P
BUILDINGS AS SYSTEMS
BY
MICHAEL STEPHEN GELICK
BACHELOR OF ARCHITECTURE WITH DISTINCTION
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA 1963
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT
OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF MASTER OF
ARCHITECTURE
AT THE
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
JUNE 1966
SIGNATURE OF AUTHOR
..
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE,
CERTIFIED BY
,.
. . . . . . . .
AldUST 15,
. ..
.
.
k966
.
THESIS SUPERVISOR
ACCEPTED BY . . . . . .
CHAIRMAN,
. . .
.0
.-.
. .
.
. .
DEPARTMENTAL COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I AM MOST GRATEFUL TO PROFESSOR EDUARDO CATALANO AND
PROFESSOR WACLAW ZALEWSKI FOR THEIR VALUABLE ASSISTANCE
AND ENCOURAGEMENT DURING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THIS PROJECT.
ABSTRACT
THIS THESIS IS CONCERNED WITH THE "DESIGN OF A 'FOOTPRINT'
OF STRUCTURAL, VERTICAL CIRCULATION, AND MECHANICAL COMPONENTS FROM WHICH DIFFERENT SIZES OF BUILDINGS,
WITH DIFFER-
ENT SPATIAL QUALITIES AND CHARACTER CAN BE DEFINED."
OBJECT IS TO DEVELOP THROUGH SIMULTANEOUS STUDY,
THE
" A TYPI-
CAL STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL BAY, WITH SUCH BEHAVIOR AND
GEOMETRY AS TO ALLOW SEVERAL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS TO FORM
A SYSTEM OF GROWTH."
THE PLANNING MODULE OF "THE DESIGN PRESENTED" IS AN
ORTHOGONAL GRID ALTERNATING 15' 0", 0'6", 15'0"' IN BOTH
DIRECTIONS; THE 15 FOOT SQUARES ARE SUBDIVIDED INTO 5 FOOT
SQUARE UNITS.
THE STRUCTURAL BAY,
CONCRETE COMPONENTS,
COMPOSED OF PRECAST
IS 62 FEET SQUARE WITH COLUMNS AT THE
CENTERPOINT OF EACH SIDE.
THE MAJOR COMPONENTS ARE
CENTERED ON THE O'6" SPACER OF THE 15 FOOT SQUARE GRID.
SECONDARY COMPONENTS SPAN THE 15 PEET ON A 5 FOOT SQUARE
GRID.
MECHANICAL SERVICES ARE DISTRIBUTED WITHIN THE
LIMITS OF THE STRUCTURAL SECTION.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
ABSTRACT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
DEVELOPMENT OF LINEAL AND TWO-WAY SYSTEMS
DIAGRAMS "A" -o ''tt
.
. . . . . . . . . .
DESCRIPTION OF "THE DESIGN PRESENTED"
COMPARATIVE FRAMING SYSTEMS
DIAGRAMS "I"
-
.
. .
. .
.
.
.
1
.
.
.
.
7
9
.
.
.
.
.
.
. .
.
. .
.
. 12
"K" . .
. . . . 15
DESCRIPTION OF STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS . . .
DIAGRAMS "L" t "P"
.
. . . . 16
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION
. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
DESCRIPTION OF THE MECHANICAL SYSTEM . . . . . . . . 22
CERTAIN ALTERNATIVES AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
OF "THE DESIGN PRESENTED"
SUMMATION
.
. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
. .
. 25
. . . . 26
. . . . . . . . . . .. .
. . . . 27
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . 33
DRAWINGS . . . .
PHOTOGRAPHS
. . . *.
DEVELOPMENT OF LINEAL AND TWO-WAY SYSTEMS
THERE ARE THREE BASIC SPACE MAKING CATEGORIES OF STRUCTURES:
1.
THE CELLULAR TYPE FOR HOUSING REQUIRING
INTRA-UNIT AS WELL AS INTER-UNIT PRIVACY.
TIPLE FUNCTION TYPE,
FOR OFFICES,
LABORATORIES,
TIONAL FACILITIES, COMMERCIAL FACILITIES,
FACILITIES,
THE MUL-
2.
EDUCA-
AND INDUSTRIAL
REQUIRING A GREAT CAPACITY FOR CHANGE AND
SOCIAL INTERCOURSE.
3.
THE SPECIAL SINGLE SPACE,
SOCIAL FUNCTION TYPE, FOR THEATERS,
AND AIRPLANE HANGERS,
STADIUMS,
REQUIRING GREAT SPANS.
