HANDOUT 1
-Bab 1
Introduction
1.1 Background
Poetry analysis is the process of investigating a poem's form,
content, and history in an informed way, with the aim of heightening one's
own and others' understanding and appreciation of the work. Poetry uses
forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to
evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration,
onomatopoeia and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or
incantatory effects. The use of ambiguity, symbolism, irony and other
stylistic elements of poetic diction often leaves a poem open to multiple
interpretations. Similarly, metaphor, simile and metonymy[4] create a
resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings,
forming connections previously not perceived. Kindred forms of
resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme
or rhythm. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poetry_analysis)
Stanford begins The Tragedy of the Negro in America by
distinguishing between the authorized tragedy of black Americans,
represented by slavery, with the unauthorized tragedy of post-bellum
injustice. In discussing the authorized tragedy, Stanford describes the first
attempts at colonizing and Christianizing black communities in the West
Indies, and moves on to the first importation of blacks into the American
colonies. He condemns the false Christianity that allowed slavery to
continue and grow throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. Stanford
acknowledges the good deeds done by various religious sects (particularly
the Quakers) and praises the New England states for the restriction or
abolition of slavery. In describing the unauthorized tragedy, Stanford
blames Andrew Johnson for failing to control racist legislation in the
southern states and allowing the freedmen to suffer under economic
conditions little better than those suffered under slavery. He also describes
the perversion of the justice system to allow for the ritual denigration of
African Americans. The Tragedy of the Negro in America by
distinguishing between the authorized tragedy of black Americans,
represented by slavery, with the unauthorized tragedy of post-bellum
injustice. In discussing the authorized tragedy, he describes the first
attempts at colonizing and Christianizing black communities in the West
Indies, and moves on to the first importation of blacks into the American
colonies that allowed slavery to continue and grow throughout the 17th
and
18th
(http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/stanford/summary.html)
1.2 Thesis Statement
“the black man life”.
centuries.
Bab II
Discussion
2.1Stanzaic pattern
`It is the `Negro’s `tragedy I feel
/′ - / -
′ /-
′
a
/- ′ /- ′ /→ Iambic pentameter with a trochaic
on the 1st foot
Which `binds me `like a `heavy `iron `chain,
′
/-
′
/-
/-
′/ -
′ /-
′
`It is the `Negro’s ‘wounds I `want to `heal
/′ - /-
′/ -
′
/- ′ /
b
/→ Iambic pentameter
a
′/→Iambic pentameter with a trochaic
-
on the 1st foot
Be′cause I `know the ′keenness of his `pain.
/-
′
/- ′
′
/-
/-
-/ -
′
b
/→Iambic pentameter with a
pyrrhic 4th foot
Only a `thorn-crowned `Negro and no `white
/ ′ - /- ′
/′
-
/′
c
- ′/ →trochaic pentameter with an
- /-
anapest on 5th foot
′Can pene`trate in′to the `Negro’s ′ken
/′
-/ - ′
′/ -
/-
′/ -
d
′/→iambic
pentameter
with
a
trochaic on 1st foot
Or `feel the `thickness of the `shroud of `night
/- ′
′ /-
/-
′ /
-/ -
- ′
c
/→iambic pentameter with a
pyrrhic on 3rd foot
Which `hides and `buries him from `other `men.
/-
′
/-
′/ -
- /-
′/-
d
′/→ iambic pentameter with a
pyrrhic on 3rd foot
So `what I `write is shot `out of my `blood.
E
/- ′
/-
′
/- -
/′
′
-/ -
/ → iambic pentameter with
sprung rhythm
`There is no `white man who could `write my `book
/′
-/ -
′
/-
-
′
/-
/-
′
f
/→iambic pentameter
with sprung rhythm
Though `many `think the `story can be `told
′
/-
/′
-/ ′
g
/ - ′
-
/→iambic tetrameter with a
trochaic on 2nd and 3th foot.
Of `what the `Negro `people `ought to `brook.
/-
′
/-
′
/ ′
′
/- ′
F
/→iambic tetrameter with a
spondaic on 3th foot
Our `statesmen `roam the `world to `set things `right.
H
This `Negro `laughs, and `prays to `God for `Light!
h
2.2Rhyme and Rhythm
→ There are two stanza in this poem ( the Negro’s Tragedy ) the first
stanza is octave because in one stanza consist of eight line. And
the second stanza is sestet, it is called sestet because in one stanza
consist of six line.
→ Several variation of rhyme
The first is Perfect rhyme, on the first stanza line two and four in
the last word “Which binds me like a heavy iron chain” “Because
I know the keenness of his pain” , and the second in the “Our
statesmen roam the world to set things right”. “ This Negro laughs,
and prays to God for Light!”
→ rhythm
The rhythm this poem used run- on line and end stopped line.
→ Inference about the rhyme scheme and metrical analysis
The stanza have identical rhyme scheme that are iambic pentameter with a
sprung rhythm. In this poem the word Negro are repeated almost in every
stanza. The word also keep reminding the readers of the poem about the
speakers and his feeling about the tragedy of Negro people on that century.
Every stanza show the pain of black people that only black people feel it
“The Negro’s tragedy” was first published without this title in the JulyAugust issue of The Catholic Worker.
“The Negro’s Tragedy” is an identity politics poem
excellence—
complicated by the Christology that McKay develops throughout The
Catholic Worker sonnets. The speaker feels the “Negro’s tragedy” and
wants to heal “his pain” in the first quatrain. In the second, such positive
declarations give way to exclusionary ones: whites are excluded from the
“Negro’s ken,” or point of view.
Only a thorn-crowned Negro and no white
Can penetrate into the Negro’s ken
(“The Negro’s Tragedy” ll. 5-6)
He identifies himself with the tragedy of the Negro, the pain and suffering
experienced by the Negro race. The poet says that no white man
understands the situation of the black man, though many think that they
do. A white man cannot "penetrate into the Negro's ken," and he cannot
feel the Negro's isolation from other men.
2.3Figurative language

Simile
“……which binds me like a heavy iron chain” (stanza one line 12). Use word “ like” here are compared two things between “ bind
me and heavy iron chain”

Personification
“…..Or feel the thickness of the shroud of night Which hides and
buries him from other men. (stanza 1 line 7-8). the shroud of night
can’t hide or buries the man from the other man. The use of words
hide and buries may add dramatic effect on the tragic experience.

Hyperbole
“So what I write is shot out of my blood” ( stanza 2 line 1 ). All the
Negro’s tragedy really tragic. The speakers use this figurative
language to show that what he write about tragedy is like shot his
blood, and I thing this line sounds like hyperbole.

Atmosphere
Tragic ( on the first stanza line 4 – 8)
Can penetrate into the Negro’s ken
Or feel the thickness of the shroud of night
Which hides and buries him from other men
“Because I know the keenness of his pain.
Only a thorn-crowned Negro and no white”

