
In order to understand more, many researchers (e.g. Al-Batal & Belnap, 2006; Belnap, 2006;
Stevens, 2006; Wahba, 2006; Palmer, 2008;
Fragman & Russak, 2010; Abdelhadi, Ibrahim
& Eviatar, 2011; Myhill, 2014) began to investigate the factors influencing this issue. The
majority of these studies reported that there
are general problematic factors that lead to
Arabic being considered a difficult language to
acquire. Their findings can be grouped into
Although the Arabic language has attracted interest in the United States and huge
sums of money are being spent to improve
its teaching in Arab and non-Arab countries, challenges facing the field of teaching Arabic for non-native speakers seem
to be an issue for many researchers. For
example, one of these issues is the significant lack of Arabic language competence
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
two main categories: firstly, linguistic difficulties which might well be understood by reviewing the literature relating to the characteristics of the Arabic language; and secondly,
difficulties related to pedagogical factors, such
as the qualities and the characteristics of Arabic programmes, the quality of teachers and
the teaching materials used. All of which will
be discussed in the following sections.
2015
they are nonetheless quite different. As a result, diglossia has often been described as being the „bilingualism of a monoglot‟. Some
professionals in the field go beyond this and
state that all Arabs are bilingual, as they believe that Arabs are native speakers of NSA
and not MSA (Eisele, 2006; Palmer, 2008).
Until a few decades ago, this was the type of
Arabic most commonly taught in American
and European universities (Versteegh, 2006).
Although this level of Arabic is still used in
some TAFL programmes, it is restricted to religious and highly formal contexts.
Linguistic factors affecting teaching and
learning Arabic as a foreign anguage
Arabic is the official language of some twenty
nations, stretching from the Atlantic coast of
North Africa in the west to the Sultanate of
Oman in the east, and from Syria in the north
to Sudan in the south. Arabic belongs to the
Semitic group of languages, and it is a synthetic rather than an analytic language. Therefore,
there are significant differences between the
structures of Arabic and Indo-European languages, such as English, Spanish, French, and
German. Hence, Arabic has some characteristics that European languages do not, along
with a very complex morphological system
(Holes, 1995).
The second form of Arabic is Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). It is a direct descendant of
classical Arabic and, until recently, it was the
language of important discourse, contemporary literature, and the media (newspaper,
radio, television, and the Internet). It is also
the language that is used in formal situations
such as speeches and public lectures. MSA is a
formal, mostly written language, which is not
used for daily communication. There are no
native speakers of MSA, but educated people
in the Arab world learn this form during formal education (Versteegh, 2006).
To understand the linguistic factors that affect
the learning and teaching of Arabic and how it
is different from other languages, a brief overview of its characteristics is necessary. Firstly,
a discussion of the phenomenon of „diglossia‟
in Arabic is in order.
However, this kind of language has produced
a new form of comprehensible spoken Arabic
called „Educated Spoken Arabic‟ (ESA). Educated Arabs of most nationalities use ESA as a
way to communicate verbally for interdialectal conversation, social discussions and
other occasions when dialects are considered
too informal and literary Arabic is too formal.
The pronunciation of ESA is very closely related to that of MSA and it has an exceedingly
classical vocabulary. There are differences
however, in some aspects of syntax and morphology (Harvey, 1979).
Phenomenon of diglossia
The Arabic language is widely characterized
by diglossia. Ferguson (1959) has defined diglossia as:
A relatively stable language situation
in which, in addition to the primary dialects of the language (which may include a Standard or regional standards), there is a very divergent, highly
codified (often grammatically more
complex) superimposed variety, the vehicle of a large and respected body of
written literature, either of an earlier
period or in another speech community,
which is learned largely by formal education and is used for most written and
formal spoken purposes but is not used
by any sector of the community for ordinary conversation. (p.334).
The third form of Arabic is called Colloquial
Arabic or Non-Standard Arabic (NSA). This
refers to regional dialects used in everyday
conversations and popular cultural media.
There are in fact many different Arabic dialects, which vary not only from one country to
another, but also from one region to another
within one country (Cote, 2009).
There are significant differences in structure
and vocabulary between MSA and NSA at all
linguistic levels. (Ferguson, 1959; Versteegh,
2006; Cote, 2009; Myhill, 2014). Although
many other languages have formal and informal variations, the differences between formal
Two forms of Arabic are in use, namely Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and Non-Standard
Arabic (NSA). Whilst being closely related,
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Arabic in Foreign Language Programmes: Difficulties and Challenges
Fatma Al-Busaidi
and informal Arabic are substantially greater
than those in European or any other language
(Eisele, 2006; Myhill, 2014).
the biggest challenges facing Arabic programme designers (Alosh, 1997; Ryding, 2006;
Palmer, 2008; Myhill, 2014). As a result, a variety of approaches have emerged from different schools. These approaches will be highlighted in the next section.
Even in cases where MSA and the NSA share
some lexical items, the vowels may be different. For example, the word yktub (he writes) is
pronounced yaktubu in MSA, but yktib in NSA.
This means that learning a certain word in
Colloquial Arabic does not necessarily mean
that it will be the same in the written form.
Van Mol (2006) argues that the major challenge for foreign learners of Arabic is that they
have to learn at least two varieties of the language. This means that they have double the
vocabulary to learn, as it is very common in
Arabic to find different word meanings in different dialects, including Standard Arabic. It
also causes the problem of needing to teach
two different pronunciation systems to students at the same time, one for NSA and one
for MSA (Abu-Hatab, 1992).
Teaching modern standard Arabic
This approach only emphasizes the teaching of
Modern Standard Arabic. Many scholars consider MSA to be the only form of the language
worth teaching. Maamouri (1998) stated that
“standard was the „real language,‟ and that all
other varieties of it were „degenerate‟ and „corrupt‟ versions” (p. 33). This philosophy is present today both inside and outside of the Arabic-speaking world.
The proponents of this view state that MSA is
the level of language that educated Arabs are
able to understand in the different Arab countries. It is also the language that combines the
needs of foreign learners who want to know
the cultural, religious, and artistic inventions
of the particular Arab country? Finally, it is
the form that is most likely to remain with
learners when they return to their home countries or when they travel to any Arab country,
as it can be used for oral communication anywhere in the Arab world where communication is difficult in the local dialect (Ryding,
1995; Nahla, 2006).
This can be better understood if we consider
that the effect of diglossia is not only limited
to non-native learners but also to native
speakers themselves. For example, numerous
studies have found that diglossia in Arabic has
hindered the process of literacy acquisition
among native Arabic speakers because of the
linguistic distance between the spoken dialects
and the standard written form. Confusing
might re-word. “Young Arab users do not feel
that they are free to use and innovate in
[MSA]. Pupils entering school have to „unlearn‟ or even suppress most of their linguistic
habits while they try to acquire a new set of
„rigid‟ rules.” (p. 41). This is because, “[MSA]
is nobody‟s mother tongue and is rarely or
almost never used at home in the Arab world”
(Maamouri, 1998, p. 33).
Diglossic
grammes
phenomenon
in
Arabic
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
However, this approach has some limitations,
and a negative impact on learners in many
aspects. Firstly, it does not take into account
the fact that Arabs themselves would never
use this kind of Arabic in their everyday activities, such as informal conversation and shopping (Ryding, 1995; Younes, 1995; Alosh, 1997;
Palmer, 2008). As a result, as argued by
Wahba (2006), teaching this form has led to
even the more advanced students experiencing a gap between their classroom achievement and the ability to integrate linguistically
and culturally into Arab society. Similarly,
Heath (1990) found that students who have
only studied this form of Arabic do not feel
integrated into society and often experience
disappointment and embarrassment when
trying to converse with Arabic speakers. He
argues, “teaching students only MSA severely
hampers their ability to communicate in the
language they have striven so hard to learn.
Given that Arabs will understand what such
students are saying, the students themselves
pro-
Although some previous research has attributed poor student proficiency in Arabic to diglossia, there are other factors that affect the
learning of this language which need to be
taken into account. The central one is how Arabic programmes deal with diglossia.
The literature in this field indicates that, as yet,
there is no clear agreement on how to deal
with the diglossic phenomenon. The questions
of what kind of Arabic to teach and what kind
of Arabic might be more practical to offer are
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
2015
will not understand anything said to them
outside the limited MSA linguistic register
they have mastered.” (p. 43).
seems to be applied differently by different
schools. The differences are further examined
as follows:
Moreover, Al-Batal (1992) found that most
students who learn this form of Arabic get easily discouraged and frustrated, and give up
after one year because they do not have the
ability to use the language in daily communication.
 Ignoring standard Arabic and teaching a
selected dialect
This approach ignores Standard Arabic and
teaches a selected dialect in order to enable
students to become involved in the activities
of daily life. This approach has also led to another problematic issue regarding dialect to
teach, as very often the chosen dialect might
well not be understood by people living in
other Arab countries (Alosh, 1997). Moreover,
the negative aspect of this approach is that it
does not address the needs of those who want
to learn the written form of Arabic. Al-Batal
(1995b) provides two strong arguments to
support this view. Firstly, he refers to a survey
conducted by Belnap (1987) indicating that
some students of Arabic are interested in developing overall language proficiency. This
means that there is a significant need for including MSA in any programme, at least for
developing literacy abilities. Secondly, he concurs with Allen (1987), who maintains that no
Colloquial Arabic programme is likely to take
learners beyond the basic level.
Another argument against this approach is
that it ignores those students who want to
learn Arabic for speaking purposes only. A
survey from the National Middle East Language Resource Centre (NMELRC) found that
over 650 students learning formal Arabic at
U.S. institutions of higher education were
mainly interested in learning spoken Arabic
(Belnap, 1987). This finding was confirmed by
a study conducted by Younes (1995), who
found that the majority of students were learning Arabic to be able to communicate in the
Arab world.
Finally, the proponents of this approach do
not include dialect courses in Arabic programmes because they believe that the classroom is not an effective environment in which
to produce proficient speakers. It was generally accepted that students who wanted to acquire an Arabic dialect could do so naturally
through interacting with local people (AlHamad, 1983). However, from another perspective, students should receive preparation
for learning Arabic dialects in the classroom
by a specialist teacher before they start to converse with people who might use different
dialects and accents. The supporters of this
view believe that Arabic teachers should play
a vital role in helping learners function within
a diglossic environment. Additionally, teachers should help students understand the difference between the two forms of Arabic in
order to avoid any confusion that might result
(Al-Juhany, 1990; Palmer, 2008).
Although the teaching of Arabic dialects has
become on approach in TAFL, very few programmes in the Arab world or in other countries for that matter offer this because of both
logistical limitations and ideological reasons.
Suleiman (2003), for example, clarified that
any attempt to limit MSA in curricula and
place emphasis on a spoken variety may be
seen as a threat. Additionally, Palmer (2008)
reported that there are numerous obstacles to
introducing spoken Arabic. He suggests that
issues of prestige, the preservation of the
Quranic language, and integration are often
cited as significant concerns that limit the idea
of providing dialects in Arabic programmes.
Therefore, at a philosophical level, some educators in the field believe that dialects are the
poor relations of the standard written language and are, therefore, not useful in Arabic
programmes. At a practical level, the programmes that see the value of offering classes
in Arabic dialects may not have the required
teachers and learning materials that lead to
success (Alosh, 1997).
Teaching colloquial Arabic
Developments taking place in the field of
teaching and learning foreign languages have
led to some improvements in the Arabic teaching profession. One of the most significant improvements is the increased interest in the
communicative competence approach, which
is believed to lead to the oral proficiency of
students (Al-Batal, 1992; Younes, 1995; Alosh,
1997; Wahba, 2006). However, this approach
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Arabic in Foreign Language Programmes: Difficulties and Challenges
Fatma Al-Busaidi
 Adoption of educated spoken Arabic
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Additionally, Al-Batal (1992) proposed an alternative approach where both Colloquial Arabic and MSA are taught in the classroom.
This reflects, he suggests, the linguistic reality
in the Arab world today. As a result, some
institutions such as the Foreign Service Institute (FSI) began to design a curriculum that
develops communicative competence simultaneously with Modern Standard Arabic
(Ryding, 2006). Also, the University of Cambridge adopted the communicative approach
to help the students speak colloquial Arabic
(Palestinian Arabic) from the very start of the
course (Dickins and Watson, 2006). In addition, the communicative approach has been
introduced in the Arabic programmes in Britain and Ireland, and most universities have
moved to more communicatively oriented materials such as "Elementary Modern Standard
Arabic" and "al-Kitab fi Ta’allum al-’Arabiyya".
Furthermore, to enable learners of Arabic to
understand and express themselves in the local dialects along with the MSA, the majority
of Arabic programmes in the Arab world such
as Yarmouk University programme in Jordanian, Sultan Qaboos College for Teaching Arabic to Non-Native Speakers programme in
the Sultanate of Oman, and The American
University programme in Cairo, have adopted
this approach.
There is another approach which calls for the
adoption of „Educated Spoken Arabic‟. This
form represents a viable option for the development of spoken proficiency because it is
understood by most educated Arabs in Arab
countries (Wahba, 2006). Although this has
become the language of choice for some Arabic programmes, it is still not the form that
suits those learners who prefer to achieve
basic proficiency in the written form of Arabic.
This has led many institutions to consider other approaches.
 Providing two successive courses
Some programmes provide two courses. Students first study MSA and then, in a second
course, they learn a chosen dialect. Proponents
of this view believe that allowing students to
become familiar with MSA is a good start for
learning a dialect (Al-Hamad, 1983). However,
others argue that it is best to start with the dialect because it theoretically reflects the order of
acquisition of native speakers, who first learn
the dialect, and later at school, learn Standard
Arabic (Nicola, 1990; Ryding, 2006; Younes,
1995). Consequently, some researchers argue
that the starting point should focus on building a dialectal foundation in listening and
speaking, and then the MSA form should be
gradually introduced. Although such an approach is consistent with the way Arabic is
learnt and used by native speakers, the major
problem is the time limitation. Students usually do not have time to master an Arabic dialect
and then start MSA. Another criticism is that
the Colloquial Arabic portion of the course
focuses only on listening and speaking skills,
which may result in students leaving the programme with no ability to read or write
(Younes, 1995).
Such an approach encompasses all language
aspects, with each being afforded enough
time. These aspects are related to the four language skills of listening, reading, writing and
speaking. In these programmes, reading and
writing are taught in Mmodern Standard Arabic and speaking and listening in a dialect
(Holes, 1995). However, it has been argued
that this approach has led to some problems
and confusion for some learners of Arabic,
especially for those at the beginning stages of
learning (Al-Hamad, 1983). Some even think
that although the MSA and dialects are, to
some extent, related, they are still so different
that learning them is similar to learning two
different languages simultaneously (Stevens,
2006). This could be more easily understood if
one keeps in mind that in learning languages,
what one learns in conversation frequently
supports and assists what one learns in reading.
 Teaching both standard Arabic and a dialect simultaneously
Some educators believe that students should
learn both forms at the same time. For example, Younes (1995) writes: “If the goal of an
Arabic-as-a-foreign-language programme is to
prepare students to function successfully in
Arabic, then they should be introduced to both
a Spoken Arabic dialect and “formal Arabic”
from the beginning of an Arabic course”
(p.233).
However, Ryding (2006) found that programmes that provide both forms, formal and
informal, do not inhibit the attainment of read-
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
ing and writing skills, as they very often reinforce each other. Nevertheless, he confirms
that the achievement of advanced proficiency
will take more time and need more focus.
With the same perspective, Agius (1990) found
that students who were exposed to both varieties of Arabic simultaneously seemed to be
much more motivated to learn the language
than those who had studied in the traditional
way.
2015
cents in the eighth grade and found orthographic sources of difficulty. He reported that
pupils made spelling errors, as they were confused by similar looking Arabic letters, which
are at times differentiated only by dots. In addition, they were confused between letters
with multiple shapes. In some cases, the letters
looked similar to others. Vanderhoof (2011)
also reported a lack of improvement in the
overall spelling performance of 44 adult English as a Second Language (ESL) students.
In sum, aAfter providing a brief definition of
diglossia in the Arabic language and the teaching approaches developed, the following sections will provide a description of orthography, morphology and the Arabic phonetic system, and how they might createcause some
challenges for students of Arabic.