CHURCHES,
THIS THE-
SIS WILL BE LIMITED TO THE MULTIPLE FUNCTION TYPE,
IS CONCERNED WITH THE " DESION OF A 'FOOTPRINT'
TURAL,
VERTICAL CIRCULATION,
BUT
AND
OF STRUC-
AND MECHANICAL COMPONENTS
FROM WHICH DIFFERENT SIZES OF BUILDINGS,
WITH DIFFERENT
APATIAL QUALITIES AND CHARACTER CAN BE DEFINED."
THE OBJECT IS TO DEVELOP THROUGH SIMULTANEOUS STUDY,
TYPICAL STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL BAY,
"A
WITH SUCH BEHAV-
IOR AND GEOMETRY AS TO ALLOW SEVERAL ORGANIZATION PATTERNS TO FORM A SYSTEM OF GROWTH."
DIFFERENT ONE AND TWO-WAY STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS ARE STUDIED
TO SEE WHICH ONE OFFERS MORE FREEDOM IN THE RELATION BETWEEN STRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM.
1
CERTAIN OBJECTIVES AND LIMITATIONS IN ADDITION TO THOSE
STATED ABOVE WERE SET UP AT THE BEGINNING OF THE PROGRAM:
1.
THE PROJECT IS TO BE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE,
EITHER
PRECAST OR POURED IN PLACE USING THE MOST ADVANCED TECHNOLOGICAL MEANS AVAILABLE.
(THE STUDIES OF THIS THESIS
ARE LIMITED TO PRECAST CONCRETE.)
2.
THE CONCRETE STRUCTURE IS TO BE EXPOSED TO THE SPACE
BELOW.
3.
THE CEILING WILL BE FLUSH AT ALL POINTS TO ALLOW
MAXIMUM FLEXIBILITY OF THE SPACE AND STANDARD PARTITION
CONSTRUCTION.
4.
THE MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT WILL BE POSITIONED HORIZON-
TALLY BETWEEN THE FINISHED FLOOR AND THE LOWEST POINT
OF THE STRUCTURE.
5.
(SEE DIAGRAM " A" )
AIR CONDITIONING,
LIGHT, AND PROPER SOUND CONTROL
WILL BE AVAILABLE AT ANY POINT IN THE SYSTEM.
6.
THE SPACE-USE CHARACTERISTICS SHOULD ACCOMMODATE THE
INDIVIDUAL OFFICE,
THE LARGE LECTURE HALL,
AND ALL INTER-
MEDIATE SPACE REQUIREMENTS WITHOUT ANY CHANGES IN THE
BASIC SYSTEM.
7.
LIMITED CONCERN IS GIVEN TO THE REMOVAL OF STRUC-
TURAL ELEMENTS AFTER THE BUILDING IS CONSTRUCTED DUE TO
ABNORMAL LOADING CONDITIONS THAT WOULD HAVE TO BE ACCOUNTED FOR.
2
(A JOINT STUDY OF PAST STUDENT WORK AND CONSTRUCTION
STANDARDS WAS UNDERTAKEN AT THE BEGINNING OF THE TERM
THIS COMMON BACKGROUND MATERIAL
BY THE GRADUATE CLASS.
IS AVAILABLE FOR RFERENCE AT THE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITEECTURE,
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY.)
THIS THESIS STUDY BEGAN WITH ONE-WAY SYSTEMS,
THE FIRST
OF WHICH WAS ON A 4 BY 8 FOOT MODULE WITH A 32 FOOT BY
48 FOOT BAY.
THE GIRDERS RAN IN THE SHORT DIRECTION,
WITH BEAMS SET FLUSH AT THE BOTTOM OF THE GIRDERS SPANNING THE LONG DIRECTION.
THE GIRDER WAS DOUBLED AND
SUPPORTED FREE OF THE COLUMN TO ALLOW FOR PASSAGE OF
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT,
THE BEAMS,
TO SHORTEN THE EFFECTIVE SPAN OF
TO SIMPLIFY CONNECTIONS AT THE COLUMN,
AND
TO PROVIDE A BUILDING EDGE FOR POSSIBLE EXPANSION.
(SEE
DIAGRAM "B" )
THIS BAY WAS ALSO STUDIED WITH THE DOUBLE CANTILEVERED
GIRDERS RUNNING THE LONG DIRECTION, WITH BEAMS SPANNING
A SHORTER DISTANCE AND MOUNTED FLUSH AT THE BOTTOM OF
THE GIRDERS.