Diction
“Bind means tie or fasten, shrouds means cover ”
2.4Biographical Information
Claude McKay (1889-1948) is a pioneering-poet of Harlem Renaissance. In
the early 20th century, the Americans saw a revival of African Culture and
its expression through many artistic forms like music, dancing and poetry.
McKay was born with ‘black and blue’ colour and brought up in the racial
Jamaica. So very early in his life he was exposed to the racial-attitude of
the white people. As a result, racial consciousness had become a part and
parcel of his life. He was one of the members of the group of very sensitive
black intellectuals and artists who had gathered in the name of race and
color, to give an unprecedented exposure to their problems, hopes and
aspirations.
2.5Historical Information
The Tragedy of the Negro in America by distinguishing between the
authorized tragedy of black Americans, represented by slavery, with the
unauthorized tragedy of post-bellum injustice. In discussing the authorized
tragedy, he describes the first attempts at colonizing and Christianizing
black communities in the West Indies, and moves on to the first
importation of blacks into the American colonies that allowed slavery to
continue and grow throughout the 17th and 18th centuries.
Bab III
Conclussion
3.1Summary of analysis
3.2Massage
Massage of the poem
1. In this world whatever it is always have differences, the important
things is ourselves face it.
2. There is always light every darkness.
References
http://docsouth.unc.edu/church/stanford/summary.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poetry_analysis
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/m_r/mckay/cooper.htm
http://facpub.stjohns.edu/~ganterg/sjureview/vol2-2/11LowneyMcKay.htm
http://www.librarything.com/tag/the+negro%27s+tragedy+%28poem+by+
claude+mckay%29
HANDOUT 2
--
BAB I. INTRODUCTION
a. Summary of the poem
This poem told about the speaker wanted to be remembered by
her love. She knew that she would die and she asked to her love for
always remembering him in his life. Nevertheless, she realized that the
darkness and the corruption from herself could make her love became
sad, so she changed her mind to forgot her than remembered her.
b. The poem’s major theme
Someone who wants to make people arround him/her do not be
sorrowful. We choose this theme because in each line of the poem
explains that the writer wants to be remembered by her lover.
However, she realizes if her love still remember her when she has
gone, it will just make him sad.
BAB II. DISCUSSION
a. Stanzaic Pattern
Stanzaic form: 1 octave and 1 sestet; General rhyme pattern:
a-b-b-a; written in iambic pentameter in most lines and iambic
pentameter with trochee in line 7 and line 13.
b. Rhyme and Rhythm
REMEMBER
By : Christina Rosetti
Remember me when I am gone away,
a
/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
Gone far away into the silent land;
b
/ ͜ - / ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
When you can no more hold me by the hand,
b
/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
Nor I half turn to go yet turning stay.
a
/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
Remember me when no more day by day
a
/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
You tell me of our future that you plann’d:
b
/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
Only remember me; you understand
b
/ - ͜ / ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
TROCHEE ON THE 1st
It will be late to counsel then or pray.
a
WITH
/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
Yet if you should forget me for a while
c
/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
And afterwards remember, do not grieve:
d
/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
For if the darkness and corruption leave
d
/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
A vestige of the thoughts that one I had,
e
/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
Better by far you should forget and smile
c
/- ͜ / ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC
PENTAMETER
TROCHEE ON THE 1st
Than that you should remember and be sad .
e
/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ IAMBIC PENTAMETER
WITH
c. Figurative language/diction
Figurative Language:
->metaphore
Gone far away into the silent land.
silent land = graveyard
The silent land refers to the graveyard because as we know graveyard is a
place of the dead body. Also, as we can imagine the place is so silent.
for if the darkness and corruption leave
the darkness refers to the hell because it symbolizes something that dark,
spooky, the worst place. Then, the corruption refers to the physical decay
due to her illness, and also it refers to the physical decay after death in the
grave.
A vestige of the thoughts that once I had,
A vestigeof the thoughts refers to the memory of the writer that remains in
her love.
->hyperbole
Remember me when no more day by day
It is too exaggerated because as we know that days always exist except
doomsday.
Diction:
-> and afterwards remember, do not grieve:
The writer uses “grieve” in her poem to show the deep condolence of
losing someone that he loves.
->for if the darkness and corruption leave
The darkness symbolizes gloomy and spooky mood in the poem because
she wanted to make her love really forget her. Moreover,an online article
stated that “corruption was a term often used in the Bible refers to the
physical decay of death as well as moral decline(see Acts 13:36-37, Isaiah
38:17)” (“Imagery, symbolism and themes”: 2013).
d. Biographical Approach
Christina Rossetti was born in December 5th,1830. She lived in
extraordinarily gifted family. Her father, Gabrielle Rossetti was an Italian
poet and a politic exile. He married with Frances Polidory in 1826 and
they had four children, they are Maria Francesca in 1827, Gabriel Charles
Dante in 1828, William Michael in 1829, and Christina Georgina in 1830.
Maria Francesca, her elder sister was died in November, 1876. Then, her
father was died in 1882 and she followed her mother who was really
religious. In the early 1860’s, Rossetti fell in love with Charles Cayley.It
was ten years after this, in the early 1860’s, when Christina was thirty, she
met and felt in love with Charles Cayley, the scholarly translator of Dante.
They really loved each other and made commitment to engage, but Cayley
and Christina could not marry and live together because of their different
religion. Therefore, it was the reason that made she refused to marry him
in the late 60’s. From their broke up, in 1862 she made the “Remember”
poem for Cayley.This biographical approach connected with the theme of
this poem. She had sufferedthe sickness since she was 15 years old.
Because of that, she thought she would die and almost of her poetry told
about the death. It also influenced to this poem which was for Cayley that
had the love and death theme. Finally in 1892, she got the truth diagnosis
after suffering the sickness for years. She was diagnosed with breast
cancer and died in December 29th, 1894.
e. Historical Approach
“The Victorian Period literally describes the events in the age of
Queen Victoria’s reign of 1837-1901. The term Victorian has connotations
of repression and social conformity.However in the realm of poetry these
labels are some what misplaced. The Victorian age provided a significant
development of poetic ideals such as the increased use of the Sonnet as a
poetic form, which was to influence later modern poets.Christina Rossetti
in some ways could be viewed as a more typical Victorian poet. Her
poetry reflected her deep Anglican faith and frequently pursued themes
such as love and faith”(“Victorian Poet”:n.d).
-References :
- . 2013. Imagery, Symbolism and Themes in Rossetti’s Remember. Crossref-it :
Text in Context. Retrieved on May 19, 2013 fromhttp://www.crossrefit.info/textguide/The-poetry-of-Christina-Rossetti/28/1853 .
- . n.d. Victorian Poets. Poet Seers. Retrieved on May 19, 2013 from
http://www.poetseers.org/the-great-poets/victorian-poets/ .
HANDOUT 3
BAB. 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND INFO
“If” is a didactic poem, a work meant to give instruction. “If” gives an
instruction in cultivating several specific traits of a good leader. Kipling offers
this instruction not through listing specific characteristics, but by providing
concrete illustrations of the complex actions a man should or should not take
which would reflect these characteristics. The poem is about moral lessons and
conduct. It contains advice from a father to a son on how to grow up to be a better
person and a true man. He reminds his son that he will be a Man if he can hold on
to his values and not be swayed by others. If he follows his advice, he will have a
rewarding and enriching life. He will have everything he can wish for.
The poem's speaker says that if you can keep your head while those
around you lose theirs; if you can trust yourself when others doubt you; if you can
be patient and not lose your temper; if you can handle being lied about but not lie
yourself, and being hated but not hating yourself; if you do not look too good or
talk too wise: If you can dream but not let those dreams cloud your reason; if you
can think but still take action; if you can deal with both triumph and disaster; if
you can handle it when others twist your truths into lies, or take the things you
devoted your life to and turn them from broken into alive again: If you can take all
of your winnings and bet them in one fell swoop and lose them all and then keep
it a secret; if you can use your heart and muscles and nerves to hold on even when
there is only Will left: If you can remain virtuous among people and talk with
Kings without becoming pretentious; if you can handle foes and friends with ease;
if you see that men count on you but not too much; if you can fill every minute
with meaning: Then you have all the Earth and everything upon it, and, as the
speaker exultantly ends, "you'll be a Man, my son!"
1.2 MAJOR THEME
The major theme is that of manhood and leadership particularly during difficult
times.
BAB 2. DISCUSSION
2.1 STANZAIC FORMS
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/-
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ /
_
If ‘you / can ‘keep / your ‘head / when ‘all / a’bout/ you
A
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ / _
ᴗ
Are ‘los / ing‘theirs / and ‘blam / ing‘it / on ‘you,
A
Iambic pentameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/-
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ /
_
If ‘you / can ‘trust / your’self/ when ‘all / men ‘doubt / you, A
Iambic withincomplete foot
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ / _
ᴗ
But ‘make / ‘allow / ance‘for / their ‘doubt / ing‘too;
A
Iambic pentameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/-
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ /
_
If ‘you / can ‘wait / and ‘not / be ‘tired / by ‘wait / ing,
B
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot
_
_
ᴗ
/_ ᴗ
/
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
Or ‘being / lied ‘a / bout, ‘don’t / ‘deal in / ‘lies,
C
Iambic trimeter with anapaestic in the first
_
_
/
ᴗ _
/ ᴗ
_
/ ᴗ
_ / ᴗ
_
Or ‘being / ‘hated, / don’t ‘give / ‘way to / ‘hating,
B
Trochaic tetrameter with pyrrhic in first.
_
_
/
_
ᴗ
/
_
ᴗ /
_
ᴗ
/
_
ᴗ
And ‘yet / don’t ‘look / too ‘good, / nor ‘talk / too ‘wise:
C
Iambic tetrameter with pyrrhic in the first
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/-
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ /
_
ᴗ
If ‘you / can ‘dream /—and ‘not / make ‘dreams / your ‘master;
_
D
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/-
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ /
_
ᴗ
If ‘you / can ‘think /—and ‘not / make ‘thoughts / your ‘aim;
E
Iambic hexameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/
ᴗ
-
/
_
_ ᴗ
/ _
If ‘you / can ‘meet / with ‘Triumph / and ‘Disas / ‘ter
D
Iambic trimeter with anapaestic in the middle
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/-
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ
And ‘treat / those ‘two / im’pos / tors ‘just / the ‘same;
E
Iambic pentameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/-
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ / _
ᴗ /
_
If ‘you / can ‘bear / to ‘hear / the ‘truth / you’ve ‘spok / en
F
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/-
ᴗ
/_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
‘Twisted / by ‘knaves / to ‘make / a ‘trap / for ‘fools,
G
Iambic pentameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/-
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ /
_
Or ‘watch / the ‘things / you ‘gave / your ‘life / to, ‘broken,
F
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/
- ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
And ‘stoop / and ‘build / ’em‘up / with ‘worn/ -out ‘tools:
G
Iambic pentameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/-
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ/ _
ᴗ /
_
If ‘you / can ‘make / one ‘heap / of ‘all / your ‘win / nings
H
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ /_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
And ‘risk / it ‘on / one ‘turn / of ‘pitch / -and-‘toss,
I
Iambic pentameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/_ ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ / _ ᴗ / _
And ‘lose, / and ‘start / a’gain / at ‘your / ‘begin / nings
H
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/-
ᴗ / _ ᴗ / _
ᴗ
And ‘ne / ver‘breathe / a ‘word / a’bout/ your ‘loss;
I
Iambic pentameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ / _
If ‘you / can ‘force / your ‘heart / and ‘nerve / and ‘sin / ew
J
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ / _
ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ
To ‘serve / your ‘turn / long ‘af/ ter‘they / are ‘gone,
K
Iambic pentameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ /
_
And ‘so / hold ‘on / when ‘there / is ‘not / hing‘in / you
J
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ
Ex’cept/ the ‘Will / which ‘says / to ‘them: / ‘Hold ‘on!’
K
Iambic pentameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ
/ _
If ‘you / can ‘talk / with ‘crowds / and ‘keep / your ‘vir / tue,
L
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot at the end
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ
/_
ᴗ
Or ‘nei / ther‘walk / with ‘Kings/— nor‘lose / the ‘com / mon‘touch,
M
Iambic hexameter
_
ᴗ/ _
ᴗ /_
ᴗ
/_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/_
If ‘nei / ther‘foes / nor ‘lov / ing‘friends / can ‘hurt / you,
ᴗ
L
Iambic hexameter
_ ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
If ‘all / men ‘count / with ‘you, / but ‘none / too ‘much;
M
Iambic pentameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/_ ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ /_
ᴗ
/_
If ‘you / can ‘fill / the ‘un / for’giv / ing‘min / ute
N
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot at the end
_ ᴗ
/ _ ᴗ
/_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ/ _
ᴗ
With ‘six / ty‘se / conds’ ‘worth / of d’is / tance‘run,
O
Iambic pentameter
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
/_
ᴗ / _
ᴗ / _
ᴗ
/_
‘Yours is / the ‘Earth / and e’ve / ry‘thing/ ‘that’s in / it,
N
Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot at the end
_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ /_
ᴗ
/_
ᴗ
/ _
ᴗ
And—‘which / is ‘more /—you’ll ‘be / a ‘Man, / my ‘son!
O
Iambic pentameter
2.2 RHYME& RHYTHM
Rhythm
As general the poem use Iambic pentameter with incomplete foot
Rhyme

Perfect Rhyme, It occurs when the sounds are identical
o You, too in the first stanza,
o master and disaster in second stanza.

Half Rhyme
o Lies - wise in the first stanza
o Aim – same in the second stanza
o Sinew – you in the third stanza
o Virtue – you in the forth stanza

Internal rhyme
o Are ‘losing‘theirs and‘blaming‘iton ‘you
2.3 FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
1. Personification

Dreams
case, dreams
: masters who can control our lives. In this
assume a human role/quality, that of being a
master.

Triumph and disaster : imposters who can lead us astray. Success
is
personified as “Triumph” and can make us
complacent.
Failure
is
personified
as
“Disaster”. It can influence us to believe that
failure is permanent.

Will
: personified as a person who encourages us
not to
give up.
2. Metaphor

Unforgiving minutes
: refer to time that
waits for no
man, it is like a race
where every second is
important.

Worn out tools
: refer to the feeling of
total
exhaustion that can
force someone to give
up.

Make one heap of all your winnings
: compared to a pile of
money
won at the gambling
table.

Walk with Kings
: means to socialize
with
important people.

Talk with crowds
all kinds
: refers to mixing with
of people.
3. Apostrophe

My Son!
: The writer speak as
if he speak
to a person.
4. Hyperbole

Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it : Not everything in the
earth are
belong to someone. In
other word, you can’t
have all the things that
exist on the earth,
there
are
several
things that you can’t.
5. Symbol (A symbol represents an idea)