Likewise, features of Arabic orthography constitute a major difficulty for the foreign language learner since Arabic, in contrast to European languages, is read and written from
left to right and uses completely different
scripts and directionality. It has been found
that this is cognitively complex and requires
restructuring one‟s way of thinking (AlJuhany, 1990).
Arabic orthography
The Arabic writing system is an alphabetic
logographic script, where every letter is assembled in order to generate meaning. The
alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters without the inclusion of hamzah. Moreover, three
letters are treated as long vowels (sounds):
„alif’ (‫)أ‬, „waw‟, (‫ )و‬and „yaa‟, (‫ )ي‬which represent the sounds /a: / /u: / and / i: / respectively in English.
Furthermore, Arabic also has three short vowels which may be represented by diacritic
marks above or below a letter with the same
sound of alif, waw and yaa. The signs of these
three vowels are, respectively: fathah )َ ) a
small diagonal stroke above a consonant,
dhammah ( َ ) a small waw above a consonant,
and kasrah’ ( َ ) a small diagonal stroke under
a consonant (Awde & Samano, 1986; Fragman
& Russak, 2010).
Arabic script is cursive, meaning that certain
letters must be connected to others in writing.
There are no capital letters in Arabic, but a
letter may occur in more than one form depending on its position in the word and what
letters surround it. Every letter has four different forms: isolated, initial, medial and final.
However, the basic letter remains unchanged.
Some Arabic letters are attachable only to the
letters preceding them, and some are attachable to letters preceding and following them
(Awde & Samano, 1986; Saiegh-Haddad &
Henkin-Roitfarb, 2014).
Al-Mutawa (1995) found that the majority of
learners of Arabic faced difficulty in differentiating between short and long vowels which
created pronunciation, reading and writing
difficulties.
In addition to the three vowel signs, there are
another two significant signs called sukūn and
shaddah. The former refers to a small circle
written above the letter and indicates the absence of a vowel after a consonant; its sign is
(َ). On the other hand, when a consonant occurs twice without a vowel in between, it is
written only once with the sign ( َ ) shaddah.
The letters which have shaddah are commonly
called mūdhaaf. This means that the letter
should be doubled in pronunciation. Attadheef
„‫ ‟التضعيف‬has a great impact on the meaning of
the words in Arabic. For example, if you say
Faāla, „‫ ’فعل‬it means „did‟ but with the attadheef
„‫ ’فعل‬it means „activated‟. Therefore, some researchers (e.g. Al-Mutawa, 1995; Abdelhadi,
Ibrahim & Eviatar 2011) stress the importance
of helping Arabic students understand and
perceive the idea of doubling consonants.
The findings of some previous researchers,
such as Al-Mutawa (1995), Al-Juhany (1990),
Hansen (2010) and Abdelhadi, Ibrahim and
Eviatar (2011) have revealed that dimensions
connected with the letter architecture, and the
fact that the majority of the letters have multiple shapes, are connected to adjacent letters,
and are often distinguished from one another
on the basis of the number and location of dots
alone, contribute to the difficulty in learning
the Arabic language. Fragman and Russak
(2010), for example, examined the Arabic
spelling accuracy of native Hebrew adoles-
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Arabic in Foreign Language Programmes: Difficulties and Challenges
Fatma Al-Busaidi
The positions of Arabic letters and the complicated marks appearing above or under them
can cause some challenges for Arabic learners.
What makes the situation worse is that, unfortunately, in most modern written and printed
Arabic, no signs (marks above or under letters), sukūn „‫ ’سكون‬or shaddah „‫ ’شدج‬are used to
help while reading. This might be one reason
for the delayed development of reading skills
of Arabic learners (Al-Mutawa, 1995).
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Although the majority of the words are spelt
exactly as they are pronounced in Arabic,
spelling has very often been reported as problematic. Many researchers (e.g. Burj, 1978; AlJuhany, 1990; Fragman & Russak, 2010) found
that students struggle with Arabic spelling.
Noticeably, spelling problems in Arabic do not
occur, as is the case in the spelling of English
or other European languages, out of irregularities in the sound-symbol relationship. Instead,
they arise from learner inability to distinguish
between some Arabic sounds whose pronunciations to some extent look/sound similar to
non- native learners, for example (‫ط‬/ ṭ /) and
(‫خ‬/ t).
Another commonly known problem of written
Arabic is hamzah (‫)همزج‬. Burj (1978) states that
the rules governing hamzah are so complicated
and vary according to its position within the
word, that they cause problems not only for
foreign learners, but also native speakers of
Arabic. Moreover, Al-Juhany (1990) argues
that the way hamzah is presented to students in
Arabic programmes and the teaching methods
used add to the complexity of this issue. He
further states that this matter needs expert and
well-trained teachers provided with educational resources.
Arabic morphology
Arabic, like all Semitic languages, is characterized by the use of certain morphological patterns. Thus, the majority of Arabic words are
derived from, and can be analysed from their
roots, which represent meaning. These roots
usually consist of three consonants, which
form the basis for the formation of numerous
words not necessary. In other words, by using
the three consonants of the root and by varying the vowel of the simple root, and adding
prefixes, infixes, and suffixes, according to
certain consonants, the actual words are produced. For example, the following derivations
can be made from the root KTB, ‘‫( ’كتة‬write):
Moreover, in Arabic, there are two different
systems for definite and indefinite nouns.
Firstly, a definite noun is indicated by the definite article, al-atareef corresponding to the
word „the‟ in English and appearing with the
noun as one word. Although the definite article always has the same written shape, its pronunciation differs depending on the following
letter, which can lead to some confusion if not
taught well (Al-Mutawa, 1995). Secondly,
nouns and adjectives can also be indefinite
when the vowel signs for one of three case
endings, called in Arabic tanwīn „‫’التنويه‬, appear
at the end of the word and make double short
vowels. There are three tanwīn in Arabic:
tanwīn adham, tanwīn alfatah and tanwīn alkasr.
This means that they are to be pronounced
with a final (n) but not written as an (n), for
example, /kitabun/ ‫كتاب‬, /kitaban /‫ كتاتا‬, /kitabin /
‫كتاب‬.
‫ كاتة‬/kātib/ „writer‟, ‫ مكتوب‬/maktub/ „something
written‟, ‫ مكتثح‬/maktaba/ „library‟, ‫ مكتة‬/ maktab/
„office‟, ‫ كتاب‬/kitāb / „book‟.
Some researchers found that the characteristics
of Arabic morphology caused difficulties for
students of Arabic, as some could not make a
link between the new word they learnt and its
official root (e.g. Burj, 1978; Al-Juhany, 1990).
However, Stevens (2006, p.24) suggests that it
is “learnable” and can even make acquiring
vocabulary far easier than might be the case in
many other languages where derivational patterns are haphazard. In Arabic, it is often not
necessary to learn vocabulary as a separate
activity because the general character of derivational morphology makes vocabulary learning more straightforward. Nevertheless, this
necessitates using teaching methodologies that
help familiarise students with these forms. In
this case, understanding the root system will
make learning and remembering vocabulary
easier (Burj, 1978).
The issue of using the nunation (or tanwīn
„‫ ) ’التنويه‬in Arabic leads to some challenges in
reading, writing and pronunciation if the text
is not marked, especially for beginner learners
who are not familiar with Arabic grammar.
Therefore, learners must know which tanwīn
they have to use to produce the correct meaning (Al-Tueriqy, 1988; Ibrahim, Khateb &
Taha, 2013).
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Arabic phonology
2015
students to learn how to pronounce them. He
further argues that although adult learners are
less likely to adopt the right Arabic pronunciation, they might have other skills which children do not seem to have which make them
motivated to acquire these sounds. He reiterates that these sounds can be produced by Arabic learners if account is taken of the importance of phonetic training programmes and
the application of new sound technology.
As stated earlier, Arabic differs from other
languages in many ways. One of the most crucial differences is the way in which some Arabic sounds are pronounced. It has been widely
reported by non-native learners that at least
one of the nine sounds presented below
caused a problem in their speaking, understanding and even emotional attitude in learning Arabic (Taaima & Al-Naqa, 2006; Madkoor, 2007). Theses sounds are (‫ح‬/ ħ/), (‫خ‬
/ḫ/), (‫ص‬/ ṣ /), (‫ض‬/ḍ /), (‫ط‬/ ṭ /), (‫ظ‬/ ẓā/), (‫ع‬/
ʕ /), (‫ غ‬/ ġ /), (‫ق‬/q/).
One of the arguments regarding pronunciation is whether Arabic sounds should be presented using the transliteration method (the
practice of using Latin script instead of Arabic
script for rendering the language) or by using
the Arabic script from the early stage of learning (Al-Juhany, 1990). Supporters of the transliteration method believe that it might provide
beginner learners who know no Arabic with
some idea of the sound intended. This helps
them to avoid the difficulty of writing Arabic
until they are familiar with Arabic script.
However, as many Arabic sounds are totally
unlike those of English or other European languages, the transliteration method can be a
phonetically vague approximation. Consequently, students relying on any form of transliteration will be hindered and delay their ultimate grasp of authentic script and the acquisition of sound-script correspondences
(Beeston, 1968).
This difficulty mainly results from the fact that
there is no equivalent to some of these sounds
in English and most other languages. For example, the sound (‫خ‬/ḫ/) has no comparable
sound in English. It is something like (kh),
pronounced as far back in the throat as possible. (‫ح‬/ħ/) is a peculiarly Arabic consonant. It
is a (h) but must be sharply distinguished
from the throat. The same thing could apply to
the (‫ص‬/ṣ /),(‫ض‬/ḍ /), (‫ق‬/q/), (‫ع‬/ʕ/) and (‫غ‬/ġ
/) which have an equal in other spoken languages (Al-Mutawa, 1995).
In order to produce these sounds, the majority
of learners tend to convert them into other
sounds that are easier to create or are closer to
their native language. Al-Juhany (1990) and
Burj (1978) found that this subsequently leads
to confusion in student linguistic expression or
the loss of the intended expression. Additionally, Al-Mutawa‟s (1995) findings showed that
some learners might be able to produce some
of these sounds correctly, but this involves an
unnatural exaggeration in the movement of
their lips and their articulation in general,
which distorts their normal communication.
It has also been found that the transliteration
method confuses Arabic language learners in
writing, speaking and dictionary usage. For
example, both the word sāra ‘‫( ’سار‬he went)
and ṣāra „‫( ’صار‬to be) are written in the same
way in Latin script ‘Saara’ despite their different meanings. Moreover, using an Arabic dictionary might be more problematic if the
learners are not sure of the sound they heard;
they might search for another word and get
the incorrect meaning (Ibrahim, 2001). What
makes the issue more complicated is that some
learners may memorise the word with the
wrong meaning and when they come to use it,
either in speaking or writing, they do so incorrectly. This confusion has been found to lead
to some emotional difficulties, as many learners report that very often they are surprised
when they discover that the word they learnt
had another meaning. Their embarrassment
even increases when they fail to convey a clear
linguistic message while communicating with
others (Taaima & Al-Naqa, 2006).
However, Al-Juhany (1990) proposes that these sounds can be produced by learners if a
tremendous effort is made by Arabic teachers
to help them recognize stress points. He also
argues that the description of sounds cannot
be understandable without the use of the
technical phonetic methodology used by special Arabic native teachers who have themselves received training in Arabic phonetics.
Additionally, Al-Juhany (1990) suggests that
the beliefs of teachers might be another reason
for the difficulties in Arabic pronunciation. He
states that many teachers think that these consonants are too difficult for foreigners to produce and, therefore, they do not encourage
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Arabic in Foreign Language Programmes: Difficulties and Challenges
Fatma Al-Busaidi
Despite the recurrence of this problem with a
great number of Arabic learners, as reported
by Madkoor (2007), the majority of student
books that are designed to teach Arabic, especially for beginners, are still written in Latin
script. This might help beginners to some extent, but it does not provide learners with the
intensive strategies necessary to help them
overcome the confusion that might appear
from mixing up sounds. In addition, it will
delay student acquisition of Arabic sounds
and scripts (Al-Juhany, 1990).
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
for students who cannot be transferred from
one programme to another, and those who
begin to study Arabic in one Arab country and
cannot carry on their learning in another.
The present dilemma in Arabic teaching is
complicated further by the varied quality of
language training available in overseas Arabic
programmes. Although, as stated by Al-Batal
(2007), the Arabic study-abroad experiences of
American students tend to be positive in terms
of cultural exposure, such programmes frequently lack curricular articulation with their
corresponding U.S. institutions, and teachers
experience poor faculty training in language
pedagogy to assist the needs of American
learners. Batal (2007) refers also to the financial issues linked to this. Study-abroad programmes have no funding to bring about curricular changes or provide in-service teacher
training and professionalization.
Pedagogical factors affecting teaching and
learning Arabic as a foreign language
Despite the efforts that have been made by
some professionals to develop programmes
for TAFL, there are common pitfalls in some of
these programmes. These can be summarized
as follows:
Programmes lacking clear objectives
Lack of experienced or qualified teachers
Abboud (1995) states the following: “It is sad
to note that after all these years there are still
Arabic programmes, and they seem to be the
rule rather than exception, that do not have
clearly articulated objectives for their sequential language courses” (p.26). In the same vein,
Abboud (1995) highlights that Arabic programmes in the Arab world, in general, need
to be improved to address this issue. This cannot be achieved unless the goal of learning the
language is carefully addressed to cover the
need of each group of learners.
Lack of coordination between Arabic programmes
There is almost complete agreement between
professionals that a good teacher is the fundamental element of the TAFL programme. A
good teacher can give life to the curriculum
and language resources, attract student
awareness, raise their curiosity and enthusiasm, and make learning an enjoyable process
(Belnap, 1995; Nahla, 2006). However, qualified teachers are still in short supply in the
field of Arabic instruction, as pointed out by
several researchers (e.g. Nahla, 2006; Nash,
2010). They all agree that many teachers are
not equipped with an Arabic teaching methodology that leads to language proficiency
and some are not even qualified to teach Arabic to native speakers. Nash (2010) contends
that being a native speaker of Arabic is not
enough to be able to teach it. Similarly, Belnap
(1995), in his evaluative study of Arabic teachers in some Arabic institutions, indicated that
none of the teachers at these small institutions
had formal training in Arabic teaching. He
says that this might be a major reason for the
limited number of students achieving high
levels of language acquisition in the Arabic
language.
Lambert (1992) considers the lack of coordination between Arabic programmes as one of the
greatest weaknesses of Arabic language education programmes. He argues that these programmes normally work essentially in isolation from each other. This leads to problems
Unfortunately, even as late as 2006, the field of
Arabic was still lacking in trained professionals. Ryding (2006) states that there are only a
small number of people that can be considered
professional teachers of Arabic as a foreign
language and that “the active membership of
Abboud (1995) refers to another significant
challenge resulting from not having clear objectives in Arabic teaching and learning programmes. He found that students of Arabic
courses complain that when they move from
one level to another, or even from one semester to another in these programmes, they are
often passed along to teachers who are unaware of what they did in previous courses.
Moreover, they can often be presented with
materials and methods that have nothing to do
with those previously used.
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
2015
Shortage of materials and resources
the American Association of Teachers of Arabic [AATA] currently numbers about 130” (p.
13). Therefore, this has led many universities
in the US to not be able to accommodate the
increasing numbers wishing to enrol in Arabic
programmes.
Although some Arabic programmes in the
West and in some Arab countries such as
Egypt have introduced materials and resources to support the learning of Arabic, the
lack of appropriate materials is a major concern for many professionals in the field. For
example, while there are various textbooks,
supplemental materials and E-learning programmes available to teach other languages
such as English, all these resources are almost
completely absent from Arabic programmes
(Alosh, 1997; Stevens, 2006; Taaima & AlNaqa, 2006).
This challenging issue seems to be associated
with the lack of programmes that prepare
teachers of Arabic as a foreign language. According to Al-Batal (2007), only one program
at the University of Michigan offers a graduate
degree in TAFL and, even there, the programme employs only one Arabic specialist.
In Arab countries the situation is similar.
