Commonalities & Differences
In Project Management
Around the World
A Survey of Project Categories and Life
Cycles
Russell D. Archibald
& Vladimir Voropaev
"Organisational Learning & Knowledge Management in "projectised" environments: what is at stake"
Purpose of This Survey
• To encourage global agreement on:
– Definition of basic project categories & subcategories in common use for essentially all
types of projects
– Identification & definition of life cycles in use
for each project category
• To identify differences in these areas so
that these can be understood and
minimized
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Presentation Outline
1. A Global Vision: PM Practices
2. Systematic Model of Project
Management
3. Proposed Project Categories/SubCategories
4. Life Cycles for Various Categories
5. Survey Questionnaire and Conduct
6. Next Steps
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1. A Vision of Global Project
Management Practices
• Widely used set of concepts, methods,
systems and tools
• High degree of uniformity and
understanding across economic, cultural &
political boundaries
• Enabling broad collaboration with
minimum conflict
• Interchangeable managers & specialists
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2. Systematic
Model of Project Management
The following figure is from
Voropaev et al, “Systematic Model of
Project Management,” presented at the
17th IPMA World Congress 2003 in
Moscow
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This Survey Focuses On:
• Managed Objects: Projects and Programs
• Life cycle phases of projects
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Projects:
• Are the common denominator for all
aspects of project management
• Exist in many sizes & types
• Produce many different products & results
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Required
Analytical Framework
• Systematic grouping into defined
categories and sub-categories
• Many possible classification schemes
• Most practical scheme reflects the
products of the projects at the first levels
of classification
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3. Proposed Major Categories
of Projects
1. Aerospace/Defense
2. Business &
Organizational
Change Projects
3. Communication
Systems Projects
4. Event Projects
5. Facilities Projects
6. Information Systems
7. International
Development
8. Media &
Entertainment
9. Product/Service
Development
10. Research & Dev.
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Other Major Categories
May Be Required
• See Table 1 in the paper
• Survey will determine how practical and
complete these recommended categories
are
• Further breakdown is obviously required
• A few examples follow
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3. Communication Systems Projects
3.1 Network communications systems
3.2 Switching communications systems
Microwave communications network.
3rd generation wireless communication system.
4. Event Projects
4.1 International events
4.2 National events
2004 Summer Olympics; 2006 World Cup Match.
2005 U. S. Super Bowl; 2004 Political Conventions.
5. Facilities Projects
5.1 Facility decommissioning
5.2 Facility demolition
5.3 Facility maintenance and modification
5.4 Facility design/procurement/construction
Civil
Energy
Environmental
High rise
Industrial
Commercial
Residential
Ships
Closure of nuclear power station.
Demolition of high rise building.
Process plant maintenance turnaround.
Conversion of plant for new products/markets.
Flood control dam; highway interchange.
New gas-fired power generation plant; pipeline.
Chemical waste cleanup.
40 story office building.
New manufacturing plant.
New shopping center; office building.
New housing sub-division.
New tanker, container, or passenger ship
6. Information Systems (Software) Projects
7. International Development Projects
7.1 Agriculture/rural development
7.2 Education
7.3 Health
7.4 Nutrition
7.5 Population
7.6 Small-scale enterprise
7.7 Infrastructure: energy (oil, gas, coal, power generation and distribution), industrial,
telecommunications, transportation, urbanization, water supply and sewage, irrigation)
8. Media & Entertainment Projects
8.1 Motion picture
8.2 TV segment
8.2 Live play or music event
New project management information system. (Information system hardware is considered to be in the
product development category.)
People and process intensive projects
in developing countries funded by The World Bank, regional development banks, US AID, UNIDO,
other UN, and government agencies; and
Capital/civil works intensive projects—
often somewhat different from 5. Facility Projects as they may include, as part of the project, creating
an organizational entity to operate and maintain the facility, and lending agencies impose their project
life cycle and reporting requirements.
New motion picture (film or digital).
New TV episode.
New opera premiere.
Sub-Categories Are Required
One example:
2. Business & Organization Change
Projects:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Acquisition/merger
Management process improvement
New business venture
Organization re-structuring
Legal proceeding
Other: ?
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Example:
Category 5. Facilities Projects
Subcategories:
• Facility decommissioning
• Facility demolition
• Facility maintenance & modification
• Facility design/procure/construct
1.Civil 2.Energy 3.Environmental 4.Industrial 5.Commercial
6.Residential 7.Ships 8.Other:
•
Other: ?
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Categories Are
Not Mutually Exclusive
• Programs and large projects usually
involve more than one category or subcategory
• These projects are placed in their
predominate category
• Must “Mega” projects be treated
separately? Probably: yes
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Classifying Within Categories &
Sub-Categories
•
•
•
•
•
•
Project size
Project complexity
External or internal customer
Degree of customer involvement
Levels of risk
Other:
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Classifying
Within Categories (Cont’d)
• Major & minor projects
• Mega projects: not categorizable
• Stand-alone versus create supporting
infrastructure
• Standard versus transitional
• Other: ?