Knaves
: represent scoundrels, liars or conmen

Crowds
: symbolize the common folk/people

Kings
: represent the important people in society

Common touch
: represents humility
2.4 BIOGRAPHICAL / HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
For the unlikely truth is that they were composed by the Indian-born
Kipling to celebrate the achievements of a man betrayed and imprisoned by the
British Government - the Scots-born colonial adventurer Dr Leander Starr
Jameson.
Although it may not seem so to the millions who can recite its famous first
line ('If you can keep your head when all about you'), If is also a bitter
condemnation of the British Government led by Lord Salisbury, and the duplicity
of its Colonial Secretary Joseph Chamberlain, for covertly supporting Dr
Jameson's raid against the Boers in South Africa's Transvaal in 1896, only to
condemn him when the raid failed.
Kipling was a friend of Jameson and was introduced to him, so scholars
believe, by another colonial friend and adventurer: Cecil Rhodes, the financier and
statesman who extracted a vast fortune from Britain's burgeoning African empire
by taking substantial stakes in both diamond and gold mines in southern Africa.
In Kipling's autobiography, Something Of Myself, published in 1937, the
year after his death at the age of 70, he acknowledges the inspiration for If in a
single reference: 'Among the verses in Rewards was one set called If - they were
drawn from Jameson's character, and contained counsels of perfection most easy
to give.' Dr. LeanderStar Jameson who led an unsuccessful raid against the Boer
in South Africa the same year the poem was written. Despite the disaster, the
British press viewed it as a victory and Jameson as a hero.
-POETRY
“IF”
BY RUYARD KLIPING
Aisyah Nabila
Danang Sudibyo
Layla Rizqiya
Sulfia Puspita
Zakkiya Kholida
Ahmad Ardiansyah
HANDOUT 4
AN ANALYSIS OF POEM To Daffodills BY ROBERT
HERRICK
Compiled by
Group 3
Rahayu Eka Putri
Fitria Syafalia
Kurun Umrotun Nisa
Reni F Khairina
Desy Sinta N
Wahyu Alfita
105110104111010
105110101111063
105110101111091
115110100111018
115110107111007
115110107111036
STUDY PROGRAM OF ENGLISH
DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGES AND LITERATURE
FACULTY OF CULTURE STUDIES
UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA
2013
Summary of poem
This poet makes the comparison of the life of the Daffodil with the short
life. If you look at the time of human life, we are only here for such a short visit.
Looking at this poet make us compares the daffodils short visit in the spring with
our life in all seasons, and while it is short, it is long enough for us to fulfill so
much and no matter how old you are, it is never too late to what you want to do.
Stanzaic Form
This poem contain of 2 stanza, every stanza consist of ten lines.
Rhyme analysis
Perfect rhyme (soon-noon) (stay-day) (evensong-along) (spring-anything) (decayday) (rain-again)
Alliteration (As your hours do, and dry)
Half rhyme (decay-die)
Matrical Pattern and Rhyme Analysis
Stanza 1
‘Fair ‘daffo’dils, we ‘weep to ‘see
a
/ - - / ͜ -/ ͜ - / ͜ - /
IAMBIC TETRAMETER WITH SPRUNG RYTHM A SPONDEE IN THE FIRST FOOT
You ‘haste a’way so ‘soon;
b
/ ͜ - / ͜ -/ ͜ - /
IAMBIC TRIMETER
‘As yet the ‘early-‘rising ‘sun
b
/- ͜ / ͜
-/ ͜ - / ͜ - /
IAMBIC TETRAMETER WITH SPRUNG RYTHM A TROCHEE IN THE FIRST FOOT
‘Has not ‘attain’d ‘his noon.
b
/͜ / ͜ / - ͜ /
IAMBIC TRIMETER
Stay, stay
c
/ - - /
SPONDAIC MONOMETER
‘Until the ‘hasting ‘day
c
/- ͜ / ͜ - / ͜ - /
IAMBIC TRIMETER WITH SPRUNG RYTHM A TROCHEE IN THE FIRST FOOT
‘Has run
b
/ - ͜ /
IAMBIC MONOMETER
But to the ‘even’song;
d
/ ͜ ͜ / ͜ -/ ͜ - /
IAMBIC TRIMETER WITH SPRUNG RYTHM A PYRRHIC IN THE FIRST FOOT
And, ‘having ‘pray’d to’gether, we
e
/ ͜ // - ͜ / ͜ /- ͜ // ͜
/
IAMBIC TETRAMETER
‘Will go ‘with you a’long.
d
/͜ /͜ / ͜ - /
TROCHAIC TRIMETER WITH SPRUNG RYHTM A IAMB IN THE THIRD FOOT
Stanza 2
We ‘have short ‘time to ‘stay, ‘as you,
a
/ ͜ - / ͜
- / ͜ -/
- ͜ /
IAMBIC TETRAMETER WITH SPRUNG RYHTM A TROCHEE IN THE THIRD FOOT
We ‘have ‘as short a ‘spring;
b
/͜ - / - ͜
/ ͜ /
IAMBIC TRIMETER WITH SPRUNG RYHTM A TROCHEE IN THE SECOND FOOT
‘As ‘quick a ‘growth to ‘meet de’cay,
c
/- - /
͜ - /
͜ - /
͜ - /
IAMBIC TETRAMETER WITH SPRUNG RYTHM A SPONDEE IN THE FIRST FOOT
‘As you, or anything.
b
/ - ͜ // ͜ ͜ - /
TROCHAIC DIMETER AND ANAPESTIC DIMETER
We ‘die
c
/͜ - /
IAMBIC MONOMETER
‘As your ‘hours do, and ‘dry
c
/- ͜ / ͜ // ͜
- /
TROCHAIC TRIMETER WITH SPRUNG RHYTHM A IAMB IN THE THIRD FOOT
A’way
c
/͜ - /
IAMBIC MONOMETER
‘Like to the ‘summer’s ‘rain;
d
/- ͜ /͜ - / ͜
- /
IAMBIC TRIMETER WITH SPRUNG RHYTM A TROCHEE IN THE FIRST FOOT
Or ‘as the ‘pearls of ‘morning’s ‘dew,
e
/ ͜ -/ ͜ - /
͜ - / ͜
-/
IAMBIC TETRAMETER
‘Never to be ‘found a’gain.
d
/- ͜ ͜ / ͜ - / ͜ - /
IAMBIC TRIMETER WITH SPRUNG RYTHM A DACTYL IN THE FIRST FOOT
Figurative Language
1.But to the evensong;
And, having pray’d together, we
Will go with you along.
Personification because the speaker tries to tell the reader that the daffodils have
a power to make us imagening that the daffodils themselves can pray and do
activities like human being.
2. We have short time to stay, as you, : Simile, the speaker wants to compare a
short time with daffodils because as we know daffodils have a short time to live
as us.
3. We have as short a spring;
As quick a growth to meet decay,
As you, or anything.
We die
Hyperbole because the speakers is used exaggerate words to dramatize his or her
feelings.
4. Like to the summer’s rain;
Or as the pearls of morning’s dew,
Simile because the speakers wants to compare the beauty of the daffodils with the
summer’s rain, because rain in the summer day is very fresh, and the speakers
wants to compare it with morning’s dew as well.
Overall this poem is dominated by apastrophe because the speaker tries to talk to
the daffodils. And it seems like he adores to the daffodils. It makes the message
and the content more easily to be accepted.
Historical information
Robert Herrick was live in Elizabethan era which famous with carpe diem.
Carpe diem show about life is short so the poet wants to tell the readers about how
short life is and how beautiful it is if we enjoy and try to see the beauty.
Biographical Information
Herrick wrote over 2,500 poems, about half of which appear in his major
work, Hesperides. He is well known for his style and, in his earlier works, for
frequent references to lovemaking and the female body. His later poetry was more
of a spiritual and philosophical nature. Among his most famous short poetical
sayings are the unique monometers, such as "Thus I / Pass by / And die,/ As one /
Unknown / And gone."
The message
This poem advising the youth to enjoy and use the time wisely. Don’t let the
condition like the daffodils who smile brightly when they bloom, but it’s only take
a short time, the beauty will fade away quickly. Just like the short duration of the
flowers, men too, die away soon. Life is short, make it better. Life once. Just
enjoy our life.
-Refferences
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_the_summary_of_to_daffodils_by_Robert_H
errick
http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/to-daffodils/
http://jacobeanlit4-5.wikispaces.com/5.+To+Daffodils+-+Herrick
HANDOUT 5
POETRY ANALYSIS
STOPPING BY WOODS ON A SNOWY EVENING
BY ROBERT FROST
Created by Group Six of E Class:
Brian Pradana Putra Murer
(115110101111015)
Adidharma Pramudito
(115110101111022)
Rella Coverries S
(115110100111029)
Ni Nyoman Ayu Shri Smertini Adhi
(115110101111030)
Febrian Dwi Indarwanto
(115110101111064)
Tenri Wega Herawati
(115110101111084)
Study Program of English
Department of Languages and Literature
Faculty of Culture Studies
University of Brawijaya
Malang
2013
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
By Robert Frost
Whose ‘woods these ‘are I ‘think I ‘know.
/͜
-/ / ͜
-// ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-// ͜
-// ͜
-/ / ͜
-// ͜
-// ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-// ͜
-// ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-// ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-// ͜
-/ / ͜
-/
/͜
-/ / ͜ -/ / ͜
-/
/͜
B
iambic tetrameter
C
iambic tetrameter
B
iambic tetrameter
C
iambic tetrameter
C
iambic tetrameter
D
iambic tetrameter
C
iambic tetrameter
-/
The ‘only ‘other ‘sound's the ‘sweep
/͜
iambic tetrameter
-/
To ‘ask if ‘there is ‘some ‘mistake.
/͜
B
-/
He ‘gives his ‘harness ‘bells a ‘shake
/͜
iambic tetrameter
-/
The ‘darkest evening ‘of the ‘year.
/͜
A
-/
Bet’ween the ‘woods and ‘frozen ‘lake
/͜
iambic tetrameter
-/
To ‘stop with’out a ‘farmhouse ‘near
/͜
B
-/
My ‘little ‘horse must ‘think it ‘queer
/͜
iambic tetrameter
-/
To ‘watch his ‘woods fill ‘up with ‘snow.
/͜
A
-/
He ‘will not ‘see me ‘stopping ‘here
/͜
iambic tetrameter
-/
His ‘house is ‘in the ‘village, ‘though;
/͜
A
-/
Of ‘easy ‘wind and ‘downy ‘flake.
/͜
-// ͜
-/ / ͜
-// ͜
-/
The ‘woods are ‘lovely, ‘dark, and ‘deep,
/͜
-/
/͜
-// ͜
-/
/͜
-// ͜
-// ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
-/ / ͜
iambic tetrameter
D
iambic tetrameter
D
iambic tetrameter
-/
And ‘miles to ‘go bef’ore I ‘sleep.
/͜
D
-/
And ‘miles to ‘go bef’ore I ‘sleep,
/͜
iambic tetrameter
-/
But ‘I have ‘promi’ses to ‘keep,
/͜
D
-/ / ͜
-/
1. Poetry Summary
In this poetry, the speaker wants to show us about his experience during his jurney
with the aim is to keep the speaker promises to someone who lives in the place where his
destination belongs to. But in the middle of the way he is distracted with the beauty of the
nature “woods” but still he remind himself to continue his jurney so he will be able to keep
his promises before he die.
2. Stanzaic Form
This poetry - “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening” – consict of four stanzas. Each
stanza contains of four line and it callled Quatrains.
3. Rhymes



This poem writtern in iambic tetrameter. All of the line consist by four feet.
The rhyme scheme of the poem is aaba, bbcb, ccdc, dddd.
This poetry has a perfect rhyme.
4. Figurative Language
Imagery:
Whose woods these are I think I know.
His house is in the village though;
He will not see me stopping here
Sight Imagery
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
My little horse must think it queer
Personifikasi
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year.
Sight Imagery
Hyperbole
He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake
The only other sound’s the sweep
Imagery Auditory
Of easy wind and downy flake.
The woods are lovely, dark, and deep.
Sight Imagery
But I promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.
5. Theme
The main theme of this poetry is to keep promises and the second theme is admires the
beauty of nature.
6. Message
The message of this poetry is to tell us to keep our promises to someone eventhough there
are obstacles.
7. Historical Background
This poetry tells about someone’s journey in the middle of the woods after hesitating for
some times then he continue his journey because he has promise to keep. It’s the same as
Robert Forst’s journey to his home from the market. He wanted to buy Christmas presents
for his children but he did not have enough money. His stop in the sidewalk because of his
hesitation, but after his horse shake his body and make the bell on the harness ring, it seems
that the horse tried to cheer him up. Then, he continued his journey to go home because he
already had a promise to his children (Vincent, 2009)
-8. References
SparkNotes Editors. (2002). SparkNote on Frost’s Early Poems. Retrieved May 20, 2013,
from http://www.sparknotes.com/poetry/frost/
River State College. (2011). Writing handout L3: Understanding poetry. Retrived on May
28, 2013, from http://www.irsc.edu/uploadedFiles/ Student/AcademicSupport
Center/WritingLab/L3-Understanding-Poetry-ASC.pdf
Vincent, Caitlin. Jordan Reid Berkow ed. “Robert Forst: Poems Study Guide: Summary and
Analysis of “Stopping by Woods on Snowy Evening” (1923)”. GradeSaver, 12
May 2009 Web. 22 May 2013.
HANDOUT 6
The Analysis of “The Negro’s Tragedy”
A Poem by Claude McKay
Group 04

Nadiya Farisya Ramdhani
(0911110068)

Nindia Rizana
(0911110070)

Chusnul Chotimah
(105110101111093)

Dinar Utami A.
(115110100111033)

Isna Nur L.
(115110100111043)

Sheilga Firdausa D.
(115110100111044)
English Literature
Faculty of Culture Studies
University of Brawijaya
2013
I. INTRODUCTION
Negro’s Tragedy by Claude McKay
It is the Negro’s tragedy I feel
Which binds me like a heavy iron chain,
It is the Negro’s wounds I want to heal
Because I know the keenness of his pain.
Only a thorn-crowned Negro and no white
Can penetrate into the Negro’s ken
Or feel the thickness of the shroud of night
Which hides and buries him from other men.
So what I write is shot out of my blood.
There is no white man who could write my book
Though many think the story can be told
Of what the Negro people ought to brook.
Our statesmen roam the world to set things right.
This Negro laughs, and prays to God for Light!
1. Summary of the poem
This poem tells about black people who always reputed as a lower rank in America. The
white man was at the centre of the cultural-circle, and the blackman was pushed to stand around
them. In this poem, the speaker tries to support others negro to survive their life in that situation.
The situation is very hard to facing but they always pray and fight for their freedom.
2. Theme
The major theme of the poem is “the black’s efforts to survive in a racist society”. It
shows to the readers how black people suffer in situation when they were discriminated by
society and their effort to fight and always pray for freedom.
II. DISCUSSION
1. Stanzaic Pattern, Rhyme, Rtyhm
In scanning a poem, knowing the rhythm, the rhyme, and the alliteration are very
important. Those elements give a pattern to the poem. When the readers understand them, the
readers will be able to read the poem well. The first stanza is octave and second stanza is sestet.
The general rhyme pattern is a b a b, written in iambic pentameter and iambic pentameter with
pyrrhic in the end of the line (line 2, line 4, line 6, & line 8).
1st Stanza: Octave (a stanza of eight lines)
/͜ - / ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/ ͜ -/
It isthe Negro’s tragedyI feelperfect(a)Iambic Pentameter
/͜- /
͜- / ͜- /͜-/͜ ͜ /
Which binds me like a heavy ironchain, perfect(b)Iambic Pentameter with Pyrrhic in the end
of the line
/͜-/ ͜ -/ ͜- / ͜-/ ͜- /
It is the Negro’s wounds I want to healperfect(a)Iambic Pentameter
/ ͜ - / ͜ - / ͜ - / ͜ -/ ͜ ͜ /
Because I know the keenness of his pain.perfect(b)Iambic Pentameterwith Pyrrhic in the end
of the line
/ ͜ -/ ͜ - /
͜ -/ ͜ - / ͜ - /
Only a thorn-crowned Negro and no whiteperfect(c)Iambic Pentameter
/ ͜ -/ ͜ - / ͜ - / ͜ -/ ͜ ͜ /
Can penetrate into the Negro’s kenperfect(d)Iambic Pentameterwith Pyrrhic in the end of the
line
/ ͜ - / ͜ - / ͜ -/ ͜ - / ͜ - /
Or feel the thickness of the shroud of nightperfect(c)Iambic Pentameter
/ ͜ -/
͜ -/ ͜ -/
͜ -/ ͜ ͜ /
Which hides and buries him from other men.perfect(d)Iambic Pentameterwith Pyrrhic in the
end of the line
2nd Stanza: Sestet (a stanza of six lines)
/͜- / ͜
- / ͜
- / ͜- / ͜
- /
So what I write is shot out of my blood.half(e)Iambic Pentameter
/͜
- / ͜ - / ͜ -
/͜
- / ͜
- /
There is no white man who could write my bookperfect(f)Iambic Pentameter
/
͜ -/ ͜ - / ͜
-/͜
-/ ͜ - /
Though many think the story can be toldhalf(g)Iambic Pentameter
/ ͜- /
͜ -/ ͜
- / ͜
- / ͜
- /
Of what the Negro people ought to brookperfect(f)Iambic Pentameter
/ ͜- /
͜
- / ͜
- / ͜- / ͜ - /
Our statesmen roam the world to set this rightperfect(c)Iambic Pentameter
/ ͜- / ͜ - /
͜ - / ͜
- /͜
-
/
This Negro laugh, and praise to God to Light!perfect(c)Iambic Pentameter
Notes:



In the poem above, the underlined letters are the Alliteration.
The stressed syllable is symbolized with –
The unstressed syllable is symbolized with ͜
2. Figurative Language
 Simile → It is the Negro’s tragedy I feel
Which binds me like a heavy iron chain
 It is compared two things assert similarity. The things are the author’s feeling about the
tragedy and the heavy iron chain that we know as an heavy thing to carry.
 Hyperbole → It is the Negro’s wounds I want to heal
Because I know the keenness of his pain.
 It is hyperbole because the writer want to emphasis his statement by the sentences
“because I know the keenes of his pain” he wants to tell us the condition which full of
sufferings at that time and he want to help theirs to” get up” from their sadness.