Nahle (2006, p.76), for example, states the following: “There is no university in Egypt that
has a programme for preparing teachers to
teach Arabic to non-native speakers except the
American University in Cairo.” This is also
applicable to other Arab countries (except the
Khartoum International Institute in Sudan
which began some work on this in 1974).
Madkoor (2007) evaluated the few valid programmes in the Arab world, such as those in
Egypt and Sudan, and states that they struggle
to provide teachers with the skills needed for
Arabic teaching. One of the major recommendations was the inclusion of creative modern
resources and varied materials in Arabic
teacher education.
This has led Arabic teachers in many Arab
countries to be more dependent on materials
available to teach Arabic as a first language.
This issue was reported to be one of the major
worries of many Arab educators. For example,
Al-Batal (2007) found that Arabic teachers
have to choose very difficult texts, which are
only suitable for native speakers with a high
level of Arabic. His findings showed that this
matter has made learning the language a challenge and has led learners to suffer psychologically. They go through difficult experiences of
disappointment, anxiety and, even worse, they
form a negative attitude towards learning Arabic.
This problem was reiterated by some researchers (e.g. Allen & Allouche, 1986; AlBatal, 1992) who found that it is difficult to
find appropriate teaching materials in the
Western context. This forces many AFL teachers to develop their own curriculum and materials to suit the particular needs of American
students of Arabic
Al-Mutawa (1995) argues that both native and
non-native speakers find challenges in the
field of teaching Arabic. She found that although non-native speaking teachers have
good education and training, they have problems with the pronunciation of many Arabic
sounds. Secondly, some native teachers were
found to use their dialects in the classroom
and some did not or were not able to pronounce some sounds, either because they do
not have those sounds that sound in their dialects or they used different pronunciations.
Versteegh (2006) added that there is a need for
a reliable grammar reference. He found that
most students had to make use of the oldfashioned grammar of classical Arabic. He also
stated: “lexicographical tools are still a problem; the dictionaries that are published in the
Middle East, especially in Lebanon, tend to
focus on the classical language and are less
practical for beginner students” (pp.9-10).
Therefore, the only option available for students is an Arabic /English dictionary, which
does not help those who do not speak English.
It has also been found that the majority of
teachers of Arabic use traditional teaching
methodologies such as memorization, and
grammar-translation. Additionally, most of
the Arabic courses, including the communicative Arabic courses, are not designed to serve
communicative purposes. The focus has always been to understand Arabic grammar and
comprehension (Siti Ikbal, 2006).
Additionally, the limitation of educational resources for developing is another major concern. The dialects of Arabic are not written
down, and as they are different from one
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Arabic in Foreign Language Programmes: Difficulties and Challenges
Fatma Al-Busaidi
country to another, it is very difficult to produce dialect resources for all these different
dialects (Al-Batal, 1992, 1995b; Wahba, 2006).
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
standing in their Arabic course reported social
difficulties in dealing with unfamiliar social
customs. This was one reason cited for some of
them being unable to use social interactions to
improve their Arabic. To deal with this issue
in Egypt, another approach was established
which was to give the students orientation
lectures to introduce them to the characteristics of Egyptian society and social customs as
soon as they started the course (Nahla, 2006).
Insufficient presentation of Arab culture
It has been widely agreed that culture and
language are entangled. Many researchers in
the TAFL field (e.g. Al-Batal, 1988; Suleiman,
1993; Elgibali & Taha, 1995; Taha, 2006) have
emphasised that cultural competence is one of
the important factors of language competence.
Therefore, they highlighted the significance of
building a curriculum that helps students to
understand religion, history, politics, and other issues related to Arabic culture. They found
that students with knowledge of these important aspects of Arabic culture were more
able to get involved with people and more
confident in using the environment surrounding them.
Conclusion
This paper has presented a review of the literature on Arabic language programmes beginning with a brief review of the historical background of TAFL and its challenges, and followed by a description of the Arabic language
and its characteristics. Additionally, factors
that affect the learning of Arabic, such as linguistic and pedagogical factors have been presented.
Belnap‟s (1995) findings confirmed that cultural proficiency has regained prominence as a
primary objective of language learning, as the
majority of students in his research placed cultural understanding among their primary reasons for studying the language. Similarly,
Nahla (2006) found that many students believe
that learning Arabic in Arab countries is more
helpful than learning it in non-Arabic speaking countries. The learners believe that learning Arabic in Arab countries gives them the
opportunity to learn valuable information
with regard to Arab society in terms of how
people live, how they deal with each other,
what interests them, and what makes them
happy, sad or angry. In addition, this presents
a good opportunity for learning local stories,
anecdotes, and the views of Arabic-speaking
people towards the world around them.
The conclusion to draw from this paper is that
the Arabic language is clearly attracting attention worldwide; however, enormous problems
in teaching Arabic as a foreign language need
to be considered, and scholars in the field need
to make a concerted effort to improve the profession.
It seems that some of the difficulties and challenges are likely to be due to specific features
of the Arabic language itself. This is possibly
due to the radical difference between spoken
Arabic dialects and the official written language taught in school and used for academic
materials.
Additionally, having different Arabic programmes in different universities shows that
there is no agreement as to what kind of Arabic should be taught in Arabic programmes.
Even in the case of providing the two forms of
Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic and a chosen
dialect, there is no agreement about which
form to start with and which dialects should
be taught. This fundamental question still
needs to be answered by applying empirical
research that will help our understanding of
this issue. Although some of the studies that
have sought to understand students‟ opinions
regarding which form they would like to learn
indicate that they prefer learning spoken Arabic (Schmidt, Inbar & Shohamy, 2004; Palmer,
2007, 2008), it is vital to select the approach
that will best fit students‟ needs. It is highly
Anghelescu‟s (2006) work indicates that students who studied Arabic in a programme in
which cultural understanding was ignored
faced challenges, even at advanced levels. She
states that the issues of cultural and linguistic
discontinuity hinder potential learners from
the outset. She also cites Killean (1997), who
argues that the difficulties of learning Arabic
in the West pertain not only to the language
system, but also to the cultural foreignness felt
by the learners.
In the same vein, Nahla (2006) found that foreign learners of Arabic studying in Egypt who
were not provided with any cultural under-
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Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
2015
recommended that the field strategically evaluate these programmes to understand more
about the strengths and weaknesses of each
approach and to determine which ones (programmes) work better for students. Finding
the best approaches that fit students‟ needs
will require constant monitoring and evaluation to ensure programme effectiveness.
Finally, it is suggested that the field of Arabic
language education cannot be improved unless policy makers in Arab countries are aware
of the importance of improving the quality of
Arabic as a foreign language programmes. The
first step might be by establishing a clear policy or vision for teaching and learning Arabic
as a foreign language.
It is also vital for students interested in learning both forms of Arabic, (standard and a dialect), to balance and bridge the difficult gap
between written and spoken skills by providing the two forms of Arabic concurrently. Although this approach poses inherent difficulties in some programmes, thoughtfully designed and carefully implemented combinations of the two forms can provide a more
comprehensive and accurate understanding of
the Arabic language.
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717
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University
(Pages 718-729)
Vol.9 Issue 4, 2015
Relationship between Social Anxiety and Parental Authority among College
of Education Students’ at SQU
Hilal Z. Al- Nabhani* & Abdulhameed S. Hassan
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
___________________________________________
Received: 30/8/2015
Revised: 20/9/2015
Accepted: 28/9/2015
_____________________________________________
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between parental authority
and social anxiety. The study attempted to answer the following question: Are there significant
differences in social anxiety due to parental authority factors: (support, control, psychological
control, emotion and accomplishment of missions)? Data was collected from 172 students of
College of Education at Sultan Qaboos University. The Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ),
and Social Anxiety Scale (SAS) were used to assess variables. To answer the study question, regression analysis was used. Findings indicated that there was significant relationship between
parental authority and social anxiety in several domains. The findings also revealed that there
were significant differences in social anxiety due to mother authority and student's gender.
Keywords: University students, parental authority, gender, social aniety.
‫عالقة القلق االجتناعي بسلطة الوالدين لدى طلبة كلية الرتبية يف جامعة السلطان قابوس‬
‫هالل بن زاهر النبواني* وعبد احلنيد سعيد حسن‬
‫ سلطنة عنان‬،‫جامعة السلطان قابوس‬
_____________________________________________
ً‫كنا تسعى إىل اإلجابة ع‬. ٌ‫ سعت ٍذه الدراسة إىل اختبار العالقة بني سلطة الىالديً والقلق االجتناع‬:‫مستخلص‬
‫ والضبط‬،‫ والضبط‬،‫ ٍل تىجد فزوق يف القلق االجتناعٌ تعىد إىل عىامل سلطة الىالديً (الدعه‬:ٌ‫السؤال اآلت‬
ٌ‫ طالباً مً كلًة الرتبًة يف جامعة السلطا‬172 ‫ واإلجناس)؟ مجعت بًاىات الدراسة مً عًية بلغت‬،‫ واالىفعال‬،ٌ‫اليفس‬
‫ كنا مت استخداو حتلًل‬،‫ ومت استخداو استبًاٌ السلطة الىالدية ومقًاس القلق االجتناعٌ جلنع البًاىات‬.‫قابىس‬
‫ أشارت اليتائج إىل وجىد عالقة بني سلطة الىالديً والقلق االجتناعٌ؛ كنا‬.‫االحندار لإلجابة عً سؤال الدراسة‬
.ٌ‫كصفت اليتائج عً أثز لسلطة األو واليىع االجتناعٌ يف عدد مً أبعاد القلق االجتناع‬
.ٌ‫ القلق االجتناع‬،‫ اجليس‬،ً‫ سلطة الىالدي‬،‫ طلبة اجلامعة‬:‫الللنات املفتاحًة‬
*[email protected]
718
Relationship between Social Anxiety and Parental Authority
Hilal Al- Nabhani & Abdulhameed Hassan
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Mcloed, Sigman, Hwang & Chu, 2003)
emphasized that there was a relationship
between the parental stereotype of excessive
protection and high control and social anxiety.
However, these findings were not harmonic
with the findings of a study conducted by
Ballash, Pernble, Usui, Buckley and WoodruffBorden (2oo6) which indicated an existing
relationship between a family environment
characterized by empathy, behavioural
control, excessive protection and social anxiety
symptoms.
Anxiety disorders are among the most
common mental health problems experienced
by children and young people (Costello,
Egger, & Angold, 2005).Social anxiety is the
second most common anxiety disorder in
adults (Kessler et al.,2005). According to the
diagnostic criteria; social anxiety disorder
(SAD), which is also referred to as Social
Phobia is one of the six major anxiety
disorders listed in the Diagnostic and
Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-V;
APA, 2013). The social anxiety disorder is
considered as marked and persistent fear of
social or performance situation (Sparrevohn
and Rapee, 2009). Research revealed that the
most common mental health disorders are
mood and anxiety disorders, affecting 6% of
the adolescent population in the United States
(Byrne, 2000). In Canada, anxiety disorders are
the most common of all mental health
problems, affecting one in 10 people, children
and adults (Canadian Mental Health
Association- CMHA, 2010).
Research in related literature signified that
environmental conditions play an important
role in developing social anxiety particularly
in children because of early childhood experiences perceived as threatening situations, these painful situations cause negative feelings in
children which are considered as symptoms of
social anxiety (Beauchaine & Hinshaw, 2013).
The findings of several studies suggested that
parenting style followed by negative methods
and treatments may lead to increased social
anxiety in their children (e.g., Akinsola &
Udoka, 2013, Ballash, Pemble, Buckly &
Woodruff – Borden, 2006; kulaksizoglu,1998).
SAD may be caused by many factors, such as:
negative and aversive experiences like:
shyness, painful or vocational events, harsh
treatment and lack of social skills. In addition,
parental rejection, negligence, aggression, lack
of warmth and intimacy, and inadequate
adaptation are also other sources that may
elicit social anxiety (Leahy & Holland, 2000;
Zimmer-Gembeck, Nesdale, 2013; Rudoloph,
2013).
Social anxiety is a general term that might be a
result of social conditions. When social anxiety
causes problems, it is called social phobia
which also includes some symptoms existing
in other disorders as shyness and fears caused
by criticism, embarrassment, or rejection of
others. SAD may lead to high risks of social
danger causing disntegration or disturbance in
social relationship ( Hanlon, 2011).
SAD was examined by several studies. In
literature, it was defined as social
apprehension which leads to avoiding social
situations
accompanied
by
excessive
obsession, rejection or
embarrassment.
Heimberg and Becker (2002) indicated that
social anxiety is excessive fear of some social
situations, so students with social anxiety
demonstrated weak acedemic performance in
different classroom activities specially in
formal speech and classroom presentation.
Patterns of parenting received a great attention in research. (Chan and Chan, 2009; Coln,
Jordan and Mercer, 2011; Darling and Steinberg, 2013) asserted the importance of parental
support and warmth responses in order to
achieve positive results in their children. This
is considered as an assessment of the parents'
behavior ranging from a continuous amount
of independence to complete control of children's behavior especially during adolescence
(Driscoll, Russell and Crockett, 2008).
SAD is considered a psychological state resulting from fear of negative assessment (Clark &
Wells, 1995). Social fears are common among
normal people and may range from simple to
high (Ruscio, et al 2008). Parents are
considered one of the important factors in the
protection of their children from social
anxiety. Several studies (e.g., Barnett,et al.,
2004, Grcco & Morris, 2002; Lieb, et al, 2000;
Mcloed, Wood & Weisz, 2007 and Wood,
The results of this systematic review provided
fairly consistent preliminary evidence for an
association between anxiety and perceived
parental control and anxious parenting in adolescence. (Waitea, Whittingtonb & Creswella,
2014).
719
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
In addition, parental practices played an important role in creating SAD. This importance
was shown in some research, such as: (Andrews, et al.,2003; Erkan, 2002; Cagdas &
Secer, 2004; Yavuzer, 2005 and Baldwin, Mcintyre & Hardway ,2007); which stressed that the
authoritative parenting style may make the
child's beliefs irrational and lead to lack in
his/her ability to control threatening events.
As a result of these events, the children are
motivated to avoid diverse social situations.
2015
tional problems and difficulties that are
strongly related to the quality of the relationship between parents and children. (Lerner, et
al., 1996).
Consequently, Bandura (1997) considered that
it is necessary to clarify the factors affecting
the parental stereotypes. The nature and quality of the interactions between parents and
children continue to affect them in childhood,
adolescence and adulthood. Among the factors affecting social anxiety is the type of the
relation between adolescents and their parents. In this regard, Darling, Cumsille, Caldwell & Dowdy (2008); Darling, Cumsille &
Martinez (2008) believed that adolescents
viewed their parents’ authority as illegal in
their developments.
In this regard, Erozkan(2012); Marnnuzza, et
al, ( 2002) and Rudolf ( 2013) maintained that
the rejection style provided by parents might
lead to social and emotional disorders . The
findings pointed out that passive parental
practices provoked anxiety and led to
symptoms of depression and social anxiety
(Kuhar-Meaka , 2010).
Statement of problem
As mentioned above, it is clear that SAD is a
social problem affecting individuals in
different degrees, and there are several factors
causing it such as: painful early childhood
experiences, child's personality, continuous
frustrations, stresses, parenting styles, failure
experiences specially in academic domain, and
learning environment. These factors may
contribute to shape social anxiety in university
students.The rationale beyond conducting this
study is that related literature in Middle East
societies mainly depended on investigating
the parental styles toghether in the same tool
because our belief and cultural system see that
the parental authority is only governed or
determined by fathers' authority, and mothers
are subordinate for this authority, but this
study was to measure fathers' style and
mothers' styles seperately. This method gives
power for exploring differences among
fathers' styles and mothers' styles in parenting
and the role of these styles in shaping
personality and causing various problems and
disorders , such as social anxiety. Assadi,
Zokaei, Kaviani, Mohammadi and Ghaeli
(2007) noticed that In Middle East cultures not
only provide information regarding parenting
in other societies but also broaden our crosscultural database so as to better understand
the role of cultural factors in parenting. The
current study mainly focused on the
invistigation of parenting styles as one of
factors that cause SAD and social anxiety in
the students of Sultan Qaboos University.