(SEE DIAGRAM "C")
BOTH SYSTEMS USING
VARIOUS BEAM SHAPES AND GIRDER DESIGNS ALLOWED PASSAGE
OF MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT THROUGH THE STRUCTURE.
THESE SYSTEMS WERE FIRST STUDIED WITH THE MECHANICAL
RISERS IN CORES TO ELIMINATE MAJOR HORIZONTAL MECHANICAL
3
RUNS ON THE ROOF OR IN THE BASEMENT.
THIS METHOD PROVED
TO LIMIT THE DESIGN FLEXIBILITY OF THE SYSTEM.
THE
MECHANICAL RISERS WERE THEN LOCATED IN THE COLUMNS AND
WERE FOUND TO BE VERY SATISFACTORY FOR DESIGN FLEIIBILITY.
CERTAIN FACTORS WHICH BEGAN TO INFLUENCE CHANGES IN THE
SIZES OF THE BAY WERE PARKING MODULES,
AND STURCTURALLY
EFFICIENT BAY PROPORTIONS (I TO 2 OR I TO 3 WERE MOST
DESIRABLE) AND USE OF MATERIAL.
TlE ONE-WAY BAY STRETCH-
ED TO 32 BY 64 FEET PLUS CANTILEVERS*,
TIIS CREATED A
GREAT DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE SIZE AND WEIGHT OF ONE
STRUCTURAL ELEMENT WHEN COMPARED TO ANOTHER.
THE ONE-WAY SYSTEMS WORKED SATISFACTORILY,
DESIGN FLEIBILITY IN ONLY ONE DIRECTION,
BUT ACHIEVED
DID NOT RE-
QUIRE A PATTERN OF DIAPHRAMS, DESIRABLE FOR ROOM DIVISION AND ACOUSTIC CLOSURE, AND HAD A GREAT VARIATION OF
WEIGHT AND PROPORTION OF COMPONENTS.
FURTHER RESEARCH WAS CONCENTRATED ON FINDING A SYSTEM
THAT WOULD EXPAND EQUALLY IN TWO DIRECTIONS, WOULD HAVE
COMPONENTS OF MORE NEARLY EQUAL SIZE AND WEIGHT, AND WITH
AS MUCH SPATIAL FLEXIBILITY IN BOTH DIRECTIONS AS THE
ONE-WAY SYSTEM HAD IN ITS MOST FLEXIBLE DIRECTION.
4
A SYSTEM WHICH FIRST ATTEMPTED TO INCLUDE THE ABOVE CONDITIONS HAD A 6o BY 60 FOOT BAY ON A 5 BY 5 FOOT MODULE,
WITH COLUMN CAPITALS AND LINEAR SPANNING ELEMENTS LIKE
THOSE OF THE ORIGINAL ONE,.WAY SYSTEM.
(SEE DIAGRAM "D")
THEORETICALLY THE DESIGN ACHIEVED FLEIBILITY AND
ALLOWED FOR EXPANSION IN TWO DIRECTIONS,
HOWEVER,
IT
WOULD REQUIRE A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF SCAFFOLDING DURING,
ERECTION, AND A GREAT DEAL OF COMPLEX POST-TENSIONING
TO GIVE THE SYSTEM CONTINUITY.
THE 60 BY 60 FOOT BAY REQUIRED LARGE AMOUNTS OF MATERIAL
AT THE COLUMN TO RESIST INCREASED STRESSES,
THE MECHANI-
CAL SYSTEM WAS REACHING ITS DISTRIBUTION LIMITS IN A
BUILDING OF FROM 5 TO
6
FLOORS, AND THE COLUMN ITSELF
WAS GREATLY INCREASED IN SIZE.
ATTENTION WAS DIRECTED TOWARDS STRUCTURING THE 60 BY 60
FOOT BAY IN THE MOST EFFICIENT WAY POSSIBLE IN HOPES OF
RETAINING THE MECHANICAL SERVICES IN THE COLUMNS.
A STUDY WAS MADE TO UNDERSTAND THE ASSEMBLAGE OF A LARGE
BAY WITH RELATIVELY SMALL PIECES USING NO SCAFFOLDING.
(SEE DIAGRAM "E")
5
THE COTUMNS WERE THEI
LOCATED AT THE CENTER OF FACH SIDE
OF A 60 FOOT SQUARE BAY WITH THE UNDERSTANDING THAT A
GREATER LOAD WOULD BE MORE DIRECTLY TRANSFERRED TO THE
COLUMN.
THIS COLUMN SPACING ALLOWED THE PIECES WHICH
COMPOSE THE BAY TO BECOME VERY SIMILAR IN SIZE AND WEIGHT.