Imagery (visual image) & Metaphor
→ Only a thorn-crowned Negro and no white
Can penetrate into the negro`s ken
 It is imagery (visual image) because the writer want to captured the tragedy of the
negro`sickness at that time.
 It is metaphor because in this poem,white does not mean the things which has white skin
such as the whole Europe or American people as the negro’s enemy.

Imagery (visual image) & Personification
→ Or feel the thickness of the shroud of night
Which hides and buries him from other men.
 It is imagery (visual image) because usually the sadness and sickness captured by the
situation of night.
 It is personification because itcompares the situation of night with the activity of human
beings which can hide and buries someone else from the others.
 Metaphor→There is no white man who could write my book
 The term white man metaphors from white peopleor Europe people.
(line 10)

Apostrophe & Metaphor→This negro laughs, and prays to God for lights(line
14)
 It is apostrophe because the writer wants to asked people to prays to God to get better life
in the future.
 It is metaphor because the “light” is metaphor from the right way to get better life to
negro’s people.
3. Biographical Approach
a. Festus Claudius McKay (Claude McKay) born in Sunny Ville, Jamaica, in 1889. He
was the youngest child of Thomas Francis McKay and Hannah Ann Elizabeth Edwards.
b. He started writing poetry at the age of 10.
c. He works as a constable in Jamaican Capital, Kingston, but he experienced and
encountered extensive racism and he returned home to Sunny Ville to continued writing
poetry.
4. Historical Approach
“James Weldon Johnson once said that Harlem is indeed the great for the sight-seer; the
pleasure seeker, the curious, the adventurous, the enterprising, the ambitious and the talented of the
whole Negro world. When one thinks of the Harlem Renaissance, one thinks of the great explosion
of creativity bursting from the talented minds of African-Americans in the 1920s.” Jeffrey B.
Ferguson, one of negro’s artist also said:
“We younger Negro artists who create now intend to express our individual dark-skinned
selves without fear or shame. If white people are pleased we are glad. If they are not, it doesn't
matter. We know we are beautiful. And ugly too. The tom-tom cries and the tom-tom laughs. If
colored people are pleased we are glad. If they are not, their displeasure doesn't matter either. We
build our temples for tomorrow, strong as we know how, and we stand on top of the mountain, free
within ourselves.” (Gadget, n.d)
In “The Negro’s Tragedy”, Claude McKay tries to express and represent the feeling
of African – American. The lines of the poem:
It is the Negro’s tragedy I feel
Which binds me like a heavy iron chain,
It is the Negro’s wounds I want to heal
Because I know the keenness oh his pain
 shows that Negro’s tragedy is experienced by the writer, it is a suffer, the situation gives
difficulty and very hard to facing so the writer want to stop it. The other line:
Only a thorn-crowned Negro and no white
Can penetrate into Negro’s ken
Or feel the thickness of shroud of night
Which hides and buries him from other men
So what I write is shot out of my blood.
There is no white man who could write my book
 shows that no one especially white people cannot understand the feeling because they
do not experience it (underestimate). In the end of the poem:
Though many think the story can be told
Of what the Negro people ought to brook.
Our statement roam the world to set the things right.
This Negro laughs, and prays to God for Light!
 Shows that the situation is too difficult to explain. Negro people fight for the right and
struggle from their difficulty. They always survive and pray to God to get their freedom.
It give a sign that this poem is write in Harlem Renaissance which consider as most
important literary, artistic and social movement of African – American movement to
fighting for freedom.
III. CONCLUSION
The Negro’s Tragedy by Claude McKay is a poem that written in Harlem Renaissance
era. It tells about how negro struggle in situation when they were discrimination by white people.
The general rhyme pattern is a b a b, written in iambic pentameter and iambic pentameter with
pyrrhic in the end of the line. The stanzaic form is octave and sestet. The moral value of this
poem is people should fight for their freedom.
IV. REFERENCES
Gadget, Mr. (n.d).The Harlem Renaissance. Retrieve on May 20, 2013 from
http://hubpages.com/topics/education-and-science/3398.
Giles, F.S. Modern American Poetry: Claude McKay’s Life. Retrieved on May 20, 2013 from
http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/m_r/mckay/life.htm.
HANDOUT 7
The Analysis of
“Success is Counted Sweetest”
A Poem by Emily Dickinson
The member of group:
Sulistyaningrum (115110100111017)
Rae ShellaTivaniMareta (115110100111030)
DhianZhafarina (115110100111008)
Risa
HikmahNovianti (115110100111108)
Widya(115110101111029)
Study Program of English
Department of Language and Literature
Faculty of Culture Studies
University of Brawijaya
2013
Success is Counted Sweetest
By Emily Dickinson
Success is counted sweetest
By those who ne'er succeed.
To comprehend a nectar
Requires sorest need.
Not one of all the purple Host
Who took the Flag today
Can tell the definition
So clear of Victory
As he defeated--dying-On whose forbidden ear
The distant strains of triumph
Burst agonized and clear!
I. INTRODUCTION
a. Background Info and Summary of the Poem
Success is beautiful, furthermore if it is gotten by the people who have fallen many times,
and who have gotten many pains. Their pains can help them to be stronger. They have
experience and strength because of their failure, and those make them get success or
victory.There are no amazing and great people who can get the success itself today. There
are no amazing and great people who can explain what actually success is. When someone
has overcome the challenge which hampers him, and he can crosses the hampers, he will get
the real success. And all of his pains will be recovered by the success itself.
The poem "Success is Counted Sweetest" is composed of only three stanzas of four lines
each. Success is Counted Sweetest written by Emily Dickinson basically is about success is
considered most desirable by those who have never been successful.
The poet proposes in the First Stanza, Lines 1 - 4, that success is the ultimate triumph and
is sweetest to those who desperately desire it but have never obtain it. Success is sweetest to
them than to the people who already have power and success. Some people work so hard and
struggle to reach a goal, but somehow the fortunate ones who already have success, on the
other hand, do not seem to appreciate it as much. To them success is like an everyday
common occurrence.
Emily Dickinson turns to metaphors to illustrate this idea further. First she uses nectar in
Line 3. In her century, nectar refers to the drink of Gods. So, to appreciate the good taste of
sweet nectar, one must need to be hungry for it or unfamiliar with it. (See Line 3 and 4):
"To comprehend a nectar
Requires sorest need"
In Stanzas 2 and 3, Dickinson utilizes two scenes referring to war, most likely the Civil
War. She proposes that the soldiers, who returned home held flags in celebration of their
victory and bravery. However, these soldiers could not bravery or even a greater victory than
those were fatally wounded in the combat zone. In the second scene, she illustrates with the
power of her pen a dying soldier who could see clearly that victory was approaching, but
sadly, also knew he would not triumph because death was calling him home too soon (Stanza
3):
"As he defeated - dying –
On whose forbidden ear
The distant strains of triumph
Burst agonized and clear."
b. The Poem’s Major Theme
The person who has the best meaning of success is the person who fails.
II. DISCUSSION
a. (1 )Stanzaic Pattern
The stanzaic form of “Success Counted Sweetest” by Emily Dickinson is quatrain. Each
stanza is contained of four lines.
b. (1) Rhyme and Rhythm
The general rhyme pattern of this poem is a-b-c-b.
Success is Counted Sweetest
By Emily Dickinson
Success is counted sweetest
By those who ne'er succeed.
To comprehend a nectar
Requires sorest need.
a
b
c
b
Not one of all the purple Host
Who took the Flag today
Can tell the definition
So clear of Victory
d
e
f
g
As he defeated--dying-On whose forbidden ear
The distant strains of triumph
Burst agonized and clear!
h
i
j
i
/͜
- /͜
- /͜
- / ͜ /
Suc`cess is `counted `sweetest
/͜
- / ͜
- /͜
- /
By `those who `ne'er suc`ceed.
/͜
- /͜
- /͜
- /͜ /
To `compre`hend a `nectar
/͜
- /͜
- /͜
- /
Re`quires `sorest `need.
/͜
- /͜
- /͜
- /͜
- /
Not `one of `all the `purple `Host
/͜
- / ͜
- /͜ - /
Who `took the `Flag to`day
/ ͜
- / ͜
-/ ͜ -/ ͜ /
Can `tell the `defi`nition
/͜
- / ͜ - /͜ -/
So `clear of `Victo`ry
/ ͜ - /͜ - / ͜
-/͜
/
As`he de`feated—`dying—
/͜
- / ͜ - /͜
-/
On `whose for`bidden `ear
/͜
- /͜
- /͜
- /
The`distant `strains of `triumph
/ ͜
-/ ͜ - / ͜
- /
Burst `ago`nized and `clear!
IAMBIC TETRAMETER WITH INCOMPLETE FOOT
IAMBIC TRIMETER
IAMBIC TETRAMETER WITH INCOMPLETE FOOT
IAMBIC TRIMETER
IAMBIC TETRAMETER
IAMBIC TRIMETER
IAMBIC TETRAMETER WITH INCOMPLETE FOOT
IAMBIC TRIMETER
IAMBIC TETRAMETER WITH INCOMPLETE FOOT
IAMBIC TRIMETER
IAMBIC TRIMETER
IAMBIC TRIMETER
c. (1)Figurative Language and Diction
Diction:
The diction in “Success is Counted Sweetest” by Emily Dickinson is remarkable and
meaningful. The dictions like sorest, forbidden, distant, strains, burst, and agonized are proper
to build the nuance of the poem. In the third line of the first stanza, she chooses the word
‘nectar’ to represent success. She uses the word ‘nectar’ to give an emphasis that success is
sweet. In the first line of the second stanza, the word ‘purple’ represents royalty. In the second
line of the second stanza, flag also represents success in the battle.
Figurative Language:

Metaphor:
Stanza 1 line 1-2> "Success is counted sweetest, by those who ne'er succeed." Dickinson
elaborates on how succeeding feel so luscious when you have been preceded by failure and
disappointment.
Stanza 1 line 3-4> "To comprehend a nectar, requires sorest need." Here, it is no longer just
about success, but about want and desire, too. “To comprehend a nectar,” that is, to truly
understand all the wonderful aspects of nectar, and to be satisfied by it. While “requires
sorest need” means that only the starving can truly appreciate food.
Stanza 2 line 1-2> “Not one of all the purple host, who took the flag to-day” it means that
the arrogant people who achieve success though have won but do not have the true essence of
victory.