Howerver, the study attempted to answer the
following question: Are there significant
The findings of a study conducted
by
(Daerling and Steinberg (1993); Esther (2013);
Turner,
Chadler
&
Heffer
(2009);
Chang,Oleson,Sameroff
&
Sexton
(2009);Drisecoll, Russell & Crocket (2008)
indicated that the authoritative parenting style
was an important factor in causing social
anxiety in children.
McLeod, Wood, & Weisz (2007) studied
parental rejection which involves withdrawal
from or hostility towards the child and a lack
of warmth, involvement, emotional support or
reciprocity with the child. They hypothesized
that this rejection undermines the child’s
emotion regulation, thus increasing his/her
sensitivity to anxiety. From the meta-analysis
of 47 studies examining the association
between childhood anxiety and parenting - a
medium sized association between parental
control and child anxiety, but a small
association between parental rejection and
child anxiety.
Wood, et al. (2007) stressed that parental
control of their children may be frightening
and insecure, so this negative level of control
may get the child inassertive and cause a sense
of anxiety. Taylor, Jang, Stewart and Stein
(2008) emphasized that hereditary factors,
learning experiences and personal factors are
all crucial determinants of high social anxiety.
There are many change sex pertinence by individuals throughout their lives. These changes may occur during the adolescence stage
which is characterized by a variety of emo-
720
Relationship between Social Anxiety and Parental Authority
Hilal Al- Nabhani & Abdulhameed Hassan
differences in social anxiety due to parental
authority
factors:
(support,
control,
psychological
control,
emotion
and
accomplishment of missions)?
were constructed based on two related scales
(Kuhar, 2012; Reitman, Rhode, Hupp and
Ahobello,2002). The scale consisted of 35 items
distributed into five subscales: support, control, psychological control, emotion and accomplishment of missions. The PAQ items
were responded according to a 5- point Likert
scale :( strongly agree =5, agree=4, neutral=3,
disagree=2, strongly disagree1=). The face validity scale was assessed by a panel of referees
whose specializations are measurement and
educational psychology. They were asked to
assess the items based on the extent to which
each is correlated to the concept of parental
authority. The cut-off point of 80% was used
to assess this correlation. The construct validity was also assessed by exploratory factor
analysis. The loading rate of 0.30 was used to
assess items' loadings. Factor analysis accounted for %48,066 and 48.066 of the total
variance in fathers and mothers successively.
Analysis extracted five factors (subscales), and
the item loadings ranged from (0.328 – 0.709).
Consequently, the following items: (3, 5, 6, 10,
11 in fathers), and (3, 4, 8, 11 in mothers) were
deleted. Some extracted factors for the fathers
were different from those of the mothers, and
the others are similar. The extracted factors for
the fathers were: (support, psychological control, open discussion of Ideas, control, emotion), and those for the mothers were: (support, control, psychological control, emotion,
accomplishment). The results of factor analysis
are illustrated in table 1.
Method
Participants
A pilot sample of 328 students in all levels
randomly chosen from the total number of
students enrolled in the college of education
(N= 1644) with percentage of (20%) was used
to assess construct validity of the Parental Authority questionnaire (PAQ). A convenience
sample of 172 students from the second level
at College of Education at Sultan Qaboos University was used for the study. This sample
consisted of 82 Male and 90 female represented all college majors. Study tools were sent to
the total number of 371 students at this level,
and they were asked to respond to the items of
these scales. 172 students responded to both
scales and returned back them to the researchers. The participants represented 46% of the
total number of the targeted students.
Instruments
The Parental Authority questionnaire( PAQ)
Parental authority was assessed based on
parental seperation. This separation was
found to be important in parenting ;because
of the differences between fathers and mothers
in parenting methods in dealing with
adolescents (Meunier et al.,2011). The items of
the Parental Authority questionnaire (PAQ)
Fath.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Moth
.425
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Table1
Factor loadings on authority father and authority mother
Fath.
Moth
Fath.
Moth
Fath.
Moth.
Fath.
.459
.453
.516
.621
.510
.352
.495
.731
.615
.541
.415
.478
.428
Moth.
.450
.495
.628
.328
.562
.387
.567
.346
.500
.594
.388
.490
.446
.519
.516
.446
721
.562
Fath
Moth
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Fath.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
%of
Variance
Eigen
values
.643
Moth
.643
.709
Table1
Factor loadings on authority father and authority mother
Fath.
Moth
Fath.
Moth
Fath.
Moth.
Fath.
.455
.648
.621
Moth
.554
.696
.519
.696
Fath
.639
.498
.478
.709
Moth.
2015
.707
.398
.588
.591
.788
.586
.350
.586
.604
.770
.500
.646.
.644
.355
.377
.399
.605
.635
.646
.655
.637
.592
%14.
3
.727
.656
%14.
3
%11.
4
%9.9
0
%7.1
1
%9.20
%9.95
%5.99
%6.81
%5.4
0
5.58
5.63
4.84
4.23
3.03
4.09
4.08
2.79
3.19
2.19
conditions of multiple regression analysis
such as: homogeneity and degree of correla
Reliability was estimated by internal consistency – Cronbach Alpha. The values of
Cronbach Alpha were 0.83; 0.81; 0.86; 0.82.
And 0.81 for the five subscales for fathers and
0.85, 0.83, 0.80, 0.81 and 0.80 for the five subscales for mothers.
tions was achieved. The significance of correlations between parental authority and social
anxiety was achieved. After that we found
the Means, standard deviations, and results
of multiple regression which are shown in
tables 2 and 3.
Second: The social anxiety scale
The Social Anxiety Scale was constructed
based on the literature of Olivares et al. (2005)
and Vigil (2009). The scale consisted of 40
items assessing the different situations causing social fears especially with those in social
environment and social interactions. The SAS
items are answered according to a 3- point
Likert scale: (always = 3, sometimes = 2, never = 1). The face validity scale was assessed
by a panel of experts whose specializations
were measurement and educational psychology. They were asked to assess the items
based on the extent to which each is correlated to the concept of parental authority. The
cut-off point of 80% was used to assess this
correlation. Reliability was estimated by internal consistency – Cronbach Alpha. The
value of Cronbach Alpha was 0.85 which
means that the scale is accepted psychometrically.
Table 2 shows that means of subscales of the
PAQ for fathers and mothers were above average 3, but for social anxiety; Means were
below the average 2.
To meet the conditions of multiple regression
analysis, correlations among all independent
study variables were calculated, and found to
be statistically significant. The values were
not too big, and ranged between 0.03 and
0.492, but did not reach 0.70. This is consistent with the second condition of multiple
regression analysis that the sample should be
selected randomly. This (Randomness) is
shown in diagram 'scatter plot' as illustrated
in the appendex.
Results and discussion
To test the study hypotheses; means and
standard deviations were calculated. The
722
Relationship between Social Anxiety and Parental Authority
Hilal Al- Nabhani & Abdulhameed Hassan
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Table 2
Means and standard deviation of the dependent and independent variables
Variable
M
a-
a-
Independent :
Parental authority (father’s role):
Support
Psychological control
Open discussion of ideas.
Control
emotion
Parental authority (mother's role):
Support
control
psychological control
emotion
Accomplishment of missions
Accumulation rate:
depended : Social anxiety
SD
3,4371
3,1920
3,5106
2,9980
3,3706
.41707
.38903
.60998
.46189
.66116
3.9380
3.4625
2.9088
2.7662
3,3088
2.7744
1.7440
.57500
.59504
.63181
.73739
.80599
.43767
28404.
0.192) and student gender (R2 = 0.109). These
results are shown table 3.
After verifying these conditions ;the regression analysis showed that three of the independent variables had an effect on the dependent variable (social anxiety) of the sample, and these variables were: the mother's
support (R2 = 0.374), mother's psychological
control (R2 = 0.192) and student gender (R2 =
0.109). These results are shown table 3.
To determine the significant effect of the two
styles (Support and psychological control) of
mothers on students' social anxiety according
to gender, regression analysis was used. Its
results are shown in table 4.
Table 4 shows the effect of the mother’s styles
of support and psychological control on social
anxiety was significant on daughter comparing to sons in terms of social anxiety level. The
value of the effect of social support (t= -3.08,
p< 0.003). As for the psychological control
style (t =- 4.3, p < 0.001). The effect of both
styles on son’s social anxiety was positive, but
not significant.
To determine the significant effect of the two
styles (Support and psychological control) of
mothers on students' social anxiety according
to gender, regression analysis was used. Its
results are shown in table 4.
Table 4 shows the effect of the mother’s styles
of support and psychological control on social
anxiety was significant on daughter comparing to sons in terms of social anxiety
These findings may be due to the mother's
psychological, emotional, mental maturity,
and interaction with the social environment
that helps the mother to be initiative to control
and direct the children's behavior. The social
environment plays an important role in raising
and taking care of her children. In this way,
the mother creates a climate of trust, and assertiveness to encourage them to assume responsibility and to get ready for the future.
level. The value of the effect of social support
(t= -3.08, p< 0.003). As for the psychological
control style (t=- 4.3, p < 0.001). The effect of
both styles on son’s social anxiety was positive, but not significant.
These findings may be due to the mother's
psychological, emotional, mental maturity,
and interaction with the social environment
that helps the mother to be initiative to control
and direct the children's behavior. The social
environment plays an important role in raising
and taking care of her children. In this way,
the mother creates a climate of trust, and After
verifying these conditions; the regression
analysis showed that three of the independent
variables had an effect on the dependent variable (social anxiety) of the sample, and these
variables were: the mother's support (R2 =
0.374), mother's psychological control (R2 =
The study results were in agreement with a
study conducted by Tiffany (2008) who mainly
focused on identifying the impact of maternal
deprivation and its negative impact on children's behavior. In her study, Tiffany concluded that the mother's psychological maturity contributed in the children's psychological
well-being and the deprivation of the mother
whose children may face many problems such
as tension, depression, anxiety and instability.
This finding is consistent with research showing that parental support is correlated to many
723
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
children’s positive outcomes such as children’s
school grades, internal control, lower anxiety,
positive self- control (e, g., Assadi et al, 2001,
Beshart et al, 20, Mcloed, Wood & Weisz, 2007,
Smith & college, 2007).
2015
Additional findings revealed some ongoing
changes in the Middle –Eastern parent rules
(Assadie, et al., 2007; Besharart, et al., 2011).
Concerning the gender differences found in
the present study, they were in line with most
of the studies that dealt with this issue (i.e.,
Rudolph & Zimmer-Gembeck, 2014; Sueda,
2009; Edelmann, 2005). These gender differences may be due to the influence of the culture and society. For example, the Arab woman heavily adheres to society values because
she likes to appear socially nice and agreeable
in front of others. If that does not take place,
she feels ashamed, confused and embarrassed,
particularly among university young women.
This case is the most important symptom of
social anxiety.
These positive effects related to mothers’ parenting authority may result in some cultural
changes in the Omani society because of the
increasing numbers of the education opportunities available nowadays for women. This
change in the education trend in society may
influence people’s psychological health and
social anxiety had its own effect on adolescents’ development. This direct effect of
mothers on adolescents’ well-being was one of
the findings reported by Chang, Oison,
Sameroff, and Sexton (2011) who found that
maternal use of positive discipline did not
predict a child’s externalizing behaviors. This
study is consistent with (Alkholif, 2002; Aldhafri, 2011) in the same target culture (Oman).
This may indicate that the mother’s concerns
of support and psychology control are more
apparent in the Omani society than the father’s support and psychology control. The
current study is consistent with the cumulative researchers (e.g., Frank et al., 2010; Hannum & Dovork, 2004) showing that it is important to examine each parental authority
style separately to identify the degree of differences existing between the father’s effect
and the mother’s on adolescents’ outcomes.
Conclusion
It was concluded that means of parenting authority factors for students were above the
average (3) except (psychological control, emotion, accumulation rate), and these factors had
low means in mother’s authority. In addition,
there were factors affecting social anxiety –
according to MRA- such as the mother's support, mother's psychological control and gender. The effect of the mother’s styles of support and psychological control on social anxiety was more significant on daughters than on
sons in terms of decreasing social anxiety. In
my opinion such above conclusion attributed
Table 3
Findings of the regression analysis of the independent variables at the social – anxiety level (dependent variable)
Independent variable
R2
R2 Adj.
Beta
t
Sig.
Support ( father)
-0.026
0.061
- 0.38
-0.427
0.670
Psychological control (father)
0.124
0.072
0.169
1.724
0.087
Open discussion (father)
-0.053
0.036
-0.114
-1.451
0.149
Control ( father)
Emotion (father)
Support ( mother)
Control ( mother)
Psychological control (mother)
Emotion ( mother)
Accomplishment of Missions ( mother)
Gender
0.028
0.011
0.374
-0.028
0.192
0.051
0.039
0.198
0.046
0.102
0.045
0.026
0.252
-0.059
0.228
0.554
0.292
2.852
-0.611
2.627
0.587
0.771
0.005
0.542
0.009
0.015
0.033
0.109
0.029
0.040
0.094
0.173
0.540
1.101
2.275
0.590
0.030
0.048
Table 4
Standardized beta values for mother’s support and psychological control on social anxiety
Sex
Parental authority
B
Beta
t
(Constant)
1.798
5.587
male
Support
-.009
-.205
-1.382
Psychological control
-.011
-.249
-1.679
(Constant)
1.789
9.142
female
BB1
-.011
-.252
-3.085
BB3
-.020
-.337
-4.130
Dependent variable: Social anxiety
724
0.273
0.024
Sig.
.000
.174
.101
.000
.003
.000
Relationship between Social Anxiety and Parental Authority
Hilal Al- Nabhani & Abdulhameed Hassan
to cultural changes for mothers in Sultanate of
Oman. Thus, these changes play an important
role on psychological control and social support which results in eliminating the level of
social anxiety in students.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
lege student’s optimism. College Student
Journal, 41(3), 550 – 557.
Ballash, G., Pemble, K., Usui, M., Buckley, A.
F., & Woodruff- Borden, J. (2006). Family
functioning, perceived control, and anxiety: a meditational model. Journal of Anxiety Disorder, 20, 486-497.
Recommendations and suggestions
First: Studying the parental practices that
predict social anxiety in all dimensions.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of
control. New York: W.H.Freeman.
Second: Fathers should assume responsibility
in taking care of their boys and girls to eliminate social anxiety in them in future.
Besharat, M., Azizi, K. & Poursharifi, I.
(2011). The relationship between parenting styles and children’s academic
achievement in a sample of Iranian families, Procardia Social and Behavioral Sciences,15, 1280-1283.
Third: Focusing on the negative effects of parental practices that lead to social anxietygenerated disorders with regard to university students.
Barnett, D., Kramer, M. L., Casat, D., Conner,
M. & Davidson, J.T. (2004). Efficacy of
Olanzapine in social anxiety disorder: a
plot study. Journal of Psychopharmacology,
16(4), 365-368. doi:
10.1177/026988110201600412.
Fourth: Conducting future studies in other
samples or target groups to determine the
effect of parental treatment on social anxiety.
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Appendix
Anxiety
Figure 1
Relationship between social anxiety and parental authority
729
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University
(Pages 730-737)
Vol.9 Issue 4, 2015
Mindfulness of Career Counselors within the Omani’s Context
Muna A. Al-Bahrani* & Bakkar S. Bakkar
Sultan Qaboos University, Sultanate of Oman
___________________________________________
Received: 26/8/2015
Revised: 28/9/2015
Accepted: 30/9/2015
_____________________________________________
Abstract: This study aimed to explore the variation of Omani career counselors‘ mindfulness
level, in relation to their gender, qualifications, experience, age, and social status. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale was used to assess the mindfulness level of 164 career counselors from the Sultanate of Oman. The findings showed that mindfulness level was high
among career counselors. The results also revealed significant differences due to gender.
Males‘ level of mindfulness was higher than females. No differences were found due to qualifications, experience, age, and social status on the level of mindfulness. Recommendations
suggested further research to examine the relationship between mindfulness in career counselors and positive client outcomes.
Keywords: Mindfulness level, career counselor, Omani context.
