Name: ___________________________________________________________________ Date: _________________ Hour : _________
Rock Cycle Study Guide
Directions: Answer the questions below in complete sentences. If the answers are not in complete sentences, the assignment will be
returned to you to complete properly and you can turn it in for late credit (50%). Complete sentences include a capital letter for the first
word and a punctuation mark.
1. How are igneous rocks formed?
2. Igneous rocks are classified by texture and composition
Igneous rocks are formed when magma cools and hardens.
3. Igneous rock composition is classified as felsic and mafic.
4. Describe felsic igneous rocks.
5. Describe mafic igneous rocks.
Felsic igneous rocks are light colored and less dense.
Mafic igneous rocks are dark colored and more dense.
6. Igneous rock texture is classified as coarse-grained or fine-grained.
7. Describe coarse-grained igneous rock.
8. Describe fine-grained igneous rock.
Coarse-grained igneous rocks form inside Earth’s crust,
Fine-grained igneous rocks form on Earth’s surface, are extrusive, and cool
are intrusive, and cool slowly.
9. How does sedimentary rock form?
10. What are strata?
11. How is sedimentary rock classified?
Sedimentary rock forms when sediment
Strata are layers in
Sedimentary rock is classified by how it forms.
is compacted and cemented together.
sedimentary rock.
12. Describe the three types of sedimentary rock:
Clastic sedimentary rock forms when
Chemical sedimentary rock forms
Organic sedimentary rock forms from the
mineral or rock fragments, called clasts,
when minerals crystallize out of
remains of once-living plants and animals.
stick together.
a solution.
Sedimentary rock
Compaction & Cementation
Pre-existing rock
13. Turn the sheet and complete the sedimentary rock flow chart below:
14. What is metamorphism?
15. What is a metamorphic rock?
16. How do metamorphic rocks form?
Metamorphism is a process that
A metamorphic rock is a rock whose
Metamorphic rocks form from pressure
changes the shape of something.
texture, composition, or structure has changed.
and/or heat.
17. Describe the two types of metamorphism: contact and regional.
18. What are metamorphic rocks composed of?
Contact metamorphism is when magma moves in Earth’s crust
Metamorphic rocks are composed of minerals that change
and heats the surrounding rock and changes it.
as temperature and pressure are applied.
Regional metamorphism is when pressure builds up in layers of rock
and cause the rock to become deformed or chemically changed.
19. What are index minerals?
20. Describe the two textures of metamorphic rock: foliated and nonfoliated.
Index minerals are minerals that form only
Foliated metamorphic rocks are rocks where minerals are arranged in planes
at specific temperatures and pressures.
or bands.
Nonfoliated metamorphic rocks are rocks where minerals are not arranged
in planes or bands.
21. Describe how each rock type changes into the other below: *HINT: LOOK AT THE END PRODUCT AND ASK YOURSELF HOW THAT TYPE
a) Igneous  Sedimentary: 1) Weathering & Erosion 2) Compaction & Cementation
b) Igneous  Metamorphic: Heat and/or Pressure
c) Sedimentary  Igneous: Magma cools and hardens
d) Sedimentary  Metamorphic: Heat and/or Pressure
e) Metamorphic  Igneous: Magma cools and hardens
f) Metamorphic  Sedimentary: 1) Weathering & Erosion 2) Compaction & Cementation
22. Complete the rock cycle below by filling in the empty gray boxes:
Heat and
Sedimentary Rock
and Erosion
23. Be able to identify a rock type by looking at it and knowing some basic information like we did in the rock identification activity.
Compare and contrast the formation of rock types. (3 points total)
a) Describe how each rock type forms. *1 point*
b) Describe at least one way that the formation of rocks are similar. *1 point*
c) Describe at least one way that the formation of rocks are different. *1 point*

Rock Cycle Study Guide (Filled In)