(SEE DIAGRAM "F")
FURTHER STUDY OF THE COLUMN PLACEMENT RESULTED IN A SOLUTION FOR VARIOUS EDGE AND CORNER CONDITIONS,
ASSEMBLAGE,
DIAGRAM
"
SYSTEM
AND SIZE OF MAJOR AND MINOR MEMBERS.
(SEE
G")
THE FINAL DESIGN PRESENTED ACHIEVED MOST OF THE ORIGINAL
OBJECTIVES:
GREAT FLEXIBILITY IN TWO DIRECTIONS,
MANY EDGE AND CORNER CONDITIONS,
SOLVED
MADE POSSIBLE A GREAT
VARIETY OF VOID SPACES, RESOLVED THE MECHANICAL AND
STRUCTURAL INTEGRATION,
AND ACCOMPLISHED A UNIVERSALITY
OF SPACE-USE WITH FLUSH CEILINGS AND DIAPHRAMS EVERY
5 FEET SQUARE.
(SEE DIAGRAM "H")
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DESCRIPTION OF "THE DESIGN PRESENTED"
THE DESIGN IS ORIENTATED TO GROWTII AND F LEIBILITY.
MANY BUILDING PROGRAMS MAY BE RESOLVED WITHIN THE FRAME,
WORK OF THE SYSTEM, AND MANY SITE GEOMETRIES CAN BE
ACCO010DATED.
TIE PLANNING MODULE IS AN ORTHOGONAL GRID ALTERNATING
15'O",O06", 15'0" IN BOTH DIRECTIONS;
THE 15 FOOT
SQUARES ARE SUBDIVIDED INTO 5 FOOT SQUARE UNITS.
THE STRUCTURAL BAY IS 62 FEET SQUARE WITH COLUMNS AT THE
CENTERPOINT OF EACH SIDE.
WHEN THIS SINGLE BAY IS MUL..
TIPLIED OVER A MUCH GREATER FLOOR AREA, THE PATTERN OF
COLUMNS BECOMES A 44 FOOT SQUARE BAY ON THE DIAGONAL TO
THE SPACE-PUSE GRID.
(FURTHER REFERENCE TO THIS SYSTEM
WILL BE CALLED "THE DESIGN PRESENTED" )
THE STRUCTURE IS DESIGNED WITH A HIERARCHY OF COMPONENTS.
THE MAJOR COMPONENTS (COLUMNS WITH CANTILEVERED GIRDERS
AND CROSS GIRDERS) ARE CENTERED ON THE o'6" SPACER OF
THE 15 FOOT SQUARE GRID.
SECONDARY INTERSECTING BEAMS
SPAN THE 15 FEET ON A 5 FOOT SQUARE GRID.
SLABS ARE SUPPORTED BY THE SECONDARY BEAMS.
9
PRECAST FLOOR
THE CONFIGURATION OF GIRDERS AND THE DIAGONAL LOCATION
OF COLUMNS MAKE POSSIBLE THE ASSEMBLAGE OF THE STRUCTURE
WITHOUT SCAFFOLDING,
SPATIAL PLANNING,
ALLOWS FOR GREAT FLEXIBILITY IN
AND PROVIDES MANY STRUCTURAL ADVANTAGES.
THE BUILDING EDGE CAN OCCUR AT THE COLUMN LINE, OR MAY
CANTILEVER 15 FEET OUT PROM THE COLUMN LINE.
THE EDGE
MAY UNDULATE 15 FEET EVERY 30 FEET OF LENGTH.
CORNER
CONDITIONS FOLLOW THIS THEME AND MAY BE SEEN ON THE
DRAWING TITLED "FOOTPRINT - CORES AND EDGE CONDITIONS."
VOID POSSIBILITIES RANGE FROM A SINGLE 15 FOOT SQUARE
OPENING TO A 60 FOOT SQUARE OPENING,
WITHOUT REMOVING A
COLUMN OR DISTURBING THE PATTERN ON THE FLOOR ABOVE OR
BELOW.
INTERMEDIATE VOIDS ARE 15' BY 30', 30' BY 30',
AND 30' BY 60'.
(SEE DRAWING TITLED "FOOTPRINT - CORES
AND VOID POSSIBILITIES" )
YARDS,
CORES, OPEN STAIRS,
COURT
AND FUNCTIONS REQUIRING A GREATER HEIGHT THAN ONE
FLOOR CAN BE PLACED AS REQUIRED BY DESIGN OR CODE AT ANY
POINT IN THE SYSTEM ON THE 15 FOOT MAJOR GRID.