‫الوعي العقلي لدى املرشدين املهنيني ضمن البيئة العمانية‬
‫منى بنت عبداهلل البحرانية* وبكار سليمان بكار‬
‫ سلطنة عمان‬،‫جامعة السلطان قابوس‬
_____________________________________________
‫ هدفت هذه الدراسة إ ىل اللشف عن الفزوق يف مشتىى الىعٌ العقمٌ لدى املزشدين املونًني وعالقتوا‬:‫مشتخمص‬
ٌ‫وعٌ اجاتتااه العقم‬
‫ والعيز وااحالة اجاتتياعًة استخد مقًا‬،‫ واملههن العميٌ وابخةر‬،‫النى‬
‫مب تيارا‬
ٌ‫لتحديد مشتىى الىعٌ العقمٌ لدى املزشدين املونًني يف سمطنة عيان أظوز تتائج الدراسة بأن مشتىى الىع‬
‫ حًث كان‬،‫العقمٌ لدى املزشدين املونًني عالٌ كيا كشفت النتائج عن وتىد فزوق دالة تعزى ملتيار النى‬
‫مشتىى الىعٌ العقمٌ عند الذكىر أعمى من اإلتاث ومل تلن هناك أية فزوق دالة يف مشتىى الىعٌ العقمٌ تعزى‬
ٌ‫ والعيز وااحالة اجاتتياعًة وارتلز التىصًا عمى إتزاء دراسا لتقًًم العالقة بني الىع‬،‫ ابخةر‬: ‫ملتيارا‬
‫العقمٌ لدى املزشدين املونًني والنىاتج اجاجيابًة لمعيًن‬
‫ مشتىى الىعٌ العقمٌ املزشد املوين الاًئة العياتًة‬:‫اللميا املفتاحًة‬
*[email protected]
730
Mindfulness of Career Counselors within the Omanis Context
Muna Al-Bahrani & Bakkar Bakkar
Mindfulness is a newly developed concept
within the field of psychology. It has sparked
growing interest, and its application as a
counseling
intervention is powerful and
widely pertinent; whether being used to enhance traditional counseling approaches or as
a prevention strategy (Brown, Marquis, &
Guiffrida, 2013). Recent research demonstrates
that mindfulness can gradually achieve outcomes like acceptance, letting go, trust, nonjudgmental attitude, and self-awareness (Birnbaum & Birnbaum, 2008). This awareness
permits the individual to ―be present‖ to reality as it is, rather than to react to it or habitually
process it through conceptual filters. Consciousness takes on a clarity and freshness that
permits more flexible, more objectively informed psychological and behavior responses
(Brown, Ryan, & Creswell, 2007; Kurash, &
Schaul, 2006).
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
chotherapy, cohesion in group therapy, empathy, and collecting client feedback (Norcross,
& Wampold, 2011).Core skills such as empathy are integrated with empirically supported
interventions (Cormier, Nurius & Osborn,
2013). Empirical studies demonstrated that
mindfulness is a predictor of counseling selfefficacy in master's-level and doctoral-level
counseling students. Although empathy did
not predict counseling self-efficacy, mindfulness did significantly predict empathy
(Greason & Cashwell, 2009).
The processes of mindfulness include concepts
such as acceptance and contact with the present moment (Shapiro, Brown, & Biegel, 2007).
Mindfulness and experiential acceptancebased approaches appear to be a viable means
for cultivating levels of empathy. As individuals are more mindfully attentive to the their
thoughts and feelings, they are more likely to
find common ground and greater understanding in their relationships, to engage in higher
levels of valued action, and increase their
overall quality of life in the process—one moment at a time (Block‐Lerner, Adair, Plumb,
Rhatigan, & Orsillo, 2007). Mindfulness may
be an important tool not only for cultivating
attention capacities in counseling students,
but also for helping students learn how to be
with clients. The counselor would be able to
stay present, fully hear the client's story, and
engage empathically (Greason, & Cashwell,
2009). It tolerates not knowing and clients‘
distress so that therapists‘ likelihood of acting
out is reduced (Clgolla, & Brown, 2011; Stauffer & Pehrsson, 2012).
The mindfulness practice has been described
as a vital element of Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islamic, Jewish, and Taoist teaching. Mindful awareness practices have appeared in a
variety of forms such as yoga and centering
prayer. For example, centering prayer teaches
individuals the need to wake up to the experiences of the present moment. Individuals learn
how to quiet the inner talking and experience
silence as well as to return to their intentions
of focusing on God (Blanton, 2011). In addition
to this, the practice of prayer in Islam teaches
individuals to rest their minds from worldly
distractions and to focus solely on the act of
obedience and submission to Allah‘s will
(Sayeed & Prakash, 2013). It was documented
that a significantly higher alpha wave activity
was recorded during the prostration position
of the Muslim prayer (Doufesh, Faisal, Lim &
Ibrahim, 2012).
Mindfulness has the potential to influence positive emotional change in counselors, social
workers, and people in general (Birnbaum. &
Birnbaum, 2008). Therapists work requires
dealing with clients and their own emotions
on a regular basis and they are at risk of occupationally related psychological problems.
Therefore, preparation for the role of therapist
occurs on both professional and personal levels (Shapiro et al., 2007; Stauffer, 2007). Considering the nature of work, the practice of
mindfulness is being used more often both to
help clients and to facilitate counselor effectiveness (Brown et al., 2013, Reid, Farragher, &
Ok, 2013; Rothaupt & Morgan, 2007). Mindfulness attitudes may moderate the depersonalization associated with burnout by helping
counselors focus on the client‘s uniqueness in
Changes in perception and ways of knowing
reality are being expressed through increasing
integration of traditions from east and west
within the helping paradigm. Within these
paradigmatic shifts, mindfulness has emerged
as an essential practice to expand consciousness for the purpose of self-observation and
knowing the world (Birnbaum & Birnbaum,
2008). The self or the person of the counselor
as Reupert, (2006) noted is more essential that
the orientation chosen or the intervention employed within the helping paradigm. Several
relationship elements were demonstrably effective including alliance in individual psy-
731
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
the present moment and alleviate emotional
exhaustion through accepting their current
emotions and then letting them go (Kurash, &
Schaul, 2006 ; Thompson, Amatea & Thompson, 2008).
McCracken,
2007).
2015
Gauntlett-Gilbert & Vowles,
Statement of the problem
The effectiveness of mindfulness practice was
highlighted within several helping paradigms
(Birnbaum, 2008; Napoli & Bonifas, 2011; Tadlock-Marlo, 2011). For example, using mindfulness in supervision experiences appeared to
improve empathy with the client‘s emotional
experience and enhance awareness of functioning as a counselor (Andersson, King &
Lalande, 2010). Further, mindfulness does
have the potential to enhance an occupational
counselor‘s ability to practice in a maximally
effective from a wide variety of areas of practice. Active listening, non-judgmentally, and
perspective taking are fundamental aspects of
the client-centered practice philosophy that is
embedded within the profession of helping
paradigm (Reid & Farragher, 2013). The reported results showed that counselor trainees
who do not avoid their own issues and who
are highly attuned to their own emotions and
vulnerabilities would be more attuned to the
vulnerabilities of others (Trusty & Watts,
2005). Further, as a result of practicing mindfulness, counselors may be able to reflect the
here-and-now of the experience and help clients to gain awareness of the uncomfortable
issues that cause problem for them (Stauffer ,
2008).
The application of a mindfulness-based stress
reduction program reported significant decline in stress, negative affect, rumination,
state and trait anxiety, and significant increases in positive affect and self-compassion
(Shapiro et al., 2007). Mindfulness and awareness may assist counselors to be more open to
their emotional exploration as opposed to
avoiding or surpassing emotion which may be
detrimental to the quality of therapy (May &
O‘Donovan, 2007; Stauffer, 2007). Therefore,
the researchers called for integrating mindfulness into therapists‘ training curriculum in
order to enhance their ability to be with their
clients and strengthen the therapeutic relationship as well foster self-care (Clgolla, & Brown,
2011).
Researchers support the importance of examining contextual variations in mindfulness
such gender and age. The variations was
found among females who showed higher
levels of mindfulness. As indicated by Gilbert
and Waltz (2010) females were significantly
higer in the observatinal factor. This suggests
that females are more influenced by contextual
differences in the degree to which they are
aware of the present moment in a nonjudgmental manner than males (Lilja et al., 2011;
Luk, Holman, Kohlenberg, 2008). Females are
more able to take the perspective of another
person in comparison with men (Davis &
Franzoi, 1991). In addition, in addressing the
difficult topic of professionalism within the
context of a systems based medical curriculum, females scored higher than males on selfreport awareness and emotional intelligence
(Doherty, Cronin & Offiah, 2013). Conversely,
males scored higher than females on a mindfulness‘ measure (Abdulla & Alshamsi, 2013).
In terms of age, Lilja et al. (2011) noted that
older participants obtained higher values on a
measure of mindfulness than their younger
counterparts. The researcher indicated that it
would be interesting to see whether the result
related to age, gender, and meditation experience can be replicated in other cultures. However, age, gender, and education were found
to be unrelated to mindfulness (Hansen,
Lundh, Homman & Wångby‐Lundh, 2009;
Josefsson, Larsman, Broberg, & Lundh, 2011;
It appears that ongoing practice of mindfulness may be a critical tool for counselors to
sharpen their ability to be attentive. The growing interest to practice and explore mindfulness will provide benefits to the recipients of
services and foster healthier approaches to life
among professionals (Campbell & Christopher, 2012; O‘Driscoll, 2009; Rothaupt & Morgan, 2007). With a shortage of studies in this
area, research is needed to explore the mindfulness construct among counselors because
mindfulness has demonstrated great promise
and warrants further investigation (Brown et
al., 2013). Career counseling profession has
only recently developed in Oman. As a response to the national need in increasing career awareness and boosting educational and
employment opportunities, in 2008 the Ministry of Education assigned teachers who had
Bachelor Degree in Education to be career
counselors. To fully fill their career counseling
duties, counselors have been exposed to a substantial in-service training workshops. Fur-
732
Mindfulness of Career Counselors within the Omanis Context
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
Muna Al-Bahrani & Bakkar Bakkar
ther, they were prepared academically
through a higher diploma program in career
guidance and counseling within college of Education at Sultan Qaboos University. This program exposed those counselors to the theoretical and practical part of various topics such as
techniques, theories including cognitive and
developmental models of individual and
group counseling, communication skills, vocational measurements and the design of career
programs.
ed among career counselors who work in high
schools in Muscat Governorate during the first
semester of the academic year 2013/2014. The
participation was voluntarily and the participants who volunteered were given the questionnaires package to complete. The participants completed the questionnaire at their
own pace and then returned it to the researcher within one month of distribution.
Measure
The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale
(MAAS) was constructed by Brown and Ryan
(2003). The scale consists of 15 items, all of
which indicate lack of a mindfulness. I One
example is ―I tend not to notice feelings of
physical tension or discomfort until they really grab my attention.‖ The MAAS was positively correlated with measures such as wellbeing, including feelings of autonomy, competence, and positive relations with others. In
addition, it was negatively correlated with
anxiety,
hostility,
depression,
selfconsciousness, and impulsivity (Brown &
Ryan, 2003).
Research Questions
The main aim of this study was to understand
the variation of career counselors‘ mindfulness
level. Two primary questions were investigated:
1. What is the level of the participants’
mindfulness?
2. Are there any statistical significant differences in the participants’ mindfulness
in relation to their gender, qualification,
experience, age, and social status?
Method
The items are rated on a 6-point Likert scale
(almost always =1, very frequently =2, somewhat frequently =3, somewhat infrequently
=4, very infrequently =5, almost never =6)
.Total scores can range from 15 to 90 and higher scores indicate more mindfulness.
Participants
The participants of this study were 164 high
schools career counselors who are assigned to
provide career counseling services including
helping students in the process of selecting
their careers. The sample varied in terms of
qualification, experience, age, and social status. Table 1 illustrates the characteristics of the
sample.
In the present study, the researcher used the
MAAS with a 5-point Likert scale (never =1,
rarely =2, sometimes =3, often =4, always=5).
The rationales of using the five point scale was
to keep the options meaningful to the respondents, so it is clearer and more easily understood. The total score ranged from 15 to 75
Procedure
The study was conducted based on the standard procedures that are applied within the
Omani context. Questionnaires were distribut-
Table 1
Demographic Characteristics of the Sample (N=164)
Gender
Qualification
Bachelor Degree
Higher Diploma
Master Degree
Experience
Short (1-5years.)
30
31
61
Age
Long (6+years)
20-30 years.
57
10
46
19
103
29
31-40 years.
69
53
122
41years and above
Single
8
9
5
11
13
20
Married
78
87
66
77
144
164
Social status
Total
733
Female
50
27
00
Total
Male
67
12
8
117
39
8
2015
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
Results
and the mean score is 45, which was considered as a cut- off point. A score of 15 indicates
the highest level of mindfulness awareness,
and a score of 75 denotes indicate lowest level
of mindfulness. The scale‘s items were translated by the researcher into Arabic and were
back-translated by another researcher in the
psychology department.
In responding to the questions, means and
standard deviations were calculated. Both ttest and ANOVA were utilized to examine the
effect of the independent variables (gender,
qualification, experience, social status, and
age) on mindfulness measure.
To answer the first research question concerning the level of the participants‘ mindfulness,
means and standard deviations were obtained
as shown in Table 2.
Reliability
Cronbach‘s alphas ranging from .80 to .90
have been reported for MAAS (Brown & Ryan,
2003). In this study, reliability of the MAAS
was estimated in two ways: test-retest reliability and internal consistency. To estimate test –
retest reliability, a pilot study was conducted
twice with an interval of 3 weeks on 20 career
counselors who were pursuing their higher
diploma in career counseling program at Sultan Qaboos University. The correlation coefficient between the first time scores and the second time scores was (0.82, p. < 0.01). Internal
consistency was calculated by Cronbach Alpha for MAAS's items. Cronbach Alpha coefficient for the whole scale was 0.88. These values indicate appreciable and accepted reliabilities for the MAAS scale.
Findings in table 2 reveal that mindfulness
level is high, that is, the total scores of mindfulness for male and female counselors are
29.265, 32.403 respectively, and the total score
for all is 30.738. These scores are below the
cut-off point 45; which means that the level of
mindfulness is high among career counselors.
To answer the second research question regarding the differences in the participants‘
mindfulness in relation to their gender, qualification, experience, age, and social status, ttest and a Univeriate analysis were utilized.
Table 3 represents the findings findings of ttest of experience, social status, and gender.
Additionally, Table 4 illustrates the findings of
Univeriate of age and qualification.
Table 2
Means and Standard Deviations of Participants’ Scores on the MAAS
Gender
Qualification
Age
Male
Bachelor
Higher Diploma
Master
20-30
31- 40
41 and above
Total
Mean
28.841
30.333
36.417
32.952
31.185
30.000
29.265
Female
SD
1.548
2.381
2.571
2.323
1.326
2.509
7.047
Mean
33.323
34.169
36.631
31.228
32.333
32.403
Total
SD
1.652
1.553
1.863
1.216
3.492
7.021
Mean
29.769
32.667
35.500
34.552
29.770
31.738
30.738
SD
7.212
6.884
4.598
7.509
7.044
4.973
7.187
Table 3
Findings of T-Test of Gender, Experience and Marital Status
Experience
Social status
Gender
Source
Corrected Model
Intercept
Qualification
Age
Error
Corrected Total
Short
Long
Single
Married
Male
Female
N
Mean
SD
t
df
Sig.
61
103
20
144
87
77
31.180
30.476
29.800
30.868
29.264
32.403
1.601
1.692
2.291
1.184
7.047
7.021
0.606
162
0.546
-0.622
162
0.535
-2.852
162
0.005
Table 4
Univeriate Analysis on the Effect of Independent Variables on the MAAS
SS
df
MS
F
2479.938
35954.005
140.767
126.578
5939.787
8419.726
32
1
2
2
131
163
77.498
35954.005
70.383
63.289
45.342
734
1.709
792.953
1.552
1.396
P
0.019
0.0001
0.216
0.251
Mindfulness of Career Counselors within the Omanis Context
Muna Al-Bahrani & Bakkar Bakkar
Findings in Table 3 shows that there were no
significant differences in mindfulness level
due to the experience and the social status. Ttest values are respectively: t (1, 162) = 0.606,
(p = 0.546), t (1, 162) = -0.622, (p = 0.535).