Personification:
Stanza 3 line 2> "On whose forbidden ear" here, Emily Dickinson personifies victory and
success for the one defeated as it is nothing less than a forbidden ear which does not listen to
his call for victory.
(2)How the Figurative Language Helps to Establish the Theme
These figurative languages are all important to help the reader determine what theme is
being applied in this poem. The main theme of this poem is that only the person seeking the
final goal many times can get and feel the truly essence of success. Emily Dickinson wrote
that “those who ne’er succeed” place the highest value on success and they “count” it
“sweetest”. To understand the value of a nectar, the speaker says, one must feel “sorest need.”
She says that the members of the victorious army (“The purple Host / Who took the flag
today”) are not able to define victory as well as the defeated, dying man who hears from a
distance the music of the victors.
d. (1)Biographical Approach
From the explanation about the poem, it shows that Emilly had to struggle to reach her
dreams. In writing poem she also had a mentor that she really loved, Thomas. If we analyze
this poem from a biographical point of view, this can be Emily’s response to those around
her who attained the highest stature and success (maybe due to the social position, and thus,
indifferent to the real taste of success). When she was child, her life was not easy. She was
also well known for her unusual life of self-imposed social seclusion. She was living in a life
of simplicity and seclusion. However, she had dreams. She always though if she could make
her dreams come true, she would be the happiest woman in the world. (biography,2003)
III. CONCLUSION
a. Summary of Analysis
The stanzaic form of “Success Counted Sweetest” by Emily Dickinson is quatrain. Each
stanza is contained of four lines.The general rhyme for the poem is a-b-c-b.
The general rhythm that mostly uses in this poem is iambic trimester.
The diction in “Success is Counted Sweetest” by Emily Dickinson is remarkable and
meaningful. The dictions like sorest, forbidden, distant, strains, burst, and agonized are
proper to build the nuance of the poem. In the third line of the first stanza, she chooses the
word ‘nectar’ to represent success. She uses the word ‘nectar’ to give an emphasis that
success is sweet. In the first line of the second stanza, the word ‘purple’ represents royalty. In
the second line of the second stanza, flag also represents success in the battle.
Figurative language that is used in this poem are:
Metaphor:
Stanza 1 line 1-2> "Success is counted sweetest, by those who ne'er succeed."
Stanza 1 line 3-4> "To comprehend a nectar, requires sorest need, requires sorest need"
Stanza 2 line 1-2> “Not one of all the purple host, who took the flag to-day”
Personification:
Stanza 3 line 2> "On whose forbidden ear"
b. Moral value/message
The person who has the best meaning of success is the person who fails. It is obviously seen
that the message of the poem is that people who do not succeed are those who truly understand
success for what it is.
1V. REFFERENCES
Julia. (2011). Success is Counted Sweetest. Retrieved on May 26th, 2013 from
http://nefedovajulia.blogspot.com/2011/04/success-is-counted-sweetest.html
Valdez, A. 2010. Metaphor. Retrieved 26 May 2013 from
http://alexisvaldez.freewebspace.com/metaphor.html
Moreno, J. et al. 2010. Success is Counted Sweetest. Retrieved 26 May 2013 from
http://english3period2emilydickinson.wikispaces.com/Success+is+Counted+Sweetest
Lipsmeyer, J.Janie. 2012.Poetry analysis: Success Is Counted Sweetest, by Emily
Dickinson.Retrieved 26 May 2013 fromhttp://www.helium.com/items/2402158-poetryanalysis-success-is-counted-sweetest-by-emily-dickinson
HANDOUT 8
Masterrima Siti Anisyah
Mutia Tania
Ahmad Musaddad
REMEMBER by CHRISTINA ROSSETI
Remember me when I am gone away,
a
Gone far away into the silent land;
b
When you can no more hold me by the hand,
b
Nor I half turn to go yet turning stay.
a
Remember me when no more day by day
a
You tell me of our future that you planned;
b
Only remember me; you understand
b
It will be late to counsel then or pray.
a
Yet if you should forget me for a while
c
And afterwards remember, do not grieve;
d
For if the darkness and corruption leave
d
A vestige of the thought that one I had,
e
Better by far you should forget and smile
c
Than that you should remember and be sad.
e
 Stanzaic Form “remember” is a sonnet with Italian form. It can be divided into 2 part.
1. An octave is a stanza of eight line.
2. A sestet is a stanza of six lines.
 Sound Pattern-Rhyme There is a perfect rhyme, following the pattern ‘abba, abba, cddece’.
‘Abba’, ‘abba’ corresponds to the octave, ‘cddece’ correspond to the sestet. The pattern in the
sestet is less regular than the octave. This is because the speaker seems to rethink her demand
about remembering her and suddenly announces that he may forget her in the sestet. The
thought pattern is less simple, so the rhyme scheme becomes more complex.
 Diction The only unusual word is ‘vestige’, which means ‘trace’ or ‘hint’.
Rhyme
Rememb‘er me ‘ when I ‘ am gone ‘ away ‘
/ - ‘ //
- - / - ‘ / - ‘ / iambic pentameter with two pyrrhics
Gone far ‘ away ‘ into th’e silent ‘ land ‘
/ ‘ ‘ / - ‘ / - - / - ‘ / - ‘ / iambic penta with one spondoic and one pyrrhic
When you ‘ can no ‘ more hold ‘ me by ’ the hand’
/ - - / - ‘ / - ‘ / - - / - ‘ / pyyrhic penta with two iambics, one trochaic
Nor I ha ’ lf turn ‘ to go ‘ yet turn ’ ing stay.
/- - / ‘ ‘ / - ‘ / ‘ ‘ / - ‘/ one pyyrhic, two spondaics, two iambics
Remember ‘me when no more day by day
/‘ /- -/ ‘/ ‘
‘ / - ‘ / iambic penta with one pyrrhic and one spondaic
You tell ‘ me of ‘ our fu ‘ ture that ‘ you planned; ’
/ - ‘ / - - / - ‘/ ‘ / ‘ / iambic penta with one pyrrhics
Only ‘ rememb ’ er me ‘ you un’derstand ‘
/’ -/ ‘
/ - - / - - /- ‘ /
one troichaic, two iambics and two pyrrhics
It will ‘ be late ‘ to couns’el then ‘ or pray ‘
/ - -/ - ‘ / - ‘ / - - / - ‘ / iambic penta with two pyrrhics
Yet if you ‘ should forge’ t me fo’r a wh’ile’
/ ‘ - / - - /‘ - / - - /- ‘
/ two trochaics, two pyrrhics, one iambic
And after ’ wards rememb ‘ er, do ‘ not grieve’
/ - ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ /
iambic penta
For if ‘ the dark’ness and ‘ corrup ‘ tion leave’
/- -/ - ‘ / - - / - ‘ / - ‘ /
iambic penta with two pyrrhics
A vesti ‘ ge of ‘ the thought ‘ that one ‘ I had’
/ - -/ ‘ - / - ‘ / - ‘ / - - / iambic penta with two pyrrhic
Better ‘ by far ‘ you should ‘ forget ‘ and smile’
/‘ - / - ‘ /- - / ‘
- / - ‘ /
two trochaics, two iambics, one pyrrhic
Than that ‘ you should ‘ rememb ‘ er and ‘ be sad’
/ - - / - - / - ‘ / - - / - ‘ / pyrrhic penta with two iambics
Figurative Language
 Metaphor :
 Remember me when I am gone away,
 Gone far away into the silent land;
 Imagery :
 When you can no more hold me by the hand,
 For if the darkness and corruption leave
Biographical and Historical
Christina Georgina Rossetti was born in London in December 1830, into a family of poets and
artists. She was the youngest of four children. Her father was an Italian poet. She was educated
at home by her mother. Rossetti suffered a nervous breakdown at the age of 14. In later years
this was followed by bouts of depression. She was close to her brother Dante Gabriel Rossetti,
and was linked through him with an art movement that studied nature. She lived a secluded life.
She died of cancer in December 1894.
Rossetti was one of the most important women poets of the 19th Century. Much of her poetry
is religious, though she wrote some passionate love-poetry. Rossetti refused two offers of
marriage because of religious differences. In her late teens she became engaged to the painter
James Collinson but this relationship eventually ended because of religious differences when
Collinson became a Catholic.
Rosetti wrote the poem ‘Remember’ when she was 18 or 19 and engaged to Collinson. Some
readers of this poem think it is concerned with the nearness of death and the unimportance of
earthly love. They say that lots of Rossetti’s poems show that being in love tended to remind her
of death. Other readers think Rosetti wanted to end the relationship as her fiancé was crowding
her out, trying to control her. Also there was a growing religious difference between them as
Collinson was about to become a Catholic. In other words, it is a poem about a woman’s plan to
regain her personal freedom.
Biographical and Historical
---
HANDOUT 9
GROUP 5
DIAH WIDAYANTI
HOPIYANTO
PAMELA FATMASARI
"To Daffodils“
by ROBERT HERRICK
Fair daffodils, we weep to see
You hast away so soon:
As yet the early-rising sun
a
b
c
/- ‘/- ‘/-‘/-‘/
/- ‘ /- ‘/- ‘/
/- ‘ / - - ‘ /- - ‘ /
iambic tetrameter
iambic trimeter
Has not attained his noon.
b
/- ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ /
iambic trimeter
Stay, stay,
Until the hasting day
Has run
But to the evensong;
And, having prayed together, we
d
d
//e
//-
pyrrhic monometer
iambic trimeter
iambic monometer
anapest dimeter
on
f
g
-/
‘ / - ‘ / - ‘/
/- ‘/
- ‘ / - - ‘/
‘ / - ‘ / - - ‘ / -/
in
unstressed in the 4th foot
Will go with you along.
f
- ‘ / - ‘/ -
We have short time to stay, as you, h
We have as short a spring;
I
As quick a growth meet decay,
j
/- ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘/
/- ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘/
/- ‘ / - ‘ / - - ‘/
anapestic trimeter with an iambic
the 1st foot
iambic tetra meter with anapestic
the 3rd foot with
iambic trimeter
iambic tetrameter
iambic trimeter
iambic trimeter with anapestic in
the 3rd foot
As you, or anything.
I
/- ‘ / - - ‘/
iambic dimeter with anapestic in
k
k
j
m
n
m
/- ‘/
/- ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ /
/- ‘/
/‘ - / - ‘/ - ‘/
/- ‘ / - ‘/ - ‘ / - ‘/
/- ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘/
iambic monometer
iambic trimeter
iambic monometer
iambic trimeter
iambic tetrameter
iambic trimester
nd
the 2 foot
We die,
As your hours do, and dry
Away,
Like to the summer’s rain;
Or as the pearls of morning’s dew
Ne’er to be found again.
SUMMARY
The speaker talks about the beauty of daffodils, but we have short time to see the beauty of
daffodils because Daffodils have short time to live.
THEME
Something that can’t be everlasting
STANZAIC FORM
The poem consist of 2 stanza, every stanza consist of ten lines.
Analysis of Figurative Language
• Line 1 “Fair Daffodils, we weep to see”
Fair Daffodils = Apostrophe
Here, the poem’s speaker wants to address the Daffodils, yellow trumpet-shaped flower, as a
nonhuman being as if it is a human being which alive/present and could reply, with the form of
address “Fair Daffodils”
• Line 2 “You haste away so soon”
You haste away so soon = Personification
The word “You” here was refers to the Daffodil, a yellow trumpet-shaped flower, as an object
(not an human being/person), but in this line “You haste away so soon”, this line tells us with
personified as if the daffodils can move quickly/hurriedly (show an action in move like a person)
• Line 3 “As yet the early-rising sun”
As = Simile
In line 3, the poem’s speaker was comparing dissimilar things between the Daffodils with the sun
which is rising early in the morning, with the word “as” to link the images. The two objects
being compared are the Daffodils and the sun which early rising to show how shorts the time
was.
• Line 4 “Has not attained his soon”
His (= Sun) soon = Personification
In line 4, the poem’s speaker stated that His soon, the word “his” here refers to the early-rising
sun’s period.
• Line 5 - 7
“Stay, stay,
Until the hasting day
Has run”
→ Apostrophe & Personification
From the point of view Apostrophe side, this line is a set of sentence like in this form “Stay, stay,
until the hasting day has run”. And this sentence seems like a direct sentence in addressing a
person.
From the point of view Personification side, this line stated that “… hasting day has run”, from
this phrase, it is clear that this phrase show as a personification, since we know that the day was
non-human object, but it is stated with the verb “has run”, which is to show that the day was also
human being which is can flowing like a human-being condition/life.
• Line9 – 10 “And having prayed together, we” and “Will go with you along”
We & You = The Daffodils and the speaker’s poem = Apostrophe
The word “We” here was to address the daffodils and the poem’s speaker.
• Line11 “We have short time to stay as you;”
We = Apostrophe
…. as you; = Simile
The word “we” was refers to the poem’s speaker and the readers also; who comparing with the
Daffodils which are has short time in this life.
• Line12 - 13 “We have as short a spring;” and “As quick a growth to meet decay”
We = Apostrophe
…. as short a spring; = Simile
As quick ….= Simile
The word “we” was refers to the poem’s speaker, the reader, and the Daffodils also; who
comparing with a spring which is also has a short period in their lives, which capable in make
damage something in short period.
• Line14 “As you, or anything”
As ….= Simile
• Line 16 “As your hours do, and dry”
As ….= Simile
The word “As your hours do, and dry” was show that the period/the time in our lives was so
short ended; anything was easily ended in short period, so we must do something useful in our
life.
• Line 17 “Like to the summer’s rain;”
Like … = Simile
The word “Like…’ was clear that it is a Simile, since it is comparing two things which
dissimilar, between, our short period in life and the rain period in summer season.
• Line 18 “Or as the pearls of morning’s dew”
As…= Simile
The word “As…’ was clear that it is a Simile, since it is comparing two things which dissimilar,
between, our short period in life and the pearls in the morning with some dew.
BOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION
The poem is related with his life, herrick never Herrick never married, and none of his lovepoems seem to connect directly with any one beloved woman. He loved the richness of
sensuality and the variety of life, and this is shown vividly in such poems as Cherry-ripe, Delight
in Disorder and Upon Julia’s Clothes, besides almost his poems describe that this life is short,
the world is beautiful and we must do the best from it. It can be shown from the poems to
daffodils, To the Virgins, to make much of Time.
HISTORICAL APPROACH
This poem is wrote in restorian era. It is called the Age of Dryden, because Dryden was the
dominating and most representative literary figure of the Age. Throughout the period, the lyric,
ariel, historical, and epic poem was being developed.
MESSAGE
Life is short, and world is beautiful, love is splendid and we must use the short time we live to
make the most of it.
REFFERENCES
http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/197#sthash.lX9nbbzu.dpuf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Restoration_literature
http://neoenglishsystem.blogspot.com/2010/12/restoration-period-1660-1700.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Herrick_(poet)
HANDOUT 10
POEM ANALYSIS
“TO DAFFODILS”
RISKI PERMATASARI
115110100111049
LULUK LUTFIYA HANUM
115110100111051
HIDAYATI FAIZATULLAILI
115110100111052
ENGLISH DEPARTMENT
FACULTY OF CULTURE STUDIES
UNIVERSITY OF BRAWIJAYA
2013
To Daffodils
By Robert Herrick
/- ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘
/- ‘ /
Fair ‘daffo’dils, we ‘weep to ‘see
/- ‘
/-‘ /- ‘ /
You ‘haste a‘way so ‘soon;
/- - / - ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ /
As yet the ‘early-‘rising ‘sun
/- - / - ‘
/- ‘
/
Has not at‘tained his ‘noon.
/‘
‘ /
‘Stay, ‘stay
/- - / - ‘ / - ‘
Until the ‘hasting ‘day
/- ‘ /
Has ‘run
/- - / - ‘ / - ‘ /
But to the ‘even‘song;
/‘ / - ‘
/- ‘ /- ‘ /
And, ‘having ‘pray’d to‘gether, ‘we
/- ‘ / - ‘
/- ‘ /
Will ‘go with ‘you a‘long.
iambic tetrameter
(A)
iambic trimeter
(B)
iambic tetrameter with a pyrrhic on the 1st foot
(C)
iambic trimeter with a pyrrhic on the 1st foot
(B)
spondaic monometer
(D)
(D)
iambic tetrameter with a pyrrhic on the 1st foot
(C)
iambic trimeter with a pyrrhic on the 1st foot
(E)
iambic tetrameter
(A)
iambic trimeter
(E)
/- ‘
/‘
/- ‘ /- ‘ /
We ‘have short ‘time to ‘stay, as ‘you,
/- ‘
/- ‘
/- ‘
/
We ‘have as ‘short a ‘spring;
/- ‘
/- ‘
/- ‘
/- ‘ /
iambic tetrameter
(F)
iambic trimeter
(G)
iambic tetrameter
As ‘quick a ‘growth to ‘meet de‘cay,
/- ‘
/- ‘ /- - /
As ‘you, or ‘anything.
/- ‘ /
We ‘die
/- - / ‘ /- ‘
As your hours ‘do, and ‘dry
/- ‘ /
A‘way
/- - / - ‘ / ‘ /
Like to the ‘summer’s ‘rain;
/- - / - ‘
/- ‘ /‘ /
Or as the ‘pearls of ‘morning’s ‘dew,
/- /- ‘
/-‘ /
Ne’er to be ‘found a‘gain.
(H)
iambic dimeter with a pyrrhic on the 3rd foot
(G)
iambic monometer
(I)
(I)
iambic tetrameter with a pyrrhic on the 1st foot
(H)
iambic trimeter with a pyrrhic on the 1st foot
(J)
iambic tetrameter with a pyrrhic on the 1st foot
(K)
iambic trimeter with a pyrrhic on the 1st foot
(J)
POEM’S MEANING
In his poem ‘To Daffodils’, the poet Robert Herrick begins by ‘we’ that implied for all of
us as human. He said that we feel sad to see the beautiful daffodils being wasted away very
quickly. The duration of their gloom is so short that it seems even the rising sun still hasn’t
reached the noon-time. The poet then addresses the daffodils and asks them to stay until the
day ends with the evening prayer. After praying together he says that they will also accompany
the daffodils.
“We have short time to stay, as you,
We have as short a spring.”
Robert Herrick compares human life with the life of daffodils. Further he says that both
of them grow very fast to be destroyed later. Just like the short duration of the flowers, people
only have a short time in their life. Their life is as short as the rain of the summer season, which
comes for a very short time; and the dew-drops in the morning, which vanish away and never
return again.
RHYME
Alliteration
“fair daffodils, we weep to see” l. 1
“you haste away so soon” l. 2
“we have short time to stay, as you” l. 10
“we have a short spring” l. 11
STANZAIC FORM
“To Daffodils” is Spenserian stanza; it consists of nine lines in each stanza.
THEME
A constant theme of the songs written by Robert Herrick is the short-lived nature of life and the
short passage of time. We find a note of melancholy/sadness in his poem which arises out of
the realization that beauty is not going to stay forever.
MESSAGES
From the poem we can take some message that life is short as the life of daffodils. We must
spend the time of our life with the joy and do such good and useful things.
FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
“Fair Daffodils, we weep to see”
Fair Daffodils  Apostrophe
the poet wants to talk to the Daffodils, as a nonhuman being as if it is a human being which
alive and could reply.
“You haste away so soon” Personification
The word “You” here was refers to the Daffodil, this the poet considers the daffodils can move
quickly/hurriedly (show an action in move like a person)
“As yet the early-rising sun”
As  Simile
the poet is comparing between the Daffodils with the sun which is rising early in the morning,
with the word “as” to link the images. The two objects being compared are the Daffodils and
the sun which early rising to show how shorts the time was.
“Has not attained his soon”
His (Sun) soon  Personification
In line 4, the poem’s speaker stated that His soon, the word “his” here refers to the early-rising
sun’s period.
“Stay, stay,
Until the hasting day
Has run”  Apostrophe & Personification
Apostrophe: this line seems like a sentence in addressing a person.
Personification: this line stated that “… hasting day has run”, from this phrase, we know that
the day was non-human object, but it is stated with the verb “has run” which is the human
being activity.
“And having prayed together, we” and “Will go with you along”
We & You (The Daffodils and the speaker’s poem)  Apostrophe
The word “We” here was to address the daffodils and the poem’s speaker.
“We have short time to stay as you;”
We  Apostrophe
as you  Simile
Apostrophe: The word “we” was refers to the poet and the readers also.
Simile: we is compared with the Daffodils which are has short time in this life.
“We have as short a spring;” and “As quick a growth to meet decay”
We Apostrophe
as short a spring  Simile
As quick  Simile
Apostrophe: The word “we” was refers to the poet, the reader, and the Daffodils also;
Simile: we is compared with a spring which is also has a short period in their lives, which can
make damagein short period.
“As you, or anything”
As Simile
We is again compared with the daffodils.
“As your hours do, and dry”
As  Simile
show that the time in our lives was very short, so we must do something useful in our life.
“Like to the summer’s rain;”
Like  Simile
It is comparing between our short period in life and the rain period in summer season that is
also has short period.
“Or as the pearls of morning’s dew”
As  Simile
it is comparing between our short period in life and the pearls in the morning with some dew.
BIOGRAPHICAL APPROACH
Robert Herrick's personal fate is in one point like Shakespeare's. We know or seem to
know them both, through their works, with singular intimacy. But with this our knowledge
substantially ends. No private letter of Shakespeare, no record of his conversation, no account
of the circumstances in which his writings were published, remains: hardly any statement how
his greatest contemporaries ranked him. A group of Herrick's youthful letters on business has,
indeed, been preserved; of his life and studies, of his reputation during his own time, almost
nothing. For whatever facts affectionate diligence could now gather. So far as is known, he
published but this one volume, and that, when not far from his sixtieth year. Some pieces may
be traced in earlier collections; some few carry ascertainable dates; the rest lie over a period of
near forty years, during a great portion of which we have no distinct account where Herrick
lived, or what were his employments.
A selection From the lyrical poems of Robert Herrick. Retrieved 20 May 2013 from
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1211/1211.txt
Herrick never married, and none of his love-poems seem to connect directly with any
one beloved woman. He loved the richness of sensuality and the variety of life. The over-riding
message of Herrick’s work is that life is short, the world is beautiful, love is splendid, and we
must use the short time we have to make the most of it. This message can be seen clearly in To
the Virgins, to make much of Time; To Daffodils; To Blossoms; and Corinna going a-Maying,
where the warmth and exuberance of what seems to have been a kindly and jovial personality
comes over strongly.
Retrieved 20 May 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Herrick_%28poet%29
Robert Herrick is generally considered the greatest of the Cavalier poets, and like most
of this group of poets his works show a large amount of wit and dryness. One such poem "To
Daffodils" which was in a collection of poems entitled "Hesperides," (tad bit presumptuous on
his part) is a perfect example of Herrick’s sophisticated and direct nature.
Robert Herrick was well known for his use of flowers as subjects and often
commented on their brevity of life or as an analogy to love. In one such poem, Why Flowers
Change Color, Herrick touches on the topic of love and virginity as a flower, but still keeps a
very close contact to his sharp dry nature that is found in “To Daffodils”.
Robert Herrick’s “to Daffodils”. Retrieved 20 May 2013
http://www.studymode.com/essays/Robert-Herrick-s-To-Daffodils-177105.html
HISTORICAL APPROACH
In 1647, in the wake of the English Civil War, Herrick was ejected from his vicarage for
refusing the Solemn League and Covenant. He then returned to London, living in Westminster
and depending on the charity of his friends and family. He spent some time preparing his lyric
poems for publication, and had them printed in 1648 under the title Hesperides; or the Works
both Human and Divine of Robert Herrick, with a dedication to the Prince of Wales.
When King Charles II was restored to the throne in 1660, Herrick petitioned for his own
restoration to his living. Perhaps King Charles felt kindly towards this genial man, who had
written verses celebrating the births of both Charles II and his brother James before the Civil
War. Herrick became the vicar of Dean Prior again in the summer of 1662 and lived there until
his death in October 1674, at the ripe age of 83. His date of death is not known, but he was
buried on 15 October. Herrick was a bachelor all his life, and many of the women he names in
his poems are thought to be fictional
Retrieved 20 May 2013 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Herrick_%28poet%29
---
HANDOUT 11
THE NEGRO’S TRAGEDY
By CLAUDE MCKAY
GROUP 7
ITSNAAINI RUSIRJAYANTI 115110100111041
M. AKHLIS FACHRURIZA
115110100111046
ANGGA WAHYU GEMILANG 115110100111053
Fakultas Ilmu Budaya
Universitas Brawijaya
Negro’s Tragedy
By Claude McKay
It is the Negro’s tragedy I feel
a
|- ‘| - ‘ | -
‘| - ‘| - ‘|
iambic pentameter
Which binds me like a heavy iron chain,
| -
‘ ||-
‘ ||- ‘ | |- ‘||-
b
‘ |
iambic pentameter
It is the Negro’s wounds I want to heal
|-‘||- ‘| -
‘
a
||- ‘ | |- ‘ |
iambic pentameter
Because I know the keenness of his pain.
|-
- ‘|| -
-
‘|| -
‘||-
b
‘|
two anapests and two iambs
Only a thorn-crowned Negro and no white
|’ - -||’
-
-| |’ -
-| |’
-|
c
three dactyl and one trochee
Can penetrate into the Negro’s ken
| - | |’ -
- ||’ - - | |’
-
d
- |
dactyl trimeter
Or feel the thickness of the shroud of night
|- ‘ ||-
‘ ||- ‘ || -
‘
|| - ‘
|
c
iambic pentameter
Which hides and buries him from other men.
| -
‘ || -
‘ || -
‘ || -
‘|| -
‘ |
d
iambic pentameter
So what I write is shot out of my blood.
|’
- ||’ - ||-
‘ ||-
‘||’
e
-|
three trochees and two iambs on the
3rd and 4th foot
There is no white man who could write my book
|-
- ‘ || -
-
‘ || -
‘
|| -
‘ |
f
two anapests and two iambs
Though many think the story can be told
| -
‘||-
‘ ||-
‘||-
‘|| -
‘|
g
iambic pentameter
Of what the Negro people ought to brook.
f
|-
iambic pentameter
‘
||-
‘|| -
‘||-
‘
||-
‘
|
Our statesmen roam the world to set things right.
h
|-
‘
|| -
‘
||-
‘
||- ‘ | | -
‘ |
iambic pentameter
This Negro laughs, and prays to God for Light!
h
| - ‘ || -
iambic pentameter
‘ || -
‘ || - ‘ || -
‘ |
--

