Low Carbon
Vehicles
Professor Lord
Bhattacharyya
About WMG
• Established in 1980
• Over 280 staff in 4 main buildings
• £32m annual income,
–
less than 10% from government
• Effective relationships with over 500
companies
• Our aim is to create maximum
impact for our partners:
– research, knowledge transfer and education
– university/industry partnership
– value adding innovation
Pressure for Low Carbon
•
Scientific evidence
•
Resource pressure
•
•
Need for energy
supplies
•
Demand for Travel
•
Consumption
Political/regulatory
pressure
Climate record and projection:
Source: EPA
But what about the needs of consumers?
The Low carbon challenge in
automotive sector
Regulatory challenge
•
EU car fleet target:130 grams of CO2 per
kilometre by 2015,
–
–
likely 95 grams in 2020.
USA requires 250 grams of CO2 per mile by
2016 (avg)
–
Social challenge
•
Consumer demand increasing
–
•
•
•
India, China, Malaysia.
Should not seek to control or limit desire to travel.
Hypocritical stance in west?
Technological challenge
•
–
manage these demands and meet
consumer needs
Carbon Challenge:
meeting consumer need
Electric vehicles?
•
–
20+ new vehicles being
planned but..
–
Old problems remain
•
battery technology
–
weight
•
the need for infrastructure
•
Consumer experience:
–
Range anxiety
–
Speed limits
–
Overnight charging
Edison’s EV…
…and Porsche’s Hybrid
Range Issue still major
diesel
petrol
hydrogen
battery
small car
Weight
family car
large saloon
full SUV
0
200
400
600
800
Range (km)
1000
1200
1400
Source: JLR
What do we need to
succeed?
R&D increase
•
–
–
Government & Private
Many pathways to focus on
Collaboration
•
–
–
–
between firms
through supply chain
industry/academic
Focus on CO2
reduction
•
–
–
Don’t attachment to
particular technology.
Focus on Consumer
experience
Jaguar C-X75 Concept car
Wide range of routes
Source: NIAGT
Specifics:
Propulsion
Different solutions..
•
Hybrids
•
Plug Ins/REEV
•
Fuel Cells
–
“ten years away for last fifteen
years”
Assessment-
•
–
Dynamometer
–
Battery cycler
–
WARPSTAR : WARwick
Powertrain Simulation Tool for
ARchitectures
•
Predicts fuel economy / CO2
•
Library of real-world
components
WMG VEF Dynamometer
REEV
Thermal Modelling
Specifics:
Waste energy recovery
–
Research ways to
recover, utilise waste
energy of future Electric
and REEV (rangeextended EV)
powertrains
–
Identify appropriate and
alternative energy
storage routes to
complement battery
technology
REEVs in development
(source: Ecogeek)
Specifics:
Materials
Light-weighting
Sustainable
materials
•
•
–
Worldfirst F3 made from
sustainables/renewables
New Processes
•
–
Paint Shops
WMG Worldfirst sustainable F3 Car
Specifics:
Consumer behaviour
–a person in a hurry !
110
160
100
150
90
140
80
130
70
120
60
110
50
100
40
90
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Distance (miles)
Participant 1
Participant 2
Participant 3
Participant 4
Participant 5
Participant 7
Participant 8
Participant 9
Participant 10
Altitude (m)
Participant 6
Driving style impacts current emissions – and future expectations
e.g. Cruising up hills - constant speed, constant throttle…
e.g. Acceleration from 30mph to 60mph
impacts consumer reaction to vehicles.
9
A lt it u d e (m )
Participant Comparison (Vehicle Speed, M6 Section)
V e h icle sp e e d (m p h )
Depends on performance
of the car.
But also:
•Driving experience
•Personality
•Circumstantial
Specifics:
Consumer behaviour
Effect of Driving Style on Economy
•
–
New Low carbon vehicle models must be
validated
•
–
How do drivers react to new technologies?
Understanding of driver behaviour must lead to
robust control strategies
•
–
–
•
Recent EV trial data has shown 87% difference
between best and worst drivers on a city circuit
If people want “roar”, how can we provide in no-IC
environment?
How do we encourage “low carbon” driving styles?
Impact on CO2 and local emissions should be
understood
Specifics:
Sound Engineering: ELVIN
He can be given any sound character
•
–
conventional vehicle,
–
UFO,
–
white noise,
–
new proposal, etc........
•
Sound he emits dependent upon his
speed and state
•
Also can evaluate sounds in laboratory
conditions
Conclusions
• Invest in all the research routes we can
– Solutions and barriers will crop up in surprising places
• Put consumer needs first
– They will decide if tech is successful
• Partnership essential
– none can do alone.
• Understand different markets
– Urban/Rural, small vehicle/large,
Don’t dictate how we get there.
Explore all paths to destination.
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Low Carbon Vehicles Professor Lord Bhattacharyya