However, there were significant differences in
mindfulness due to gender, t (1, 162) = -2.852,
(p < 0.05). These differences favored males
whose mean was 29.265, compared with female counselors whose mean was 32.403
which indicaes males' mindfulness awareness
level is higher than the females' level.
Vol.9 Issue 4,
2015
students was significant on the mindfulness
facet ‗non-judging‘, and that females were
more influenced by contextual differences in
the degree to which they were aware of the
present moment in a nonjudgmental manner
than males (Luk et al., 2008). Indeed, AlBahrani, Aldhafri, Alkharusi, Kazem, and
Alzubiadi (2013) suggested that the tendency
of female to engage in more nonproductive
coping involves blaming one self, keeping to
themselves, escaping, and anxiety because
they are more subject to stressors than males.
As Brown et al. (2007) has stated that cognitive, emotional, somatic, and behavioral factors can foster or inhibit mindful states, given
what is known about the effects of stress, fatigue, lifestyle choices, and other factors on the
quality of conscious states of mind. No statistically significant differences were found due to
experience, social status, qualifications, and
age on the level of mindfulness. Indeed, this
finding is consistent with results reported by
(Hansen et al., (2009); McCracken et al., (2007).
Table 4 shows that there were no significant
statistical differences in mindfulness among
career counselors due to qualification and age.
F values were respectively: F (1, 131) =0.908, (p
= 0.342), F (1, 131) =0.105, (p = 0.747), F (2, 131)
=1.552, (p = 0.216), F (1, 131) =0.639, (p = 0.425)
and F (2, 131) =1.396, (p = 0.251).
Discussion
This study examined the level of mindfulness
of career counselors within Omani culture
and the level of mindfulness among career
counselors was high. To some extent the result was expected because of the uniqueness of
the sample. They were all career counselors
who had been exposed to some knowledge
and training in mindfulness within the cognitive theories such as acceptance and commitment therapy in their higher diploma program. Some components of mindfulness such
as active listening, non-judgmentally, and perspective taking are fundamental aspects that
are embedded within the profession of helping
services such as occupational therapy (Reid &
Farragher, 2013). Additionally, awareness of
the present moment is a technique that is embedded in Muslims‘ lives. Islamic relaxation is
a method that incorporates the Islamic tenets
of prayer, recitation of the holy Qur‘an and
Zikr, or recollection of Allah, to obtain a relaxed response of calmness and mindfulness
(Syed, 2003).
There are two primary limitations in this
study. Firstly, this study relied exclusively on
self-report measures. Secondly, the findings
should be interpreted carefully because the
measures of mindfulness are fairly new, and
most, if not all, suffer from a scarcity of construct and predictive validation. Mindfulness
can be assessed through
declarative
knowledge, meaning that individuals can directly report on those experiential qualities
that constitute mindfulness to facilitate the
validation of self-report measures of mindfulness (Brown et al., 2007). Despite the limitations of this study, there is sufficient evidence
to support the idea that mindfulness is beneficial for clients and for counselors . Research
suggests that personal practice of mindfulness
by counselors will better position them in
their work with clients (Takahashi et al., 2005)
and provides them with better assessment of
their own strengths and limitations (Cormier
et al., 2013).
Another significant finding of this study was
related to gender. The difference in scores of
mindfulness was found in favor of males
compared to females. This finding consistent
with the findings reported in studies by (Abdulla & Alshamsi, (2013); Thompson et al.,
(2008)). This echoes findings that disagree
with what was reported by de Vibe et al., (
2013) who found that the effect for female
Recommendation and future research
Based on the results of this study, several implications can be addressed. First, students as
Stauffer (2007) stressed, should be provided
with an opportunity to consider the use of self
not only to raise self-awareness, but also to
consider the ways in which the self might be
usefully and professionally enacted during
735
Journal of Educational and Psychological Studies - Sultan Qaboos University (Vol. 9 Issue 4 Oct.)
training, with their peers and instructors, and
when working with clients across various contexts (Reupert, 2009). Second, further research
to investigate if a direct relationship exists between
2015
Brown, A., Marquis, A., & Guiffrida, D.
(2013). Mindfulness-Based Interventions
in Counseling. Journal of Counseling & Development, 91, 96-104.
Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its
role in psychological well-being. Journal of
Personality & Social Psychology, 84(4), 822848.
mindfulness in counselors and positive client
outcomes would be of enormous relevance to
the field (O'Donovan, & May, 2007).
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737
‫زتً‪ ١‬ايدزاضات ايرتب‪ٚ ١ٜٛ‬ايٓفط‪١ٝ‬‬
‫زتً‪ ١‬د‪ٚ‬ز‪ ١ٜ‬ستهُ‪َ ١‬تخصص‪ ،١‬تصدز عٔ جاَع‪ ١‬ايطًطإ قاب‪ٛ‬ع‪ٚ ،‬تعٓى‪ ٢‬بٓػىس ايدزاضىات ‪ٚ‬ايث ى‪ٛ‬ص اة ى‪ ١ًٝ‬ايى‬
‫تتىى‪ٛ‬ا س ‪ٗٝ‬ىىا َك‪َٛ‬ىىات ايث ى ايعًُىى‪َ ٞ‬ىىٔ ف‪ٝ‬ى و ىىاي‪ ١‬ايفهىىس‪ٚٚ ،‬اىى‪ٛ‬ث ا‪ٝ ٗٓ،‬ىى‪ٚ ،١‬دقىى‪ ١‬ايت‪ٝ ٛ‬ىىل‪،‬‬
‫زتىىا ت ا‪ٓ،‬ىىاٖ‬
‫‪ٚ‬طىىسم ايتىىدز‪ٜ‬ظ‪ٚ ،‬عًىىِ ايىىٓفظ ايرتبىى‪ٚ ،ٟٛ‬اوداز‪ ٠‬ايرتب‪ٜٛ‬ىى‪ ،١‬نُىىا تٓػىىس اجملًىى‪ ١‬تكىىاز‪ٜ‬س ا‪،‬ىىواسات ‪ٚ‬ايٓىىد‪ٚ‬ات ايرتب‪ٜٛ‬ىى‪،١‬‬
‫‪َٚ‬ساجعات ايهتب ايرتب‪ٚ ١ٜٛ‬ايٓفط‪ ١ٝ‬اذتد‪ٜ‬ث‪ًَٚ ،١‬خصات ايسضا‪ ٌ٥‬ادتاَع‪١ٝ‬‬
‫زتا ت ايرتب‪ ١ٝ‬ا‪،‬ختًف‪.١‬‬
‫زتًظ ايٓػس ايعًُ‪ٞ‬‬
‫و‪ .‬د‪ .‬عاَسبٔ عً‪ ٞ‬ايس‪ٚ‬اع‪ ،‬ز‪ٝ٥‬ظ اجملًظ‬
‫و‪.‬د‪َ .‬اٖس ستُد وب‪ٖ ٛ‬الٍ‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬ستُد خإ‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬ستُد ‪ٚ‬يد خا‪ٙٚ‬‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬ب‪ٛ‬عالّ بًكامس‪ٞ‬‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬لمك بٔ ستُد ايًُه‪ٞ‬‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬خايد ْاج‪ ٞ‬دا‪ٟ‬‬
‫د‪َٝ .‬ػ‪ ٌٝ‬نًريب‪ٛ‬د‪ٜ‬ت‬
‫و‪ .‬عً‪ ٞ‬بٔ ْا س اذتضسَ‪ٞ‬‬
‫ٖ‪ ١٦ٝ‬ايت س‪ٜ‬س‬
‫ز‪ٝ٥‬ظ ايت س‪ٜ‬س‬
‫احمل ىىسز‬
‫و‪.‬د‪َ .‬اٖسستُد وب‪ٖ ٛ‬الٍ‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬عثد ايك‪ ٟٛ‬ضامل ايصب‪ٝ‬د‪ٟ‬‬
‫وعضا‪ ١٦ٖٝ ٤‬ايت س‪ٜ‬س‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬عً‪َٗ ٞ‬د‪ ٟ‬ناظِ‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬عثد اهلل بٔ مخ‪ٝ‬ظ وَث‪ٛ‬ضع‪ٝ‬د‪ٟ‬‬
‫و‪.‬د‪.‬‬
‫اذت‪ ١‬عثد اهلل ع‪ٝ‬طإ‬
‫د‪ .‬عً‪ ٞ‬ستُد إبساٖ‪ِٝ‬‬