MESSAGE
This poems make us not to allowed discriminate certain group or races. Beside that , this
poems teach us to respect to different races in the world.

STANZAIC
There is only 2 stanzas consists of 14 lines. The first stanza uses Octave, because consist
eight lines and use Sestet in the second stanza because contain six lines.

RHYME
The rhyme that is used in this poem ababcdcd, efgfhh. This poems use perfect rhyme in
line 1 and line 3 in first stanza, like feel – heal and also chain – pain in line 2 and line 4
first stanza; in the second stanza in the last line like light - right
Assonance in the first stanza line 5 and line 7 like white – night and second stanza line 10
and line 12 also book - brook

FIGURATIFVE LANGUAGE
o Simile
“which binds me like a heavy iron chain” ….. line 2 stanza 1
This is compared two things, between the negro’s tragedy and iron chain.
o Personification
“which binds me like a heavy iron chain” ….. line 2 stanza 1
The Negro’s tragedy can act like human being ( binds )
“It is the Negro’s wounds I want to heal”…. Line 3 stanza 1
The Negro’s wound is like a life thing
‘’so what I write is shot out of my blood”…. Line 9 stanza 2
The blood is can’t be place for writing but in this poems blood is like that
o Hyperbole
“our statement roam the world to set things right …. Line 13 stanza 2
The words ‘roam the world’ to emphasize the dramatize effect so he uses
hyperbolic words
o Metaphor
“this Negro’s laughs and pray to God for light”…. Line 14 stanza 2
The words ‘light’ means to get guidance. The author wants to tell the reader that
light is compared with guidance

HISTORICAL APPROACH
This poems was born on Harlem Renaissance era , Written by Claude McKay. This
poems tells about movement of African people to America. They work as slavery in
America. From this case, the government of United States always choose most white
than black people ( Negro). So, the author care about this problem and wrote this poems.