CORES CONTAIN VERTICAL CIRCULATION (STAIRS AND ELEVATORS),
TOILETS, PLUMBING RISERS, TOILET VENT STACKS,
TRIC FEEDS AND THEIR SERVICE ROOMS,
ROOMS,
eHONES,
MAIN ELEC-
TELEPHONE SERVICE
MAINTENANCE ROOMS, AND SPACE ALLOCATED TO TELEWATER FOUNTAINS,
MAIL CHUTES,
10
AND VENDING MACHINES.
COLUMNS (THE STRUCTURAL SUPPORT)
RISERS AND RETURNS,
CORES,
CONTAIN VERTICAL AIR
WET RISERS FOR PLUMBING OUTSIDE THE
AND ROOF DRAINS.
11
COMPARATIVE FRAMING SYSTEMS
THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL IS CONCERNED WITH THE COMPARATIVE
FRAMING OF "THE DESIGN PRESENTED," A 62 FOOT SQUARE BAY
WITH THE MAJOR GIRDERS ARRANGED DIRECTLY BETWEEN COLUMNS,
AND A 44 FOOT SQUARE BAY WITH THE GIRDERS ARRANGED DIRECTLY BETWEEN THE COLUMNS.
LOADS,
STRESSES,
AND SPANS
OF MAJOR GIRDERS, AND SPANS OF SECONDARY MATERIAL WILL
BE DISCUSSED.
AN INTERIOR COLUMN OF THE DESIGN PRESENTED CARRIES A
FLOOR AREA OF 44 FEET BY 44 FEET, OR 1,936 SQUARE FEET.
EACH ONE OF THE GIRDERS, TRANSFERRING LOAD TO THE COLUMN,
CARRIES ONE FOURTH THIS AREA WITH A MAXIMUM MOMENT AT
THE COLUMN OF APPROXIMATELY ONE MILLION POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH.
THE MAXIMUM SPAN OF THE SECONDARY MATER-
IAL, CANTILEVERING FROM THE GIRDER, IN THIS FRAMING
PATTERN IS 15.6 FEET.
(SEE DIAGRAM "I")
AN INTERIOR COLUMN OF A 62 FOOT BY 62 FOOT BAY WITH
THE MAJOR GIRDERS ARRANGED DIRECTLY BETwEEN COLUMNS,
CARRIES A FLOOR AREA OF 62 FEET BY 62 FEET, OR
SQUARE FEET.
TO THE COLUMN,
3
,844
EACH ONE OF THE GIRDERS, TRANSFERRING LOAD
CARRIES ONE FOURTH OF THIS AREA WITH A
MAXIMUM MOMENT AT THE COLUMN OF APPROXIMATELY TWO MILLION
POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH.
MATERIAL,
THE MAXIMUM SPAN OF THE SECONDARY
CANTILEVERING FROM THE GIRDER,
PATTERN IS 31 FEET.
IN THIS FRAMING
(SEE DIAGRAM "J" )
AN INTERIOR COLUMN OF A 44 FOOT BY 44 FOOT BAY WITH THE
MAJOR GIRDERS ARRANGED DIRECTLY BETWEEN COLUMNS,
A FLOOR AREA OF
CARRIES
FEET BY 44 FEET, OR 1,936 SQUARE FEET.
EACH ONE OF THE GIRDERS, TRANSFERRING LOAD TO THE COLUMN,
CARRIES ONE FOURTH OF THIS AREA WITH A MAXTMUM MOMENT AT
THE COLUMN OF APPROXIMATELY ONE MILLION POUNDS PER
SQUARE INCH.
THE MAXIMUM SPAN OF THE SECONDARY MATERIAL,
CANTILEVERING FROM THE GIRDER,
IS 22 FEET.
IN THIS FRAMING PATTERN
(SEE DIAGRAM "K" )
A COMPARISON OF THESE FRAMING SYSTEMS SHOWS THAT, ALTHOUGH
"THE DESIGN PRESENTED" ALLOWS FOR A 62 FOOT SQUARE USE
SPACE IN SINGLE INCREMENTS, EACH COLUMN SUPPORTS ONE
HALF THE LOAD, AND HAS ONE HALF THE MAXIMUM MOMENT, OF
THE 62 FOOT SQURE BAY WITH THE GIRDERS ARRANGED DIRECTLY
BETWEEN COLUMNS.
IT ALSO HAS TWICE THE NUMBER OF COLUMNS
IN A FOOTPRINT OF MANY BAYS.