‫د‪ .‬عً‪ ٞ‬بٔ غسف ا‪ٛ،‬ض‪ٟٛ‬‬
‫د‪ .‬ومحد بٔ محد ايسبعاْ‪ٞ‬‬
‫د‪ٚ .‬ج‪ ١ٗٝ‬ابت ايعاْ‪ٞ‬‬
‫د‪ .‬ستُد ايطاٖس عثُإ‬
‫د‪ .‬ستُد عثد ايهس‪ ِٜ‬ايع‪ٝ‬ا س‪٠‬‬
‫د‪ .‬ضً‪ُٝ‬إ بٔ عً‪ ٞ‬ايػع‪ًٞٝ‬‬
‫د‪ .‬فطني بٔ عً‪ ٞ‬ارتس‪ٞ ٚ‬‬
‫إْتصاز ْا س (َطاعد ايت س‪ٜ‬س)‬
‫ٖ‪ ١٦ٝ‬ا‪،‬طتػاز‪ ٜٔ‬ايعا‪١ٝ،‬‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬دْ‪ٝ‬ظ َهٓسْ‪َ ،ٞ‬عٗد ٖ‪ْٛ‬غ ن‪ْٛ‬غ‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬ومحد ع‪ٛ‬د‪ ،ٙ‬جاَع‪ ١‬ايريَ‪ٛ‬ى‪،‬‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ٗ .‬د ايدي‪ ،ِٝ‬جاَع‪ ١‬ا‪ً،‬و ضع‪ٛ‬د‪،‬‬
‫يًرتب‪ْٖٛ ،١ٝ‬غ ن‪ْٛ‬غ‪ ،‬ايصني‬
‫إزبد‪ ،‬اةزدٕ‬
‫ا‪ًُ،‬ه‪ ١‬ايعسب‪ ١ٝ‬ايطع‪ٛ‬د‪١ٜ‬‬
‫و‪.‬د‪.‬غانس عثد اذتُ‪ٝ‬د ضً‪ُٝ‬إ‪،‬‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬ف‪ٝ‬إ مخ‪ٝ‬ظ‪ ،‬ادتاَع‪ ١‬اةَس‪ٜ‬ه‪١ٝ‬‬
‫و‪.‬د‪.‬‬
‫اةنادمي‪ ١ٝ‬ا‪،‬صس‪ ١ٜ‬يآلدا ‪ ،‬ايكاٖس‪َ ،٠‬صس‬
‫بثري‪ٚ‬ت‪ ،‬بري‪ٚ‬ت‪ ،‬يثٓإ‬
‫دَػل‪ ،‬ض‪ٛ‬ز‪ٜ‬ا‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬ومحد بطتإ‪ ،‬جاَع‪ ١‬ايه‪ٜٛ‬ت‪،‬‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬عثد ايسمحٔ ايطس‪ٜ‬س‪ ،ٟ‬جاَع‪١‬‬
‫و‪.‬د‪ .‬ستُد عً‪ ،ٞ‬جاَع‪ ١‬و اباضها‪،‬‬
‫ايه‪ٜٛ‬ت‬
‫ا‪ً،‬و ضع‪ٛ‬د‪،‬ا‪ًُ،‬ه‪ ١‬ايعسب‪ ١ٝ‬ايطع‪ٛ‬د‪١ٜ‬‬
‫نٓدا‬
‫اجملًد ايتاضع ‪ -‬ايعدد ايسابع‬
‫اذت‪ٓ ١‬كس‪ ،‬جاَع‪ ١‬دَػل‪،‬‬
‫‪-‬ونت‪ٛ‬بس ‪2015 -‬‬
‫فك‪ٛ‬م ايطثىع © ‪ 2015‬ستف‪ٛ‬ظى‪ ١‬جملًى‪ ١‬ايدزاضىات ايرتب‪ٜٛ‬ى‪ٚ ١‬ايٓفطى‪ٚ . ١ٝ‬اجملًى‪ ١‬ريىري َطىو‪ٚ‬ي‪ ١‬عىٔ ارزا‪ ٤‬ا‪ٓ،‬ػى‪ٛ‬ز‪ٗٝ ٠‬ىا ف‪ٝ‬ى وْى٘‬
‫اثٌ آزا‪ ٤‬ايثافثني (ا‪،‬ويفني)‪.‬‬
‫ا غرتانات ايطٓ‪ 15 :١ٜٛ‬ز‪ٜ‬ا داخىٌ عُىإ ‪ 50ٚ‬د‪ ٚ‬زا وَس‪ٜ‬ه‪ٝ‬ىا يًُػىرتنني َىٔ خىازا عُىإ‪ .‬ا تصىا ت َىع اجملًى‪ ١‬تهى‪َ ٕٛ‬ىٔ‬
‫خالٍ َهتثٗا‪ :‬زتً‪ ١‬ايدزاضات ايرتب‪ٚ ١ٜٛ‬ايٓفط‪ ،١ٝ‬نً‪ ١ٝ‬ايرتب‪ ،١ٝ‬جاَعى‪ ١‬ايطىًطإ قىاب‪ٛ‬ع‪َ ،32 : .: ،‬طىك ‪ – 123‬ضىًطٓ‪١‬‬
‫عُإ ‪ٖ -‬اتف‪ - )00968( 24143868 :‬انظ‪ - )00968( 24143817 :‬بس‪ٜ‬د إيهرت‪[email protected] :ْٞٚ‬‬
‫ق‪ٛ‬اعد ايٓػس( َ‪ٛ‬جٗ‪ ١‬يًثافثني ‪ٚ‬احملهُني )‬
‫ايت ه‪ِٝ‬‬
‫تسضٌ مج‪ٝ‬ع ايث ‪ٛ‬ص ا‪،‬كدَ‪ ١‬يًٓػس إىل َتخصصني يت ه‪ُٗٝ‬ا فطب اة ‪ ٍٛ‬ايعًُ‪ًٜٚ .١ٝ‬ك‪ ٢‬ايث‬
‫ايٓٗا‪ ٞ٥‬بعد وٕ جيس‪ ٟ‬ايثاف ايتعد‪ٜ‬الت اي‬
‫ايكث‪ٍٛ‬‬
‫‪ٜ‬طًثٗا احملهُ‪ٚ .ٕٛ‬ايثافث‪َ ٕٛ‬طو‪ٚ‬ي‪ ٕٛ‬عٔ ستت‪ٜٛ‬ات وعا ِٗ‪،‬‬
‫ايث ‪ٛ‬ص ا‪ٓ،‬ػ‪ٛ‬ز‪ ٠‬تعرب عٔ ‪ٚ‬جٗ‪ْ ١‬عس ناتث‪ٗٝ‬ا ‪ٚ‬ي‪ٝ‬ظ عٔ ‪ٚ‬جٗ‪ْ ١‬عس اجملً‪ .١‬نُا وٕ ايث ‪ٛ‬ص ا‪،‬سضً‪ ١‬إىل اجملً‪١‬‬
‫ختضع يف ص و‪ٚ‬ي‪ ٞ‬تك‪ ّٛ‬ب٘ ٖ‪ ١٦ٝ‬ايت س‪ٜ‬س‪ ،‬يتكس‪ٜ‬س وًٖ‪ٝ‬تٗا يًت ه‪ٚ ِٝ‬ايتصاَٗا بك‪ٛ‬اعد ايٓػس‪ٚ .‬حيل هل‪١٦ٝ‬‬
‫َٔ د‪ ٕٚ‬إبدا‪ ٤‬اةضثا ‪.‬‬
‫ايت س‪ٜ‬س وٕ تعترز عٔ قث‪ ٍٛ‬ايث‬
‫غس‪ٚ‬ط ايٓػس‬
‫توند ٖ‪ ١٦ٝ‬ايت س‪ٜ‬س عً‪ ٢‬اس‪ٚ‬ز‪ ٠‬ا يتصاّ بػس‪ٚ‬ط ايٓػس بػهٌ ناٌَ‪ ،‬إذ وٕ ايث ‪ٛ‬ص اي‬
‫ايٓػس ض‪ٛ‬ف ئ ‪ٜٓ‬عس ‪ٗٝ‬ا ‪ٚ‬تعاد إىل و‬
‫ابٗا َثاغس‪ ٠‬فت‪ٜ ٢‬تِ ايتك‪ٝ‬د بػس‪ٚ‬ط ايٓػس‪.‬‬
‫تكدّ ْطخ‪ ١‬إيهرت‪ َٔ ١ْٝٚ‬ايث‬
‫‪.1‬‬
‫تًتصّ بػس‪ٚ‬ط‬
‫عً‪ ٢‬بسْاَ ‪ َٔ Word‬خالٍ إمي‪ ٌٝ‬اجملً‪١‬‬
‫‪َ [email protected]‬ع َساعا‪:٠‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ Simplified Arabic‬ع ِ ‪ٚ 12‬بٗ‪ٛ‬اَؼ ف ِ‬
‫وٕ تهتب ايث ‪ٛ‬ص بايًغ‪ ١‬ايعسب‪ ١ٝ‬باضتخداّ خ‬
‫اي‪ٛ‬افد َٓٗا ‪2‬ضِ عً‪ٚ ٟٛ‬ضفً‪ٚ ٞ‬و‪ٜ‬طس‪3ٚ ،‬ضِ ومئ‪ٚ ،‬تسى َطا ‪ْٚ ١‬صف بني ايطط‪ٛ‬ز‪.‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫وٕ تهتب ايث ‪ٛ‬ص بايًغ‪ ١‬اوجنً‪ٝ‬ص‪ ١ٜ‬باضتخداّ خ‬
‫‪ Time New Romans‬ع ِ ‪ٚ 12‬بٗ‪ٛ‬اَؼ‬
‫ف ِ اي‪ٛ‬افد ‪2‬ضِ عً‪ٚ ٟٛ‬ضفً‪ٚ ٞ‬ومئ‪3ٚ ،‬ضِ و‪ٜ‬طس ‪ٚ‬تسى َطا ‪ْٚ ١‬صف بني ايطط‪ٛ‬ز‪.‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫وٕ‬
‫عٔ ‪ 8000‬نًُ‪ ١‬مبا‬
‫‪ٜ‬ص‪ٜ‬د عدد نًُات ايث‬
‫ذيو اةغهاٍ ‪ٚ‬ا‪،‬ساجع ‪ٚ‬ادتدا‪ٚ .ٍٚ‬وٕ‬
‫‪ٜ‬ص‪ٜ‬د عدد ادتدا‪ ٍٚ‬عٔ ‪ 7‬جدا‪.ٍٚ‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫و‪َ ٚ‬كدَاً يًٓػس‬
‫وٕ ‪ٜ‬ه‪ ٕٛ‬قد مت ْػس ايث‬
‫زتً‪ ١‬وخس‪ٜٚ ;٣‬تعٗد ايثاف بريو ‪ٚ‬بعدّ تكد‪ِٜ‬‬
‫عث٘ يًٓػس إىل جٗ‪ ١‬وخس‪ ٣‬إىل وٕ ‪ٜ‬تِ اختاذ ايكساز ا‪ٓ،‬اضب‬
‫بأْ٘ اطًع عً‪ ٢‬غس‪ٚ‬ط ايٓػس‬
‫‪.4‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫وٕ ‪ٜ‬ه‪ ٕٛ‬ايث‬
‫ٖرا ايػإٔ‪ٜٚ.‬تعٗد ايثاف ايس‪ٝ٥‬ط‪ٞ‬‬
‫اجملً‪ٚ ١‬ايتصّ بٗا‪.‬‬
‫جص‪ً٤‬ا َٔ نتا َٓػ‪ٛ‬ز ‪.‬‬
‫جي‪ٛ‬ش ْػس ايث‬
‫َهإ آخس‪ ،‬بعد إقساز ْػس‪ٙ‬‬
‫و‪ ٚ‬وجصا‪َ٘ٓ ٤‬‬
‫زتً‪ ١‬ايدزاضات ايرتب‪١ٜٛ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ايٓفط‪ ١ٝ‬ظاَع‪ ١‬ايطًطإ قاب‪ٛ‬ع‪ ،‬إ بعداذتص‪ ٍٛ‬عً‪ ٢‬إذٕ نتاب‪ ٞ‬بريو َٔ ز‪ٝ٥‬ظ ايت س‪ٜ‬س ‪.‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬
‫َ‪ٛ‬ا ك‪ ١‬ايثاف عً‪ْ ٢‬كٌ فك‪ٛ‬م ايٓػس نا ‪ ١‬إىل اجملً‪ٚ ،١‬إذا زريثت اجملً‪١‬‬
‫إٕ‬
‫إعاد‪ْ ٠‬ػس ايث‬
‫عً‪ٗٝ‬ا وٕ حتصٌ عً‪َٛ ٢‬ا ك‪َ ١‬هت‪ٛ‬ب‪ َٔ ١‬افث٘ ‪.‬‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫جيب وٕ ‪ٜ‬س ل َع ايث‬
‫ًَخصإ ‪ٚ‬افد بايًغ‪ ١‬ايعسب‪ٚ ١ٝ‬آخس بايًغ‪ ١‬اوجنً‪ٝ‬ص‪ٜ ٚ ١ٜ‬ص‪ٜ‬د عدد‬
‫نًُات و‪ُٜٗ‬ا عٔ ‪ 200‬نًُ‪.١‬‬
‫‪.8‬‬
‫‪ًٜ‬تصّ ايثافث‪ٕٛ‬‬
‫نتاب‪ ١‬ع‪ٚ ِٗ ٛ‬عٓد ت‪ٝ ٛ‬ل َساجعِٗ بدي‪ ٌٝ‬ايسابط‪ ١‬اةَس‪ٜ‬ه‪ ١ٝ‬يعًِ ايٓفظ –‬
‫او داز ارتاَظ ‪-‬عًُاً بإٔ ايث ‪ٛ‬ص اي‬
‫تًتصّ بٗر ايدي‪ ٌٝ‬ض‪ٛ‬ف ‪ٜ‬تِ إعادتٗا إىل و‬
‫ابٗا د‪ٕٚ‬‬
‫حته‪ُٗٝ‬ا‪.‬‬
‫‪.9‬‬
‫جملً‪ ١‬ايدزاضات ايرتب‪ٚ ١ٜٛ‬ايٓفط‪ ١ٝ‬اذتل‬
‫ض‪ٝ‬اض‪ ١‬ايٓػس‬
‫‪.11‬‬
‫طًب فرف و‪ ٚ‬تعد‪ ٌٜ‬و‪ ٟ‬جص‪ َٔ ٤‬ايث‬
‫مبا ‪ٜ‬تفل َع‬
‫اجملً‪.١‬‬
‫‪ٜ‬ثًّغ ايثافث‪ ٕٛ‬بكساز ٖ‪ ١٦ٝ‬ايت س‪ٜ‬س‬
‫ريض‪ ٕٛ‬ال ‪ ١‬إىل ضت‪ ١‬غٗ‪ٛ‬ز َٔ تاز‪ٜ‬خ اضتالّ ايث‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫َع٘‪.‬‬
‫‪.11‬‬
‫إز ام ود‪ٚ‬ات ايث‬
‫‪.12‬‬
‫تعس‪ٜ‬ف ايثاف مبصادز دعِ عث٘ ‪.‬‬
‫َالفع‪ٖ ١‬اَ‪ :١‬يًث ‪ٛ‬ص ا‪،‬كدَ‪ ١‬بايًغ‪ ١‬ايعسب‪ ،١ٝ‬تطتخدّ اةزقاّ اهلٓد‪ ( ١ٜ‬ا‪،‬نت ‪ٚ‬ادتدا‪ٚ ٍٚ‬ا‪،‬ساجع) إ‬
‫فاي‪ ١‬وٕ ا‪،‬سجع بايًغ‪ ١‬اوجنً‪ٝ‬ص‪ ١ٜ‬عٓدٖا تطتخدّ اةزقاّ ايعسب‪ ،١ٝ‬نُا جيب وٕ ته‪ ٕٛ‬ايفا ً‪١‬‬
‫ايعػس‪ ١ٜ‬يألزقاّ اهلٓد‪ ١ٜ‬نُا ٖ‪ٚ ٛ‬ااح‬
‫ا‪،‬ثاٍ ودْا‪ٚ ،ٙ‬ض‪ٛ‬ف ‪ٜ‬تِ إعاد‪ ٠‬ايث‬
‫اير‪ٟ‬‬
‫تًتصّ وزقاَ٘‬
‫بٗرا ايٓعاّ‪.‬‬
‫مثال‪( 76,32 :‬الفاصمة العشرية‪ :‬شفت مع حرف الواو العربي)؛ أما الفاصمة في النص فتكون (‪ )،‬من‬
‫شفت وحرف النون العربي‪.‬‬
‫تٓػس اجملً‪ ١‬ايث ‪ٛ‬ص‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ا‪ٝ،‬داْ‪ / ١ٝ‬اوَرب‪ٜ‬ك‪ ١ٝ‬اة ً‪.١ٝ‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ايٓ‪ٛ‬ع‪ ١ٝ‬ايت ً‪.١ًٝٝ‬‬
‫‪ًَ .3‬خصات ‪ٚ‬عس‪ٚ‬ض ايهتب ادتد‪ٜ‬د‪.٠‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ا‪،‬ساجعات ايٓكد‪ ١ٜ‬يألد ايرتب‪ٚ ٟٛ‬ايٓفط‪.ٞ‬‬
‫َتطًثات إعداد ايث ‪:‬‬
‫جيب وٕ تتضُٔ َط‪ٛ‬د‪ ٠‬ايث‬
‫‪.1‬‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫ف ‪َٓ ١‬فصً‪ ١‬عً‪ٗٝ‬ا اضِ ايثاف ‪ٚ‬عٓ‪ٛ‬اْ٘ بعد عٓ‪ٛ‬إ ايث‬
‫َثاغس‪ ٠‬بايًغتني ايعسب‪ٚ ١ٝ‬ا جنً‪ٝ‬ص‪.١ٜ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬برنس بس‪ٜ‬د‪ ٙ‬اويهرت‪.ْٞٚ‬‬
‫‪.2‬‬
‫ًَخصني وفدُٖا بايعسب‪ٚ ١ٝ‬ارخس باوجنً‪ٝ‬ص‪ٜ ١ٜ‬ت ا‪ٚ‬ش نٌ َُٓٗا َ‪ ٦‬نًُ‪.١‬‬
‫‪.3‬‬
‫مخظ نًُات َفتاف‪.١ٝ‬‬
‫‪.4‬‬
‫َط‪ٛ‬د‪ ٠‬ايث‬
‫‪ٚ‬تته‪ َٔ ٕٛ‬اةجصا‪ ٤‬ايتاي‪:١ٝ‬‬
‫َكدَ‪ٚ :١‬تتضُٔ اوطاز ايٓعس‪ ٟ‬يًث‬
‫‪ٚ ،‬ته‪ ٕٛ‬ايدزاضات ايطابك‪ ١‬جص‪٤‬اً َٓٗا ‪َٓٚ‬دزت‪١‬‬
‫جطِ ا‪،‬كدَ‪( ١‬و‪ ٟ‬بد‪ ٕٚ‬عٓ‪ٛ‬إ َطتكٌ)‪.‬‬
‫َػهً‪ ١‬ايدزاض‪ٚ ١‬وٖدا ٗا ‪ٚ‬وض‪ً٦‬تٗا‪ /‬و‪ ٚ‬سا‪ٝ‬اتٗا‪.‬‬
‫وُٖ‪ ١ٝ‬ايدزاض‪ٚ ١‬ستدداتٗا‪.‬‬
‫ايطس‪ٜ‬ك‪ٚ ١‬إجسا‪٤‬ات ايدزاض‪ٚ :١‬تتضُٔ(اجملتُع ‪ٚ‬ايع‪ٚ ،١ٓٝ‬ود‪ٚ‬ات ايدزاض‪ٚ ، ١‬ايتعس‪ٜ‬فات اوجسا‪١ٝ٥‬‬