BIOGRAPHICAL APPROACH
Claude McKay is from Jamaica. He is the first person to express the Negro in
America. From this case, he join the organization in that era. One of his organizations
was Negro Renaissance. He tries to contribute actively inside making many poems about
equality of people in order to make many people realize that equality is important in the
world. This occurred in 1920’s. On the eve of his departure to the United States, McKay
appeared to be an ambitious, talented young man with a fine future in Jamaica. In his
poetry he had closely identified himself with its people. He had also revealed a deeply
sensitive, independent spirit, keenly responsive to the good and evil in both man and
nature.
Like many before him, however, he was strongly attracted to the United States.
Years later, he wrote that America then seemed to him, "a new land to which all people
who had youth and a youthful mind turned. Surely there would be opportunity in this
land, even for a Negro." Although far from naive, McKay had never experienced firsthand
American racial prejudice, and he seemed to have been totally unprepared for its vicious
effects
--
HANDOUT 12
GROUP I
Anita Khurniawati
Rosyidah Nuzqia Fitri
Kartika Candra Rini
/ 115110100111024
/ 115110100111012
/ 115110100111112
Success is Counted Sweetest
‘Success is ‘counted ‘sweetest
/ ‘ - / ‘ / - ‘ - /
‘By those ‘who ‘ne’er ‘succeed
/‘ - / ‘ - / ‘ - /
To ‘compre’hend a ‘nectar
/ - ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ -/
‘Requires ‘sorest ‘need.
/ ‘ - / - ‘ / - ‘ /
a
iambic trimeter with a trochee on the 1st foot
b
trochaic trimeter
c
iambic trimeter
b
iambic trimeter with a trochee on the 1st foot
‘Not one of ‘all the ‘purple ‘Host
/ ‘ - / - ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ /
Who ‘took the ‘Flag to’day
/ - ‘ / ‘ / - ‘ /
Can ‘tell the ‘defini’tion
/ - ‘ / - ‘ / - - ‘ /
So ‘clear of ‘victor’y
/ - ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘/
‘As he ‘defeated –‘ dying
/ ‘ - / ‘ - - / ‘ - /
On ‘whose for’bidden ‘ear
/ - ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ /
The ‘distant ‘strains of ‘triumph
/ - ‘ / ‘ / - ‘ - /
‘Burst a ‘gonized and ‘clear!
/ ‘ - / ‘ - / - ‘ /

d
iambic tetrameter with a trochee on the 1st foot
e
iambic trimeter
f
iambic trimeter with an anapest on the 3rd foot
g
iambic trimeter
h
trochaic trimeter with a dactyl on the 2nd foot
i
iambic trimeter
j
iambic trimeter
i
trochaic trimeter with an iamb on the 3rd foot
Summary
The speaker says that “those who ne’er succeed” place the highest value on success.
(They “count” it “sweetest”) To understand the value of a nectar, the speaker says, one
must feel “sorest need.” She says that the members of the victorious army (“the purple
Host / Who took the flag today”) are not able to define victory as well as the defeated,
dying man who hears from a distance the music of the victors.

Theme
“The ones who understand success the best are those who have never experience it”
In Dickinson’s poem, the loser knows meaning ‘definition’ of victory better than the
winners. The implication is that he has ‘won’ this knowledge by paying so high price,
with anguish of defeat and with his death.

Message
 If you want to know what it's like to win ask the one who lost.
Because based on her poem, just failures can fully understand the meaning of
success.
 Appreciating a gift requires privation .
When you suffering because of many failures, then you will appreciate success,
even the small thing that you well done.

Figures of speech
a. Metaphor:
“Success is counted sweetest” ( stanza 1, line 1 )= directly compare success to the
sweetest thing.
b. Hyperbole
- “The distant strains of triumph, Burst agonized and clear!” ( stanza 3, line 3 )= it
is very dramatic too describe the distant victory he has.
- “Not one of all the purple Host“ ( stanza 2, lines 1 )= it is too exaggerated when
she wrote ‘not one of all’.
c. Metonymy
“…took the flag (victory)” ( stanza 2, line 2 )= in the battle, who took the flag is
associated with the victor.
d. Paradox
“Success is counted sweetest, By those who ne'er succeed” ( stanza 1, lines 1-2 )= at
the first it seems absurd, how can success is counted sweetest by losers. But in some
sense it is true because the losers tend to desire success more acutely when they do
not have them.
e. Imagery
Kinetic: “To comprehend” ( stanza 1, line 3 )= is kind of activity which using your
mind.
“took the Flag” (stanza 2, line 2 )= is an action.
“he defeated--dying--“( stanza 3, line 1)= defeated is kind of motion after the
battle dying is kind of motion.
Auditory: “Can tell” ( stanza 2, line 3 )= is describe as can produce the sound as well.
 Stanzaic Form
There are three stanzas; stanzas 1 until 3 are quatrain.
 Sound pattern-rhyme
-In this poem she repeats the sound ‘s’, ’t’, and ‘d’. This is alliteration. As you can see on the
first stanza, line one: Success is counted sweetest. After that you can see on the second stanza,
line two: Who took the Flag today. And the other one you can see on the last stanza, line one: As
he defeated--dying--The words “Flag” and “purple” giving a sense of military situation in how the lines sound.
 Historical approach
This poem seems to be one of the more masculine of Dickinson’s works. The scene of the
battlefield and the loneliness of the dying soldier contribute to this impression. The idea of home
was important to her, and the sense is that this soldier is far from his home and its comforts.
Perhaps there is some condemnation of the masculine pursuit of warfare, or of war in general.
Emily Dickinson’s brother, Austin Dickinson, paid another to go in his place when he was
conscripted for the Civil War (to do so was not only allowed, it was a common practice among
the upper classes, with apparently no shame attached). This poem is believed to have been
written before the war, likely in1859. But Dickinson’s poems about violence and warfare do not
shrink from descriptions of the bloodiness and the losses of battle.

Diction
Stanza 1
Success is counted sweetest
By those who ne’er succeed.
To comprehend a nectar
Requires sorest need.
The poet proposes in the First Stanza, Lines 1 - 4, that success is the ultimate triumph and is
sweetest to those who desperately desire it but have never obtain it. Success is sweetest to them
than to the people who already have power and success. In Lines 3 and 4 , Emily use some
diction to illustrate the ideas, such as Nectar and Sorest. She uses “nectar” in Line 3. In her
century, nectar was still considered an ordinary staple among the elite, just as it was to the
Romans gods. Should the sweet nectar become scarce, even for a brief period, the elite would
probably have had great cravings for the sweet drink. No other drink would quench their thirst in
its absence. While, in Line 4 she uses “sorest” that have old meaning as Greatest or Intense.
Stanza 2
Not one of all the purple host
Who took the flag to-day
Can tell the definition,
So clear, of victory
In the first two lines of the second stanza, Emily says “ Not one of all the purple host who took
the flag today”. This lines illustrate that a group of people one a battle or had triumph of some
sort, Emily continues in this stanza saying “Can tell the definition, so clear of victory”. These
last two lines say that nobody in this group can tell what the greatness of their victory is and that
they don’t think of it being successful at all. Emily highlights the word “to-day” to underline the
presentness and transiency of the situation. “Purple” word is the color of royalty because the
fine clothes of kings and emperors were dyed purple, and also connotes “blood”. while, Flag in
this poem is a symbol of victory.
Stanza 3
As he, defeated, dying,
On whose forbidden ear
The distant strains of triumph
Burst, agonized and clear!
The use of diction such as forbidden, strains and the final line paint a clear portrait of a soldier
who on death's door, hears the cries of the victors. The last line describes the sorrow the man
feels perfectly, straining to hear, the sounds of the joyous victors kick him while he's down.
-
References
Prridy, A. (2008). Bloom’s How to Write about Emily Dickinson. Retrieved 12 May 2013 from
http://id.scribd.com/doc/85550248/3/-”SUCCESS-IS-COUNTED-SWEETEST”
HANDOUT 13
Poetry I
By Group 11:
1. Anita Febristya (115110101111052)
2. Dewanty Ajeng H.K (115110101111065)
3. Lindiyah Kumayanti (115110101111066)
English Language and Literature
Faculty of Culture Studies
Brawijaya University
May 2013
I.
The Poem and Explanation
Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening
By Robert Frost
Whose woods these are I think I know.
‘ / -
/ -
(a)
‘/ - ‘ / - ‘ / 
His house is in the village, though;
/- ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ / -
‘ /
(a)

He will not see me stopping here
/- ‘ / -
‘/ - ‘ / -

‘/
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
/-
‘/ -
‘ /- ‘/-
‘ /

My little horse must think it queer
/- ‘/ -
‘/ -
‘/ -
‘/
‘/ - ‘ / -
‘/


Between the woods and frozen lake
/- ‘ / -
‘ /- ‘/- ‘/

The darkest evening of the year.
/-
‘/ - ‘/ -
‘/- ‘/

He gives his harness bells a shake
/- ‘ / - ‘/ -
‘/ - ‘/
The only other sounds the sweep
iambic tetrameter
(a)
iambic tetrameter
iambic tetrameter
(b)
iambic tetrameter
(c)
iambic tetrameter
(b)
iambic tetrameter
(c)

To ask if there is some mistake.
/- ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ / - ‘ /
iambic tetrameter
(b)
(b)
To stop without a farmhouse near
/- ‘ / -
iambic tetrameter

iambic tetrameter
(c)
iambic tetrameter
(d)
/- ‘/- ‘/-
‘ /-

‘/
iambic tetrameter
(c)
Of easy wind and downy flake.
/- ‘/-
‘/ -

‘/ - ‘/
iambic tetrameter
The woods are lovely, dark, and deep,
/-
‘ / - ‘/ -
‘ / -
‘ /
(d)

iambic tetrameter
But I have promises to keep,
/- ‘/ -
‘/ - ‘/ - ‘/
(d)

iambic tetrameter
(d)
And miles to go before I sleep,
/-
‘ / - ‘/ - ‘/ ‘ ‘ /
And miles to go before I sleep.
/-
‘ / - ‘/ - ‘/ ‘ ‘ /

iambic tetrameter with a spondee on
the 4th foot
(d)