"THE DESIGN PRESENTED" HAS A MAXIMUM MOMENT PRACTICALLY
EQUAL TO THAT OF THE 44 FOOT SQUARE BAY WITH THE GIRDERS
ARRANGED DIRECTLY BETWEEN COLUMNS;
BOTH MAJOR GIRDERS
CARRY THE SAME LOAD, BUT THE LOAD CONFIGURATION IS
13
DIFFERTi
IN EACH CASE,
" THE DESIGN PRESENTED" HAS MUCH GREATER EFFICIENCY IN USE
OF MATERIALS IN THE SECONDARY SPANNING
MBER,
SINCE IT
REQUIRES ONLY 0.*,7 THE SPAN OF THE 44 FOOT SQUARE BAY WITH
THE GIRDERS DIRECTLY ARRANGED BETWEEN THE COLUMNS.
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THE FOLLOWING MATERIAL IS CONCERNED WITH THE STRUCTURAL
BEHAVIOR OF THE SYSTEM.
THE NEGATIVE MOMENT OF A CANTILEVER AFFORDS AN ADVANTAGE
BY THE SAVINGS IN THE USE OF STEEL.
(SEE DIAGRAM "L" )
THE MAJOR GRID OF GIRDERS ACTS AS A CONTINUOUS BEAM OVER
MANY SUPPORTS.
THE GREATEST BENDING STRESS OCCURS AT
THE COLUMN AND IS EQUAL TO APPROXIMATELY ONE MILLION
POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH.
THE RATIO OF THE DEPTH TO SPAN
IS TWENTY TO ONE, WELL WITHIN THE RECOMMENDED LIMITS.
THE MOMENT IS APPROXIMATELY ZERO AT THE POINTS OF GIRDER
THEREFORE IT DOES NOT WEAKEN THE BEAM WHEN
ASSEMBLAGE,
MATERIAL IS REDUCED AT THESE POINTS .
THE MEMBER HAS
FULL DEPTH WHERE STRESSES OF COMPRESSION AND TENSION
ARE MAXIMUM,
THIS SHAPING OF THE GIRDER MAKES SUFFI-
CIENT USE OF THE MATERIALS,
AN] ALLOWS FOR MECHANICAL
SERVICES TO PASS BETWEEN THE FLOOR SLABS AND THE BOTTOM
CORD OF THE STRUCTURAL MEMBERS.
(SEE DIAGRAM
t M" )
EDGE CONDITIONS - WITH THE BUILDING EDGE AT THE COLUMN
LINE NO SPECIAL GIRDER REQUIREMENTS ARE NECESSARY,
THE SPECIAL OUTER4.MOST COLUMN ELEMENT
BUT
MUST RECEIVE THE
POST.-TENSIONING Or THE OPPOSITE COLUMN AND CANTILEVER
ELEMENT.
(SEE DIAGRAM "N")
17
I1TH T1E BUILDING EDGE CANTILEVERED 15 FEET FROM THE
COLUMN, NO SPECIAL COLUMN IS NECESSARY,
BUT THE CENTER
PROJECTING GIRDER MUST BE SPECIALLY REINFORCED TO HANDLE
THE LOAD REVERSAL.
(SEE DIAGRAM "o")
TO COMPLETE CERTAIN CORNER CONDITIONS, AN ADDITIONAL
ElEMENT SUPPORTED ON A NORMAL CROSS GIRDER IS REQUIRED.
(SEE DIAGRAM
"
P" )
18
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STEPS OF CONSTRUCTION
1.
POUR FOOTINGS AB0UT PRESET SLEEVE WHICH WILL RECEIVE
THE TWO STORY COLUMN STABILIZER; THE STABILIZER ASSURIS
VERTICAL CONTINUITY,
2., SET FIRST COLUMN COMPONENT WITH 15 FOOT CANTILEVER;
TACK WELD TOP AND BOTTOM.
AND TACK WELD AS BEFORE.
SET OPPOSITE COLUMN COMPONENT
REPEAT SAME PROCESS FOR THIRD
AND FOURTH ELEMENTS OF COLUMN.
WHEN ALL FOUR COLUMN
COMPONENTS ARE PLACED ABOUT STABILIZER,
TENSIONING CABLES,
SIMULTANEOUBLY,
3.
THREAD POST-
POST-TENSION BOTH SETS OF CABLES
BUILDING UP EQUAL TENSION AT A SLOW RATE.