‫يًُصطً ات‪ ٚ ،‬دم اةدا‪ ٚ ٠‬ثاتٗا ‪ٚ‬إجسا‪٤‬ات ايدزاض‪ٚ ،١‬طس‪ٜ‬ك‪ ١‬حتً‪ ٌٝ‬ايث‪ٝ‬اْات)‪.‬‬
‫ايٓتا‪ٜٚ ٥‬ػتٌُ ٖرا ايكطِ عً‪ْ ٢‬تا‪ ٥‬ايت ً‪ٚ ٌٝ‬ادتدا‪ٚ ٍٚ‬اةغهاٍ ‪ٚ‬ايتعً‪ٝ‬ل عً‪ٗٝ‬ا‪.‬‬
‫ا‪ٓ،‬اقػ‪ :١‬ميهٔ‬
‫بعض اةف‪ٝ‬إ دَ ا‪ٓ،‬اقػ‪َ ١‬ع ايٓتا‪٥‬‬
‫ا‪،‬ساجع‬
‫المالحق‪ ،‬إن وجدت‪.‬‬
‫‪.5‬‬
‫تدزا ايسض‪ ّٛ‬ايث‪ٝ‬اْ‪ٚ ١ٝ‬اةغهاٍ ايت‪ٛ‬ا‪١ٝ ٝ‬‬
‫ايٓص‪ٚ ،‬ته‪ ٕٛ‬بايً‪ْٛ‬ني اةب‪ٝ‬ض ‪ٚ‬اةض‪ٛ‬د ‪ٚ‬تسقِ تسق‪ُٝ‬اً‬
‫َتطًطالً‪ٚ ،‬تهتب ومساؤٖا ‪ٚ‬عٓا‪ٜٗٓٚ‬ا ‪ٚ‬ا‪،‬الفعات ايت‪ٛ‬ا‪ ١ٝ ٝ‬حتتٗا‪.‬‬
‫‪.6‬‬
‫تدزا ادتدا‪ٍٚ‬‬
‫ايٓص ‪ٚ‬تسقِ تسق‪ُٝ‬اً َتطًطالً ‪ٚ‬تهتب عٓا‪ٜٗٓٚ‬ا ‪ٛ‬قٗا‪.‬‬
‫وَا ا‪،‬الفعات ايت‪ٛ‬ا‪ ١ٝ ٝ‬تهتب حتت ادتد‪َ .ٍٚ‬ثاٍ‪ٜ :‬عسض جد‪ٜ ٚ ،1 ٍٚ‬هتب ‪ٜ‬عسض ادتد‪،1 ٍٚ‬‬
‫عٓ‪ٛ‬إ ادتد‪.ٍٚ‬‬
‫ا‪،‬نت ‪ٚ‬‬
‫ترنس اهل‪ٛ‬اَؼ ‪َٚ‬الفعات ‪ٚ‬ت‪ٛ‬ا‪ ٝ‬ات ايثاف‬
‫‪.7‬‬
‫غس‪ٚ‬ط تطً‪ ِٝ‬ايث‬
‫آخس ايصف ‪ ١‬عٓد ايضس‪ٚ‬ز‪.٠‬‬
‫‪:‬‬
‫‪ٜ ‬كدّ ايثاف ْطخ‪ ١‬إيهرت‪ َٔ ْ٘ٝٚ‬ايث‬
‫َهت‪ٛ‬ب‪ ١‬عً‪ ٢‬بسْاَ ‪ Windows Microsoft Word.‬عرب‬
‫ايرب‪ٜ‬د اويهرت‪[email protected] ْٞٚ‬‬
‫‪ ‬زضاي‪ ١‬تتضُٔ ايسريث‪١‬‬
‫‪‬‬
‫ْػس ايث‬
‫تعٗد بعدّ تكد‪ ِٜ‬ايث‬
‫‪.‬‬
‫إىل زتً‪ ١‬وخس‪ٚ ٣‬عدّ إزضاي٘ فت‪ٜ ٢‬تِ اوْتٗا‪ َٔ ٤‬حته‪ ِٝ‬ايث‬
‫‪ٚ‬إ داز قساز بايٓػس و‪ ٚ‬عدَ٘‪.‬‬
‫إجسا‪٤‬ات ايت ه‪ٚ ِٝ‬ايٓػس‪:‬‬
‫‪ .1‬تك‪ ١٦ٖٝ ّٛ‬ايت س‪ٜ‬س مبساجع‪ ١‬ايث ‪ٛ‬ص ‪ٚ‬ايدزاضات ‪ٚ‬اةعُاٍ اةنادمي‪ ١ٝ‬يًتأند َٔ اضت‪ٝ‬فا‪ٗ٥‬ا ‪،‬عا‪ٜ‬ري‬
‫ايٓػس‬
‫اجملً‪.١‬‬
‫‪ .2‬تسضٌ ايث ‪ٛ‬ص ‪ٚ‬ايدزاضات ‪ٚ‬اةعُاٍ اةنادمي‪ ١ٝ‬ا‪،‬طت‪ ١ٝ ٛ‬يًُعا‪ٜ‬ري إىل ا ٓني َٔ احملهُني‪.‬‬
‫‪ٜ .3‬هتب نٌ ستهِ تكس‪ٜ‬سا عٔ َد‪ ٣‬الف‪ ١ٝ‬ايث‬
‫‪ .4‬إذا اختًف احملهُإ‪ٜ ،‬سضٌ ايث‬
‫يًٓػس ‪.‬‬
‫حملهِ اي يرتج‪ٝ‬ح اذتهِ‪ٜٚ ،‬عترب فهُ٘ ْٗا‪ٝ٥‬ا‪.‬‬
‫‪ٜ .5‬ثًّغ ا‪،‬ويف‪/‬ا‪،‬ويف‪ ٕٛ‬بٓت‪ ١ ٝ‬ايت ه‪ ِٝ‬خالٍ َد‪ ٠‬ترتا‪ٚ‬ث بني ال ‪ ١‬إىل ضت‪ ١‬وغٗس َٔ تاز‪ٜ‬خ اضتالّ ايث‬
‫‪ٚ‬بعد إجسا‪ ٤‬ايتعد‪ٜ‬الت عً‪ ٘ٝ‬إٕ ‪ٚ‬جدت‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬خيضع تست‪ٝ‬ب ايث ‪ٛ‬ص ‪ٚ‬و‪ٚ‬ي‪ْ ١ٜٛ‬ػسٖا عتثازات ٓ‪ ١ٝ‬حتددٖا ٖ‪ ١٦ٝ‬ايت س‪ٜ‬س‪.‬‬
‫‪ .7‬ميٓح ايثاف ْطختإ َٔ ايعدد اير‪ْ ٟ‬ػس ‪ ٘ٝ‬عث٘ ‪ْٚ‬طخ‪ ١‬إيهرت‪.١ْٝٚ‬‬
‫من‪ٛ‬ذا يًت‪ٝ ٛ‬ل فطب ْعاّ ايسابط‪ ١‬اةَس‪ٜ‬ه‪ ١ٝ‬يعًِ ايٓفظ ( ‪)APA‬‬
‫ايٓص ‪ ٚ‬قا‪ ١ُ٥‬ا‪،‬ساجع‬
‫مالحظة‪ :‬البحوث التي ال تلتزم بدقة بهذا النظام تعاد إلى أصحابها بدون تحكيم‪.‬‬
‫نتا (َويف ‪ٚ‬افد)‬
‫قا‪ ١ُ٥‬ا‪،‬ساجع‪:‬‬
‫الفراجي‪ ،‬هادي أحمد (‪ .)6002‬ترشيد استهالك المياه‪ .‬الرياض‪ :‬مكتب التربية العربي لدول الخميج‪.‬‬
‫ايٓص‪:‬‬
‫(الفراجي‪ )6002 ،‬أو الفراجي (‪)6002‬‬
‫نتا (ونثس َٔ َويف ‪ٚ‬افد)‬
‫قا‪ ١ُ٥‬ا‪،‬ساجع‪:‬‬
‫الزاممي‪ ،‬عمي عبد جاسم؛ والصارمي‪ ،‬عبد اهلل محمد‪ ،‬وكاظم‪ ،‬عمي مهدي (‪ .)6008‬مفاهيم وتطبيقات في‬
‫التقويم والقياس التربوي‪ .‬الكويت‪ :‬مكتبة الفالح لمنشر والتوزيع‪.‬‬
‫ايٓص‪:‬‬
‫(الزاممي والصارمي وكاظم‪ )7002 ،‬أو الزاممي والصارمي وكاظم (‪( ،)7002‬الزاممي وآخرون‪)7002 ،‬‬
‫أو الزاممي وآخرون (‪)7002‬‬
‫صٌ‬
‫نتا‬
‫قا‪ ١ُ٥‬ا‪،‬ساجع‪:‬‬
‫طعيمة‪ ،‬رشدي أحمد (‪ .)6002‬بين المفهوم والمصطمح‪ .‬في رشدي أحمد طيعمة (محرر)‪ .‬الجودة الشاممة‬
‫في التعميم بين مؤشرات التميز ومعايير االعتماد‪ :‬األسس والتطبيقات (ص ص ‪ .)66-98‬عمان‪ :‬دار‬
‫المسيرة‪.‬‬
‫ايٓص‪:‬‬
‫(طعيمة‪ )7003 ،‬أو طعيمة (‪)7003‬‬
‫ع‬
‫د‪ٚ‬ز‪ ١ٜ‬عًُ‪َ( ١ٝ‬ويف ‪ٚ‬افد)‬
‫قا‪ ١ُ٥‬ا‪،‬ساجع‪:‬‬
‫الموسوي‪ ،‬نعمان محمد صالح (‪ .)6002‬تطوير أداة لقياس إدارة الجودة الشاممة في مؤسسات التعميم‬
‫العالي‪ .‬المجمة التربوية‪ -‬الكويت‪.997 -76 ،)26( 72 ،‬‬
‫ايٓص‪:‬‬
‫(الموسوي‪ )7006 ،‬أو الموسوي (‪)7006‬‬
‫ع‬
‫د‪ٚ‬ز‪ ١ٜ‬عًُ‪( ١ٝ‬ونثس َٔ َويف ‪ٚ‬افد)‬
‫قا‪ ١ُ٥‬ا‪،‬ساجع‪:‬‬
‫الغنبوصي‪ ،‬سالم بن سميم؛ والحارثي‪ ،‬حمود بن خمفان؛ وكاظم‪ ،‬عمي مهدي (‪ .)6096‬تقويم برنامج إعداد‬
‫المعمم بكمية التربية في جامعة السمطان قابوس من وجهة نظر الخريجين‪.‬مجمة الدراسات التربوية والنفسية_‬
‫جامعة السمطان قابوس‪.992-88 ،3 ،‬‬
‫ايٓص‪:‬‬
‫(ايغٓث‪ٚ ٞ ٛ‬اذتاز ‪ٚ ٞ‬ناظِ‪ )2012 ،‬و‪ ٚ‬ايغٓث‪ٚ ٞ ٛ‬اذتاز ‪ٚ ٞ‬ناظِ (‪)2012‬‬
‫بعد ا قتثاع اة‪( ٍٚ‬ايغٓث‪ٚ ٞ ٛ‬آخس‪ )2012 ،ٕٚ‬و‪ ٚ‬ايغٓث‪ٚ ٞ ٛ‬آخس‪)2012( ٕٚ‬‬
‫َكاٍ‬
‫زتً‪َ( ١‬ويف ‪ٚ‬افد)‬
‫قا‪ ١ُ٥‬ا‪،‬ساجع‪:‬‬
‫عثمان‪ ،‬إبراهيم (‪ .)9872‬التغيرات في األسرة الحضرية في األردن‪.‬مجمة العموم االجتماعية‪952 ،)2(91،‬‬
‫– ‪.966‬‬
‫ايٓص‪:‬‬
‫(عثمان‪)9872 ،‬أو عثمان (‪)9872‬‬
‫َكاٍ‬
‫جس‪ٜ‬د‪( ١َٜٝٛ ٠‬بد‪َ ٕٚ‬ويف)‬
‫قا‪ ١ُ٥‬ا‪،‬ساجع‪:‬‬
‫تزايد تداعيات الركود العالمي عمى ألمانيا (‪ ،29‬يناير‪ .)6008 ،‬الوطن االقتصادي‪ -‬سمطنة عمان‪ ،‬ص‪.6‬‬
‫ايٓص‪:‬‬
‫(”تزايد تداعيات الركود“‪)7002 ،‬‬
‫َ‪ٛ‬اقع إْرتْت َتخصص‪١‬‬
‫قا‪ ١ُ٥‬ا‪،‬ساجع‪:‬‬
‫هل المرح ينبع من هرمونات الذكورة ؟ (‪ ،62‬يناير‪ .)6007 ،‬تاريخ االسترجاع‪ 96 :‬مايو ‪ ،6008‬من‪:‬‬
‫‪http://www.eparanm.org‬‬
‫ايٓص‪:‬‬
‫(رابطة اإلخصائيين النفسيين المصرية ]رانم[‪)7002 ،‬‬
‫(رانم‪)7002 ،‬‬
‫َكاٍ َٓػ‪ٛ‬ز إيهرت‪ْٝٚ‬ا (ع َٓػ‪ٛ‬ز‬
‫قاعد‪ ٠‬ب‪ٝ‬اْات)‬
‫قا‪ ١ُ٥‬ا‪،‬ساجع‪:‬‬
‫عاشور‪ ،‬يوسف جمعة (‪” .)6007‬حيث“ في القرآن الكريم استعماال وداللة‪ .‬مجمة الجامعة االسالمية‪-‬‬
‫غزة‪ .972-919 ،)9( 73 ،‬تاريخ االسترجاع ‪ 96‬مايو ‪ ،6008‬من‪:‬‬
‫‪http://www.iugaza.edu.ps/ara/research/articles‬‬
‫ايٓص‪:‬‬
‫(عاشور‪)7002 ،‬أو عاشور (‪)7002‬‬
‫احملت‪ٜٛ‬ات‬
‫ايثاف‬
‫ا‪ٛ،‬ا‪ٛ‬ع‬
‫ا‪،‬هإ ايرتب‪ ٟٛ‬ا‪،‬فضٌّ يتعً‪ ِٝ‬ايطًث‪ ١‬ذ‪ ٟٚ‬اوعاق‪َٔ ١‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬جٗ‪ْ ١‬عسو‬
‫ا ايعالق‪١‬‬
‫ضًطٓ‪ ١‬عُإ‬
‫جالٍ فاا فطني‬
‫ايصف ‪١‬‬
‫‪644-628‬‬
‫َٓطك‪َ ١‬ادضٔ ايتعً‪ٚ ١ٜ ٚ ،١ُٝٝ‬ضهاْطٔ‪ ،‬اي‪ٜ ٛ‬ات‬
‫ا‪،‬ت د‪ ٠‬ا َس‪ٜ‬ه‪١ٝ‬‬
‫عثد اذتا غ قاضِ ايػا‪ٜ‬ب‬
‫جاَع‪ ١‬آٍ ايث‪ٝ‬ت‪ ،‬اةزدٕ‬
‫إبساٖ‪ ِٝ‬ايكس‪ٜٛ‬ت‪ٞ‬‬
‫جاَع‪ ١‬ايطًطإ قاب‪ٛ‬ع‪ ،‬ضًطٓ‪ ١‬عُإ‬
‫ايعالق‪ ١‬بني إدزاى ايطًث‪ ١‬ايعُاْ‪ٝ‬ني ‪ٚ‬اضتخداّ‬
‫مجع‪ ١‬بٔ بط‪ ٞ‬ايث‪ٛ‬ضع‪ٝ‬د‪ٚ ٟ‬د‪ٜٓ‬ا ادتٌُ‬
‫اضرتات‪ٝ ٝ‬ات ايهتاب‪ ٚ ١‬ودا‪ ِٗ٥‬ايهتاب‪ٞ‬‬
‫جاَع‪ ١‬ايريَ‪ٛ‬ى‪ ،‬اةزدٕ‬
‫اةخطا‪ ٤‬اوَال‪١ٝ٥‬‬
‫تعًِ ايًغ‪ ١‬اوجنً‪ٝ‬ص‪ ١ٜ‬عٓد‬
‫ايطال ايعُاْ‪ٝ‬ني‬
‫غ‪ٝ‬خ‪ ١‬بٓت عً‪ ٞ‬ايرب‪ٜ‬ه‪١ٝ‬‬
‫‪659-645‬‬
‫‪676-661‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬شاز‪ ٠‬ايرتب‪ ،١ٝ‬ضًطٓ‪ ١‬عُإ‬
‫عثد‪ ٚ‬ستُد ا‪،‬خال‬
‫جاَع‪ ١‬ايطًطإ قاب‪ٛ‬ع‪ ،‬ضًطٓ‪ ١‬عُإ‬
‫تطث‪ٝ‬ل ايطًث‪ ١‬ايعُاْ‪ٝ‬ني يًُع‪ٝ‬از ايثاْ‪، ٞ‬دزب‪ٞ‬‬
‫ايتهٓ‪ٛ‬ي‪ٛ‬ج‪ٝ‬ا‬
‫ومحد ‪ٜٛ‬ضف عثد ايسف‪ ٚ ِٝ‬طالٍ غعثإ عاَس‬
‫بسْاَ اوذتام ا‪ٗ،‬ين‬
‫جاَع‪ ١‬ايطًطإ قاب‪ٛ‬ع‪ ،‬ضًطٓ‪ ١‬عُإ‬
‫تأج‪ ٌٝ‬اوغثاع اةنادمي‪ ٚ ٞ‬عالقت٘ باحملددات ايدا ع‪١ٝ‬‬
‫رب‪ ٟ‬عثد ايفتاث ‪ٚ‬ض س ايػ‪ٛ‬زظ‪ٞ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ايت ص‪ ٌٝ‬ايدزاض‪ٚ ٞ‬ضاعات ا ضترناز يد‪ ٟ‬طال‬
‫ا‪،‬سفً‪ ١‬ايثاْ‪١ٜٛ‬‬
‫جاَع‪ ١‬ايطًطإ قاب‪ٛ‬ع‪ ،‬ضًطٓ‪ ١‬عُإ‬
‫اطُ‪ ١‬بٓت ‪ٜٛ‬ضف ايث‪ٛ‬ضع‪ٝ‬د‪١ٜ‬‬
‫‪ٚ‬ايت د‪ٜ‬ات‬
‫جاَع‪ ١‬ايطًطإ قاب‪ٛ‬ع‪ ،‬ضًطٓ‪ ١‬عُإ‬
‫عالق‪ ١‬ايكًل ا جتُاع‪ ٞ‬بطًط‪ ١‬اي‪ٛ‬ايد‪ ٜٔ‬يد‪ ٣‬طًث‪١‬‬
‫ٖالٍ بٔ شاٖس ايٓثٗاْ‪ٚ ٞ‬عثد اذتُ‪ٝ‬د ضع‪ٝ‬د فطٔ‬
‫جاَع‪ ١‬ايطًطإ قاب‪ٛ‬ع‬
‫اي‪ٛ‬ع‪ ٞ‬ايعكً‪ ٞ‬يد‪ ٣‬ا‪،‬سغد‪ ٜٔ‬ا‪ٝٓٗ،‬ني أُ ايث‪١٦ٝ‬‬
‫ايعُاْ‪١ٝ‬‬
‫‪711-691‬‬
‫ضًطٓ‪ ١‬عُإ‪ :‬حتً‪ ٌٝ‬ا‪،‬طاز‬
‫بساَ ايًغ‪ ١‬ايعسب‪ ١ٝ‬يغري ايٓاطكني بٗا‪ :‬ايصع‪ٛ‬بات‬
‫نً‪ ١ٝ‬ايرتب‪١ٝ‬‬
‫‪691-677‬‬
‫‪717-711‬‬
‫‪729-718‬‬
‫جاَع‪ ١‬ايطًطإ قاب‪ٛ‬ع‪ ،‬ضًطٓ‪ ١‬عُإ‬
‫َٓ‪ ٢‬بٓت عثداهلل ايث ساْ‪ٚ ١ٝ‬بهاز ضً‪ُٝ‬إ بهاز‬
‫جاَع‪ ١‬ايطًطإ قاب‪ٛ‬ع‪ ،‬ضًطٓ‪ ١‬عُإ‬
‫‪737-731‬‬
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