iambic tetrameter with a spondee on
the 4 foot
th
1. Summary
The speaker talks about his experience in the middle of his journey when he stops in the
snowy woods. He is dazzled with the beautiful of the woods. He wants to stay a little
longer but he has to continue his journey for fulfill his promises before he die.
2. Stanzaic Form
There are four stanzas; each stanza contains of four lines and called Quatrain.
3. Rhyme
a. The rhyme scheme of the poem is aaba, bbcb, ccdc, dddd.
b. Rhymes :
 Perfect rhyme:
Whose woods these are I think I know.
His house is in the village though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year
He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.
The woods are lovely, dark and deep.
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.
 Alliteration:
Whose woods these are I think I know.
His house is in the village though;
He gives his harness bells a shake
4. Inference about the rhyme scheme and metrical analysis.
From the analysis above, we can know that the poem tells us about the experience story
of the speaker. The last two lines in the 4th stanza show us that before he dies, he still has
promises to be fulfilled.
5. Message
The message is to tell us that if we have a promise, we need to keep it until it fulfilled
even though we hesitate for a while before we really cannot breathe again or die.
6. Analysis of figurative language
Personification:
“My little horse must think it queer to stop without a farmhouse near” (stanza 2 line
1&2) shows that the horse is not actually thinking. It just the speaker’s way to make a
dramatic effect to support that he is in the middle of woods.
Hyperbole:
“The darkest evening of the year” (stanza 2 line 4) shows that the condition in the
woods is gloomy because of winter. This line tells us that in the middle of woods are
also no house so there’s no lighting.
Imagery:
Whose woods these are I think I know.
His house is in the village though;
He will not see me stopping here
To watch his woods fill up with snow.
(Sight)
My little horse must think it queer
To stop without a farmhouse near
Between the woods and frozen lake
The darkest evening of the year
(Sight)
He gives his harness bells a shake
To ask if there is some mistake.
The only other sound’s the sweep
Of easy wind and downy flake.
(Sight)
The woods are lovely, dark and deep.
But I have promises to keep,
And miles to go before I sleep,
And miles to go before I sleep.
(Sight)
(Sound)
7. Theme
Try to keep promises, even though there is a hesitation.
8. Historical approach
This poem draws about someone’s journey in the middle of the woods after hesitating for
some times then he continue his journey because he has promises to keep. It’s the same
as Robert Frost’s journey to his home from the market. He wanted to buy Christmas
presents for his children but he did not have enough money. His stop in the sidewalk
because of his hesitation, but after his horse shake his body and make the bell on the
harness ring, it seems that the horse tried to cheer him up. Then, he continued his journey
to go home because he already had a promise to his children (Vincent, 2009)
-References :
-. edited by Edward Connery Lathem. Copyright 1923, © 1969 by Henry Holt and Company,
Inc., renewed 1951, by Robert Frost. Retrieved on 22 may 2013 from
http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/robert-frost
Vincent, Caitlin. Jordan Reid Berkow ed. "Robert Frost: Poems Study Guide : Summary and
Analysis of "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" (1923)". GradeSaver, 12 May
2009 Web. 22 May 2013.
HANDOUT 14
POETRY ANALYSIS
If
by Rudyard Kipling
Group 9
Andri Anti ()
Nida Madiha (115110105111002)
Krisnawati Sigiro (115110100111062)
Zhafarina Ludwika (115110100111106)
English Literature
Faculty of Culture Studies
Brawijaya University
2013
IF – Rudyard Kipling
If ‘you can‘keepyour ‘head when ‘all a’bout you
a
|- ‘|- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ | |
Iambic
Pentameter
with
extra
syllable
Are ‘losing‘theirsand ‘blaming ‘iton ‘you,
a
|- ‘|- ‘|-‘|- ‘|- ‘ |
Iambic
Pentameter
If ‘you can ‘trust your’selfwhen ‘allmen ‘doubt you,
a
|- ‘
|‘
|‘ |‘|-‘||
Iambic Pentameter with extra syllable
But ‘make ‘allowance ‘for their ‘doubting too;
a
|- ‘| ‘-|- ‘| ‘
|‘ |
Iambic Pentameter with trochaic in the 2nd foot
If ‘you can ‘wait and ‘not be ‘tired by ‘waiting,
b
|- ‘|- ‘ |- ‘|- ‘ |- ‘ | - |
Iambic
Pentameter
with
extra
syllable
Or ‘being‘lied a’bout,dont ‘dealinlies,
c
|-‘|’-|’- |’ -| - |
Trochaic Tetrameter with Iambic in the 1st foot and extra syllable
Or ‘being ‘hated, dont ‘give ‘way to ‘hating,
b
|- ‘
|’ - |- ‘| ‘ - |’ |
3
Trochaic
and
2
Iambic
Pentameter
And‘yet dont ‘look too ‘good, nor ‘talk too ‘wise:
c
|- ‘|- ‘ |- ‘|- ‘|- ‘ |
Iambic Pentameter
If ‘you can ‘dream—and ‘not make ‘dreams your ‘master; d
|- ‘|- ‘
|‘ |-‘ |- ‘ | - |Iambic Pentameter with extra syllable
If ‘you can ‘think—and not make ‘thoughts your ‘aim;
e
|- ‘ |- ‘
|- ‘ |‘ |- ‘
|
Iambic Pentameter
If ‘you can ‘meet with ‘Triumph and ‘Disas’ter
d
|- ‘ |- ‘
|‘
|‘ |- ‘ |
Iambic Pentameter
And ‘treat those ‘two im’postors ‘just the ‘same;
e
|- ‘ |‘
|- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘
|
Iambic Pentameter
If ‘you can ‘bear to ‘hear the ‘truth you’ve spoken
f
|- ‘ |- ‘
|- ‘
|- ‘ |‘ | - | Iambic Pentameter with extra syllable
Twisted by ‘knaves to ‘make a ‘trap for ‘fools,
g
|’
- |- ‘
|- ‘
|- ‘ |- ‘
|
Iambic Pentameter with trochaic in the 1st
foot
Or ‘watch the ‘things you ‘gave your ‘life to, ‘broken,
f
|- ‘ |- ‘
|- ‘ |‘ |- ‘ | - | Iambic Pentameter with extra syllable
And ‘stoop and ‘build em ‘up with ‘worn-out ‘tools:
g
|- ‘ |- ‘
|- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘
|
Iambic Pentameter
If ‘you can ‘make one ‘heap of ‘all your winnings
h
|- ‘|- ‘
|- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ | |
Iambic Pentameter with extra syllable
And ‘risk it ‘on one ‘turn of ‘pitch-and-‘toss,
i
|- ‘ |- ‘ |‘ |- ‘ |- ‘
|
Iambic Pentameter
And ‘lose, and ‘start a’gain at ‘your ‘beginnings
h
|- ‘ |- ‘
|- ‘ |- ‘
|’-| - | Iambic Pentameter with trochaic in the 5th foot and extra
syllable
And ‘never ‘breathe a ‘word a’bout your ‘loss;
i
|- ‘|- ‘
|- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘
|
Iambic Pentameter with extra syllable
If ‘you can ‘force your ‘heart and ‘nerve and ‘sinew
a
|- ‘|- ‘
|‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ | - |
Iambic Pentameter with extra syllable
To ‘serve your ‘turn long ‘after ‘they are ‘gone,
j
|- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘
|
Iambic Pentameter
And ‘so hold ‘on when ‘there is ‘nothing in you
a
|- ‘|- ‘ |‘
|- ‘ |- ‘ | - |
Iambic Pentameter with extra syllable
Ex’cept the ‘Will which ‘says to ‘them: “Hold on!”
j
|- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘
|- ‘ |
Iambic Pentameter
If ‘you can ‘talk with ‘crowds and ‘keep your ‘virtue,
a
|- ‘|- ‘ |‘
|- ‘ |- ‘ | - |
Iambic Pentameter
Or ‘walk with ‘Kings—nor ‘lose the ‘common ‘touch,
k
|- ‘ |- ‘
|- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘
|
Iambic Pentameter
If ‘neither ‘foes nor ‘loving ‘friends can ‘hurt you,
a
|- ‘|- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ | |
Iambic Pentameter with extra syllable
If ‘all men ‘count with ‘you, but ‘none too ‘much;
k
|- ‘|- ‘
|‘ |- ‘ |- ‘
|
Iambic Pentameter
If ‘you can ‘fill the ‘unfor’giving ‘minute
l
|- ‘|- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ | - |
Iambic Pentameter with extra syllable
With ‘sixty ‘seconds‘worth of ‘distance ‘run,
m
|- ‘|- ‘ |‘
|- ‘ |- ‘ |
Iambic Pentameter
‘Yours is the ‘Earth and ‘every’thing ‘thats in it,
l
|’
- |- ‘
|- ‘ |- ‘
|’
- |-|
3 Iambic and 2 Trochaic Pentameter with extra
syllable
And—‘which is ‘more—you’ll ‘be a ‘man, my ‘son!
m
|- ‘ |- ‘
|‘ |- ‘ |- ‘ |
Iambic Pentameter
--
Rhyme
1. Internal rhyme
 Losing – Blaming (stanza 1 line 2)
2. Assonance
 Too good – Too wise (stanza 1 line 8)
3. Alliteration
 Don’t deal in lines (stanza 1 line 6)
 Build ‘em up with worn-out tools (stanza 2 line 8)
 With sixty seconds’ (stanza 4 line 6)
4. Perfect rhyme
 All about you – It on you – Men doubt you (stanza 1 line 1 2 3)
Function
: to emphasize how important “you” is
5. Half rhyme
 Tired by waiting (stanza 1 line 5)
Way to hating (stanza 1 line 7)
 Deal in lies (stanza 1 line 6)
Talk to wise (stanza 1 line 8)
 Dreams your master (stanza 2 line 1)
Disaster (stanza 2 line 3)
 Thoughts your aim (stanza 2 line 2)
Just the same (stanza 2 line 4)
 You’ve spoken (stanza 2 line 5)
Broken (stanza 2 line 7)
 Trap for fools (stanza 2 line 6)
Worn-out tools (stanza 2 line 8)
 Your winnings (stanza 3 line 1)
Your beginnings (stanza 3 line 3)
 Pitch-and-toss (stanza 3 line 2)
About your loss (stanza 3 line 4)
 Nerve and sinew (stanza 3 line 5)
Nothing in you (stanza 3 line 7)
 Keep your virtue (stanza 4 line 1)
Can hurt you (stanza 4 line 3)
 The common touch (stanza 4 line 2)
None too much (stanza 4 line 4)
 Unforgiving minute (stanza 4 line 5)
That’s in it (stanza 4 line 7)
 Distance run (stanza 4 line 6)
My son (stanza 4 line 8)
Theme
Some advices to be real men.
Summary
If can be explained as a advice or suggestion from a father to his son. By saying “if”, the father
want to say the way when you become a real man are if you can face all your hard situation by
yourself , if you can trust yourself even everybody doubt of you. If you can survive when you are
lied and you are not lying, or if you are hated and you are not hating.
Message
When you have a dream or a big goal in your life, don’t be too obsessed and be too exaggerated,
because it’s going to bring you to a bigger problem. Listen to other’s advice and don’t forget to
see your weaknesses because it makes you become more precious.
Stanzaic Forms
There are four stanzas; stanzas 2 to 4: an octave.
The stanza consists of eight lines written in iambic pentameter. Every stanza consist of iambic
pentameter even though there are many extra syllables and the other metrical feet.
Figurative Language
STANZA 1

Irony
“If you can keep your head when all about you
Are losing theirs and blaming it on you,”
It is called irony because in 1st line had represent the most important part in our body. And
then, these two lines mean someone who keeps his/her faith eventhough people around
her/him disagree with her/him faith.
STANZA 2

Personification
“If you can dream---and not make dreams your master”
In this line, master means someone who leads you to get something. But, don’t let
something to ‘over control’ your life. You should lead yourself to get something.
“If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster
And treat those two impostors just the same;”
This is called personification because Triumph and Disaster is not creature. This line means
we can get triumph and disaster in our life in the same time. But don’t be drifted in our
victory and defeated.
STANZA 3

Personification
“Except the Will which says to them: ‘Hold on!’”
In this line, “the Will” means like desirability. So our desirability can make our heart, nerve
and sinew to be a part to give or make us stronger than before.
STANZA 4

Personification
“If you can fill the unforgiving minute
With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run”
The writer has an old sad story about his son, John. John has chosen a wrong option in his
life and he wasted his priceless time and life. And then, this line means don’t waste your time
for useless thing. Because your life can’t goes back. So you must deserve your priceless time.

Metaphor
“Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it,
And---which is more---you’ll be a Man, my son!”
The writer wanted to tell his son that he would become a real man. Because everything that
John desire exist in this world. In this line, the metaphor part is in the ‘yours is the earth’
which means you have a lot of chances in this world.

Apostrophe
“If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,
Or walk with Kings---nor lose the common touch,”
This line means that you are equal with the great people. ‘Kings’ in this line means the great
people. That’s why we said this line included apostrophe.
Biographical approach
This poem related with his life, Kipling was especially close to his mother and his sister. At the
age of 6, Kipling's life was torn apart when his mother sent him to South sea, England, where he
attended school and lived with a foster family named the Holloways. These were hard years for
Kipling. Mrs. Holloway was a brutal woman, who quickly grew to despise her young foster son.
She beat and bullied Kipling, who also struggled to fit in at school. This treat build Kipling
character
to
be
a
real
man.
Kipling became a famous writer and had a happy family when a sorrow came when his beloved
children name Josephine passed away. Time passed away and As much of Europe braced for war
with Germany, Kipling proved to be an ardent supporter of the fight. In 1915, he even traveled to
France to report on the war from the trenches. He also encouraged his son John to enlist. Since
Josephine's death, Kipling and his boy had grown tremendously close. It was for John that
Kipling wrote one of his famous poems, "If."
Historical Approach
World war I, in 1915 Kipling encouraged his son John to enlist. Since Josephine's death, Kipling
and his boy had grown tremendously close. He want his son John joined with military and
support John to be a real man, who can stand in his feet and struggle for something .Finally
Kipling made use of his connections and managed to get John enlisted with the Irish Guard as a
second lieutenant.
Conclusion of analysis
We can conclude that we can learn so many things in this poem, such as the dreams, the wish,
the success, the failure and many more things in our daily life. But, we can know that we can be
success cause of our hard work. Failure is also the part of the successful.
References
Online
_____. (2002). If. Retrieved 21 May 2013 from http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/if/
_____. (2013). Poetry Analysis Essay on Rudyard Kipling’s If. Retrieved 22 Mei 2013 from
http://onlinehelp4students.blogspot.com/2013/02/poetry-analysis-essay-on-rudyard.html
Krupa. (2011). IF - RUDYARD KIPLING. Retrieved
http://unit3english.blogspot.com/2011/02/if-rudyard-kipling.html
25
Mei
2013
from
Scarborough. (2010). Language Arts: If by Rudyard Kipling. Retrieved 26 Mei 2013 from
http://cmm7thgifted.blogspot.com/2010/05/language-arts-if-rudyard-kipling.html
Other
Team, Poetry.(2013). Poetry. Malang: Faculty of Culture Studies Brawijaya University.
Download

reviewed handouts class E thursday & H tuesday