WHEN A SUBSTANTIAL NUMBER OF COLUMNS WITH CAIEVERS
ARE IN PLACE,
GIRDERS, WHICH HAVE BEEN PREPARED IN THE
ARE PLACED.
NO SCAFFOLDING IS RE-
QUIRED TO ASSEMBLE THE SYSTE4.
EITHER ORTHOGONAL OR
CROSS OR "T" FORM,
DIAGONAL GIRDERS MAY BE PLACED INDEPENDENTLY AND) TACK
WELDED,
IF BOTH ARE PLACED, ORTHOOONAL GIRDER IS
PLACED FIRST.
THE TACK WELDING PREVENTS THE TOPPING
FROM CRACKING,
4.
DOUBLE CROSS BEAMS WITH PREUATTACHED CHAIRS ARE THEN
PLACED IN GIRDER GRID.
5.
PRECAST SLABS ARE SET ON THE CHAIRS.
PARED TITTH OPENINGS TO RECEIVE STEEL RODS.
20
SLABS ARE PRETHESE RODS
ARE BENT DOWN AND SECURED TO A METAL MESH UPON WHICH A
TOPPING IS
POURED.
ALTERNATE IC10",
6.
THE RESULTING SLAB SPAN IS AN
5'0" NODULE
BEGIN AGAIN WITH NUBER 2,
REPEATING PROCEDURE FOR
THE SECOND AND FOLLOWING FLOORS, WITH A MAXIMUM HEIGHT
OF SIX STORIES.
DESCRIPTION OF THE MECHANICAL SYSTEM
AIR HANDLING
THE DESIGN FOR THE AIR HANDLING IS A HIGH VELOCITY DUAL
DUCT SYSTEM;
WITH THE AIR BEING SUPPLIED AND RETURNED AT
EACH COLUMN.
THE INTERIOR AS WELL AS EITERIOR ZONES OF
THIS
THE BUILDING ARE HANDLED BY THE SAME AIR SYSTEM.
SYSTEM AFFORDS GREAT FLEIBILITY IN INITIAL DESIGN, AND
IN LATER ADDITIONS OR CHANGES TO THE CONSTRUCTED BUILDING
WITHOUT ANY SPECIAL MECHANICAL ALTERATIONS.
THE MECHANICAL DISTRIBUTION ZONE IS 31 BY 62 FEET.
EACH
COLUMN HAS TWO COLD, TWO HOT SUPPLIES, AND TWO RETURN
DUCTS AT EACH FLOOR.
EACH SET OF SUPPLY DUCTS ENTERS
ONE OR TWO MIXING BOXES WHICH REDUCE THE VELOCITY AND
CONTROL THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AIR.
THE TEMPERATURE OF
THE ZONE CAN BE CONTROLLED IN HALVES OR FOURTHS,
AND WILL
ALWAYS PROVIDE SEPARATE CONTROL FOR THE EDGE CONDITIONS.
TWO SUPPLY AND RETURN BRANCHES RUN SIDE BY SIDE ACROSS
EACH ZONE SERVING LINEAR COBINATION DIFFUSER-RETURN
FIXTURES, WHICH IN TURN SERVE EVERY 5 FOOT SQUARE MODULE.
DUCT WORK IS LOCATED IN THE FOUR QUADRANTS OF THE CROSS
SHAPED COLUMN, WHICH SIMPLIFIES THE VERTICAL MECHANICAL
INSTALLATION;
SINCE THE SHALLOW POINT OF THE GIRDERS
22
HAS NO VERTICAL SLAB SUPPORT, A LONGER MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL
DUCT LENGTH CAN BE USED SIMPLIFYING HORIZONTAL INSTALLATION.
(SEE DRAWINGS TITLED "MECHANICAL DISTRIBUTION
PLAN" AND "SECTIONS THROUGH MECHANICAL AND STRUCTURAL
COMPONENTS")
THE SYSTEM IS DESIGNED ?OR SPACES WITH 10 FOOT HIGH
CEILINOS OR LESS, AND NINE AIR CHANGES PER HOUR.
THE
SUPPLY VELOCITY IN THE COLUMN, FOR BOTH HOT AND COLD
AIR DUCTS,
IS 4, 000 FEET PER MINUTE
SUPPLY REQUIRED IS 70 PER
THE HOT AIR
ENT OF THE COLD.
THE RETURN
VELOCITY IN THE COLUMN IS 2,500 FEET PER MINUTE.
THE
RETURN4 AIR REQUIRED IS 75 PER CENT OF THE SUPPLY.