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Commonalities & Differences: A
Framework for Analysis
• Define appropriate project categories and
sub-categories
• Identify life cycles within each of these
• Identify PM practices & tools in use by life
cycle phase within various regions or
countries
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4. Life Cycles: Searching for
Common Processes
• Life cycle definition enables:
– All involved persons to understand the
processes to be used
– Capture of best experience
– Assignment of responsibilities
– Repetition of success
• Important starting point in our search for
common processes
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Generic Life Cycle Phases
•
General agreement on four generic life
cycle phases:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Concept
Definition
Execution
Closeout
However these are too broad for our
purposes
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Designing Life Cycles:
Phases and Decision Points
• Three basic design parameters:
– Number and definitions of phases/sub-phases
– Whether sequential or overlapping, oncethrough or re-cycling, predictive or adaptive
– Number and placement of decision points
(approvals, go/kill, go/hold, go back)
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Basic Life Cycle Model Types
• Predictive
– Most common
– Generic, waterfall, other
• Adaptive/heuristic
– Incremental build
– Short-term cycles
– Evolutionary
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Life Cycle Models
Differ by Category
• Different project categories (and subcategories) often require very different life
cycle designs
• Incomplete literature search produced list
shown in Table 2 of our paper
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Examples of
Predictive Life Cycles
• Generic/Standard:
– Concept, definition, execution, closeout
• Waterfall:
– Generic with overlapping, more detailed
phases
• Cyclical (when number is known)
• Spiral
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Examples of
Adaptive Life Cycle Models
• Adaptive Software Development/ASD:
– Component based, iterative time-boxed cycles, riskdriven, change tolerant
• Extreme Programming/XP:
– Programming in pairs, teams include managers &
users, each team codes & tests, fluid cost & schedule
• SCRUM:
– Iterative 30 day sprints, short daily meetings (scrums),
several small teams
Source: Desaulniers & Anderson 2002
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Extreme Programming/XP
• “A cooperative style of software
development promises to deliver better
applications — on time and on budget.”
PC Magazine, Feb. 25, 2003 p. 68
• For helpful links, see “Extreme
Programming Resources” at
www.pcmag.com/onlineextras/
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NASA “Process Based Mission
Assurance Program Life Cycle”
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Program Management
Concept Development
Acquisition
Hardware Design
Software Design
Manufacturing
Pre-Operations Integration & Test
Operations
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Information Systems
Life Cycle Examples
• Desaulniers & Anderson 2002:
– Predictive (waterfall, prototyping, rapid
application development/RAD, incremental
build)
– Adaptive (ASD, XP, SCRUM)
• Whitten 1995:
– Code and fix, waterfall, incremental,
interative
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Product & Service Development
Life Cycle Examples
• Cooper & Kleinschmidt 1993:
– Stage-Gate Process Model
• Thamhain 2000:
– Phase-Gate Model
• Murphy 1989:
– Pharmaceutical Model
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Stage-Gate Model
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5. Global Survey: Project
Categories & Sub-Categories
• Purpose: To determine:
– If such a concept is used & if so how common
it is around the world
– Whether the recommended categories are
used or useful
– What additions or changes are needed
– What are the common practices in further
classification within sub-categories
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Global Survey: Project
Life Cycles Within Categories
• Purpose: To determine for each
category/sub-category within each
country:
– Which of the listed life cycles are in use
– Whether other life cycles are used, & if so
their names and references
– How the life cycle models are used and the
benefits they produce
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Conducting the Survey
• The questionnaire is available on-line at
http://ipmaglobalsurvey.com
• Completed questionnaires are to be
completed on-line prior to November 1st,
2003
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Project Categories Survey
Enter These Codes for Each Item in Table 1:
U – Universally accepted and used
W – Widely accepted and used
A – Accepted and used by some
R – Rarely accepted and used
N – Never accepted or used
ALT – Alternative term used as noted
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Project Categories Survey (Cont’d)
Questions:
• Useful to have an agreed list of project
categories? Why?
• What other classification systems are in
use?
• What subordinate classifications are
used?
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Project Life Cycle
Survey Codes – Each Category
SEQ – Sequential
WF – Waterfall Model
PAR – Parallel
CYC – Cyclical
Spir – Spiral
INCR - Incremental
ITER – Iterative
ADAP – Adaptive
GATE – Stage-Gate
CFIX – Code and fix
Spec – Special
(describe)
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Project Life Cycle Survey Other Information
• Number of life cycle phases
• Number of decision points
• Additional comments
….for each project category listed in Table 2
plus any that have been added by the
respondent
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Project Life Cycle Survey
Questions:
• Useful to have an agreed list of project life
cycle types? Why?
• List any other life cycle models or type
that you know are in use, with descriptions
or references.
• Any other comments or suggestions
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Promoting the Survey
• ISGI Workshop participants are invited to
respond — and encourage their
colleagues to do the same
• The survey is being publicized through
appropriate PM associations around the
world — primarily using the Internet and
Web
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Inducements
To Complete the Survey
• Respondents will receive a complete copy
of the survey report
• Their names will be listed in the report (if
desired)
• They will have the satisfaction of having
contributed to the advancement of the
project management profession
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6. Next Steps
• Survey conduct: June — October
• Compilation of results and preparation of
the survey report: Sept.— December
• Release of final report:
December 31, 2003
• Presentation of results at the 18th IPMA
World Congress in Budapest June 2004
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Download this paper &
complete the on-line
survey questionnaire at:
http://ipmaglobalsurvey.com
The site, paper & questionnaire are
available in English & Spanish
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Volunteers Welcome!
• We would like to have a survey leader
within each country to promote the widest
possible participation
• Please contact us:
Russ Archibald: www.russarchibald.com
archie@unisono.net.mx
Vladimir Voropaev: voropaev@sovnet.ru
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Your Feedback Is Requested!
• Thank you for listening
• Please complete the on-line survey
questionnaire prior to November 1st
• Please give us your comments or
suggestions on the survey
• Is this worth all the effort?
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