What You Need to Know
Before You Build a
Greenhouse
Glen Sweetman, PAg
Provincial Specialist
Greenhouse and Nursery Crops
1
Getting Started
•! When considering a greenhouse, it is
important to evaluate the requirements of
the crop, the market and business goals;
then build a production facility that
matches those needs.
•! Make sure to have the water tested for
greenhouse suitability before any
construction starts.
2
Acceptable Ranges for Greenhouse Irrigation Water
Water Quality and Quantity
•! Good water quality is one of
the most important factors in
growing quality greenhouse
crops.
•! Water quality fluctuates
throughout the year.
•! Ensure water supply has
enough capacity for present
and future production.
•! Water treatment or hauling
water has expenses that need
to be factored into the
business model.
Alkalinity
(as CaCO3)
Recommended
(mg/L)
Water treatment
required
(mg/L)
Water quality guidelines for
plug production
(mg/L)
1 to 100
>200
60 to 80
Aluminum
(Al 3+)
0 to 5
Bicarbonate
(HCO3 -)
30 to 50
>150
30 to 60
Boron (B)
0.2 to 0.5
>0.8
<0.5
Calcium
(Ca2+)
40 to 120
Chloride
(Cl-)
0 to 50
>140
<80
0.08 to 0.15
>0.2
<0.2
Fluoride (F )
0
>1
<1
Iron
(Fe3+)
1 to 2
>5
<5
Copper
(Cu2+)
-
40 to 120
Magnesium
(Mg2+)
6 to 25
Manganese
(Mn2+)
0.2 to 0.7
>2.0
<2
Molybdenum
(Mo)
0.02 to 0.05
>0.07
<0.02
pH
Potassium
(K +)
Sodium
adsorption
ratio (SAR)
6 to 25
5 to 7
5.5 to 6.5
0.5 to 5
<10
0 to 4
<2
Sodium
(Na +)
0 to 30
Sulphate
(SO 4 2-)
24 to 240
Total
Dissolved
Solids (TDS)
70 to 700
>875
Zinc (Zn 2+)
0.1 to 0.2
>5.0
>50
<40
24 to 240
<5
3
Were to Start
•! High tunnel
•! Greenhouse
–! Free standing
–! Gutter connected
•! Solar greenhouse
4
High Tunnel
•!
•!
•!
•!
•!
No power
Extend season
Light metal
Single poly
May have
irrigation
•! May have roll
up sides
•! $
5
Basic Greenhouse
•!
•!
•!
•!
•!
•!
Power
Heating
Fans
Irrigation
Stronger
Double
poly
•! $$
6
Standard Greenhouse
•!
•!
•!
•!
•!
•!
•!
•!
Power
Cooling
Heating
Engineered
Trusses
Double poly
Lights
Automated
systems
$$$$
7
Gutter Connected
•! Auto cooling and
heating systems
•! Computer
•! Irrigation systems
•! Lighting
•! Year round-possible
•! Header House
•! Labour saving
technology
•! $$$$$
8
Environmental
Conditions
•! Snow load, wind, hail
•! Max and Min Temperatures
9
Basic requirements for entering
the greenhouse industry
A site that offers access to;
•! markets,
•! labour,
•! good quality water,
•! utilities
•! room for future expansion.
10
Space = Time = Money
•! If you know your costs, value of the
product and how long it will take to
produce; you have finished most of the
business plan.
•! It is also important to know your market
and adapt to the changes.
11
Vegetable Greenhouse
•! Certification to enhance the producers market profile
–! On Farm Food Safety
–! Environmental Farm Plan
–! Pesticide license training
•! Better Management Practices
–! Irrigation – drip that is computerized
–! Biological pest management – no pesticides used
–! Intergraded Pest management – some pesticides used
•! Research, technology transfer and development
–! Greenhouse vegetable marketing program
–! Dehumidification research program with the U of S
–! ADOPT demonstration – new producers building greenhouses
attend to learn from other producers.
12
13
14
15
16
China
17
Pest Management
18
Biological
Control
•! EN-STRIP
•! Encarsia formosa
(parasitic wasp)
•! Target pest is the Greenhouse
whitefly (Trialeurodes
vaporariorum) and tobacco
whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) in the
third and fourth larval stage.
•! Preference for the glasshouse
whitefly.
•! No pesticides applied
19
Value Added Processing
20
Tomatoes
•!
•!
•!
•!
Seeded Feb 2
Transplanted Mar 9
First Pick April 26
Crop will be pulled
out at Christmas
•! Target is 45+
pounds per plant
•! Vine length 25 ft
•! 6 double rows in a
30ft greenhouse.
21
Cucumber Crops
Most grow 3 or 5 crops per year
•! Long English cucumber
–! Short shelf life
–! 2 or 3 cucs/plant/week average
•! Mini Cucumber
–!
–!
–!
–!
Not a field variety
Growing market in SK
Started growing in 2008
Multi branching habit and more
labour to manage lateral growth
–! No financial numbers on this crop
yet, but everyone likes it.
–! Sold in a bag of five
22
•! Hot water is
efficient
•! Heat
exchangers can
be used on
forced air
systems
•! Floor heating
lines are good
but should have
some forced air
as well.
23
Waste wood
24
Coal
25
Flax Bales
26
Energy curtains
•! Reduce heating
costs
•! Reduces cooling
costs
•! Reduces
environmental
impact
27
28
Rail System
29
Water
•! Most important question for a
potential producer is !Have
you tested your water?"
•! Test the quality and quantity
of the water source.
•! A full size tomato plant will use
between 4 and 6 liters of water
per day.
30
Thank you
•!If I can help please
call me at 787-6606.
31
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What You Need to Know Before You Build a Greenhouse Glen Sweetman, PAg