LIGHTING AND ACOUSTICS
ONE FOUR FOOT FLOURESCENT LIGHT IS MOUNTED ON THE
DIFFUSER FITURE EVERY 5 FOOT MODULE.
HORIZONTAL
CLOSURE PANELS FORM A COFFER BY ATTACHING TO BOTH
SIDES OF THE LINEAR DIFFUSER FIXTURE*
THE COFFER IS
PROVIDED WITH A LIGHT RELECTING SURFACE,
PERFORATED
AND BACKED WITH SOUND ABSORPTIVE MATERIAL TO GIVE
ACOUSTIC TREATMENT TO THE IMMEDIATE SPACE, AND PROVIDES SOUND SEPARATION FROM SPACE TO SPACE.
HORIZON-
TAL CLOSURE WAS DECIDED UPON BECAUSE OF THE VARIETY OF
23
*auo sna ao xu=ya ma oiz aaa
NUSXS ma mi maod Xxv Ity
SfIOIUVA
aWV007
M IM smmxia IMYA
'oMOS WM OC 90 (11HO V NO IRMIH ?IVJXOZUOH
a&l= minx xwrioo Hora Ki sumiu oximm7a OPA m mmu
GS&MOamo 7ymmlluw axv
*OKI
livoixmxi Ronowu GKolwast, a=TZ ONTAYM M)
'wll= MU KI 9VM Ma M"D ZaOHLZTA UOUVXMTII VRcTOUcl
an "MqXVM OrZSnooy JM4aOHCj Wd LZISSaDMI MU ay
'tmscno qyoij;uaA aao mumbau saaws Tm=riias imao
CERTAIN ALTERNATIVES AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT
OF "THE DESIGN PRESENTED"
THE
CERTAIN ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS TO VARIOUS PARTS OF "t
DESIGN PRESENTED" WERE CONSIDERED.
FOR EXAMPLE:
COLUMN
STABILIZER METHOD OR ERCTION AND VERTICAL CONTINUITY
SEEMED COSTLY,
AND MAY HAVE BEEN REMOVED BY USING A LIMIT-
ED AMOUNT OF SCAFPOLDING DURING ERECTION AND METAL INSERT
BARS FOR VERTICAL CONTINUITY.
THE COLUMN AND CANTILEVER
GIRDER MAY HAVE BEEN SEPARATE COMPONENTS ELIMINATING
SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT, BUT INTRODUCING ANOTHER
CRITICAL CONSTURCTION CONNECTION.
FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF "THE DESIGN PRESENTED" MAY LEAD
TO GREATER EFFICIENCIES. THE 15 FOOT GRID OF GIRDERS
OFFERS A MUCH MORE EFFICIENT USE OF THE STRUCTURAL
MATERIAL THAN THE FINAL 5 FOOT GRID.
IF THESE GIRDERS
WERE RE..SHAPED TO CARRY THE SLAB DIRECTLY, AND THE SLAB
DEPTH INCREASED TO SPAN THE 15 FEET SQUARE,
CROSS SHAPED BEAMS MAY BE ELIMINATED.
THE DOUBLE
THE 13 FOOT SLABS
ARE EASILY STACK CAST ON THE SITE, HOWEVER, THE DOUBLE
CROSS SHAPED BEAMS ARE DIFFICULT TO CAST ON THE SITE
AND WOULD REQUIRE SPECIAL SUPPORTS DURING TRANSPORT IF
CAST IN A PLANT.
25
SUMMATION
THE BASIC PROGRAM SET UP FOR THIS STUDY IS LIMITED IN ITS
SCOPE, HOWEVER,
ITS IDEALS ARE BROAD AND DIRECTED TOWARDS
THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ATTITUDE AND THE ORGANIZATION OF A
THINKING PROCESS WHICH WOULD ENABLE AN INDIVIDUAL TO
BETTER SOLVE THE COMPLEK ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF MAN.
THE PROCESS OF SYSTEMATIC SYNTHESIS OF CONSTRUCTION
COMPONENTS,
AND OBJECTIVE APPROACH TO THE DESIGN OF
BUILDINGS IS THE GREAT LESSON OF THIS STUDY.
26
I I
SECTION$ YHROUGH
STRUCT
CCjMPONENTS
CON.
MASTER
OF AWCITECTURE
0
5
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INSTWE
MASSACHUSETTS
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THESIS
MASTEROF ARCHITECTURE
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
MASSACHUSETTS
JUNE 1966
MICHAEL GELICK
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JUNE 1966
MICHAELGELICK
MECHANICALDISTRIBUTION
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INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
MICHAEL GELICK
JUNE 1966
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